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Smithsonian Year • 1984 


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SEPTEMBER 30, 1984 

Smithsonian Institution Press • City of Washington • 1985 

Frontispiece: During the past twenty years under Secretary Ripley's guidance, 
the Smithsonian has been dedicated to reaching out to the public at large. At 
the same time, the boundaries of museum activities have been extended beyond 
the monumental buildings to the Mall and other spaces outside. Exemplifying 
this spirit, the photos on the preceding pages show (left) one of the posters at 
Washington bus stops that promoted a major exhibition at the Freer Gallery 
celebrating the 150th anniversary of the birth of James McNeill Whistler and 
(right) a nineteenth-century bandstand, a gift from the State of Illinois, which 
was installed in the outdoor amphitheater near the west end of the National 
Museum of American History during the early summer of 1984. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402 (paper cover). Stock number: 047-000-00400-4 

The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846 in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson 
of England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United 
States of America "to found at Washington, under the name of 
the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men." After receiving the property 
and accepting the trust. Congress incorporated the Institution in 
an "establishment," whose statutory members are the President, 
the Vice-President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive 
departments, and vested responsibility for administering the trust 
in the Smithsonian Board of Regents. 


Ronald Reagan, President of the United States 

George H. W. Bush, Vice-President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of State 

Donald Regan, Secretary of the Treasury 

Caspar W. Weinberger, Secretary of Defense 

William French Smith, Attorney General 

William P. Clark, Secretary of the Interior 

John R. Block, Secretary of Agriculture 

Malcolm Baldrige, Secretary of Commerce 

Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary of Labor 

Margaret M. Heckler, Secretary of Health and Human Services 

Terrel H. Bell, Secretary of Education 

Samuel R. Pierce, Jr., Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Elizabeth H. Dole, Secretary of Transportation 

Donald P. Hodel, Secretary of Energy 

Board of Regents and Secretary • September 30, 1984 



Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio, Chancellor 

George H. W. Bush, Vice-President of the United States, ex officio 

Edwin J. (Jake) Garn, Senator from Utah 

Barry Goldwater, Senator from Arizona 

James R. Sasser, Senator from Tennessee 

Edward P. Boland, Representative from Massachusetts 

Silvio O. Conte, Representative from Massachusetts 

Norman Y. Mineta, Representative from California 

David C. Acheson, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Anne L. Armstrong, citizen of Texas 

William G. Bowen, citizen of New Jersey 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Jeannine Smith Clark, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Carlisle H. Humelsine, citizen of Virginia 

Samuel C. Johnson, citizen of Wisconsin 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor 

David C. Acheson 

William A. M. Burden 

Carlisle H. Humelsine (Chairman) 

THE SECRETARY Robert McCormick Adams 

Phillip S. Hughes, Under Secretary 

David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science 

John E. Reinhardt, Assistant Secretary for History and Art 

Joseph Coudon, Special Assistant to the Secretary 

James M. Hobbins, Executive Assistant to the Secretary 

Ann R. Leven, Treasurer 

John F. Jameson, Assistant Secretary for Administration 

William N. Richards, Acting Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 

Peter G. Powers, General Counsel 

Ralph Rinzler, Assistant Secretary for Public Service 

James McK. Symington, Director, Office of Membership and Development 


Smiihsonian Year . 1984 







73 National Air and Space Museum 

84 National Museum of Natural History 

105 National Zoological Park 

119 Office of Fellowships and Grants 

124 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

140 Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 

157 Smithsonian Office of Educational Research 

158 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


179 Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

181 Archives of American Art 

186 Center for Asian Art: Freer Gallery of Art and 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 

191 Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

195 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

198 Joseph Henry Papers 

199 National Museum of African Art 
204 National Museum of American Art 
208 National Museum of American History 
219 National Portrait Gallery 

223 Office of American Studies 


225 Conservation Analytical Laboratory 

233 National Museum Act Programs 

235 Office of Exhibits Central 



238 Office of Horticulture 

249 Office of Museum Programs 

264 Office of the Registrar 

265 Smithsonian Institution Archives 
269 Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

280 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


287 International Center 

287 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

293 Office of Folklife Programs 

296 Office of International Activities 

297 Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 
302 Office of Telecommunications 

304 Smithsonian Institution Press 

307 Smithsonian Magazine 

308 Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 


316 Administrative and Support Activities 
321 Financial Management Activities 

323 Smithsonian Institution Women's Council 


325 Office of Development 

326 National Board of the Smithsonian Associates 

327 Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates 

329 James Smithson Society 

330 Smithsonian National Associate Program 
337 Smithsonian Resident Associate Program 


355 Office of Public Affairs 










The Smithsonian Institution • 1985 

Gary Winnop of Sitka, Alaska, checks rigging at the 1984 Festival of American 
Folklife. Native Alaskan basketry, doll making, wood and ivory carving, gold- 
mining, logging, music, and dance were among the traditions presented to mark 
Alaska's twenty-fifth anniversary of statehood. 



Institutionally, the Smithsonian is unique. Its stockholders, to 
stretch the term but slightly, are the people of the United States. 
This Smithsonian Year is a report to the people on the achieve- 
ments and problems of fiscal year 1984. 

I had the great honor of becoming the Smithsonian's ninth Sec- 
retary a mere thirteen days before the end of that year. This, then, 
can only be a letter of transmittal. Appropriately, the traditional 
Statement of the Secretary introducing this report is penned by 
the distinguished scientist, educator, and administrator who led 
the Smithsonian not only through all but a few days of fiscal year 
1984 but also through two momentous decades before that. 

It was a period of rich development and meaningful growth. 
Under Dillon Ripley's guidance, the Institution was able to open 
doors and windows, both literally and figuratively. The doors of 
a string of new museums were thrown open; windows to the minds 
of millions were opened through a range of imaginative exhibi- 
tions, programs, and publications. Research blossomed, and results 
in scholarship were impressive. 

The years ahead will be years of challenge in a changing world, 
a changing economy, changing educational and cultural priorities. 
I am confident that the Institution, building upon the Ripley heri- 
tage, will continue to be faithful to its mandate to increase and 
diffuse knowledge for the benefit of humankind. 

Time Present and Time Past Are Wrapped in 
Time Future 


"Gentlemen [and Ladies] : I have the honor to submit a report 
showing the activities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution 
and its branches. . . ." Thus, in the manner of the first seven 
Secretaries, I greeted the Regents in 1964. Having served rhetorical 
formality, I am honored to begin my final report. There is certain 
comfort in tradition, after all, an accustomed fit like an old tweed 
coat against the drafts of new circumstance. Tugging precedent 
around my shoulders, I recall that my immediate predecessor, 
Leonard Carmichael, reported on his first ten years en bloc. So I 
am pleased to follow his worthy example and review the past score 
years, as long a term as anyone save our paradigm, Joseph Henry, 
was privileged to serve. It is a pleasure here to hand on the Smith- 
sonian torch to the excellent successor to us all, Robert McCormick 

Looking backward — a proven way to take one's bearings in the 
woods or when putting out to sea — I am astonished to observe 
how far we have come since 1964, a landmark year on many fronts. 
In January, Dr. Carmichael had paved the way for the opening of 
the Museum of History and Technology, ably assisted by Frank 
Taylor, that museum's first director; a national cultural center pro- 
posed by President Eisenhower was renamed for John F. Kennedy 
and placed under the Smithsonian aegis; some 10 million visitors 
entered our buildings on the Mall; three cubs were born to Mohini, 
the white tiger at the National Zoo; 1.2 million specimens were 
acquired, some six hundred of them donated by the still-active 
sixth Secretary, Alexander Wetmore. Also in that year, no doubt 
emboldened by my relative youth, I expounded the following 
thought: "Museums and their related laboratories are just entering 
a new era, and museum resources are being drawn upon as never 
before for general education." [Emphasis belated.] 

Twenty years later, I relish the memory of what was in the 
air — an electric and electrifying energy like a summer storm over 

Statement by the Secretary I 5 

Alexander Wetmore (left), the sixth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and Watson M. Perrygo prepare bird skins at La Jagua Hunting Club near 
Chico, Panama, in this 1949 Smithsonian Institution Archives photo. 

the great plain of the then empty Mall. It boded so well in many 
respects: the promise of enriching activity, like warm rain to 
nourish the crop of human potential. President Kennedy's clarion 
call to a New Frontier still echoed noble challenges as the Peace 
Corps reached its stride, and the Great Society agenda was gather- 
ing force. The new National Council on the Arts was conceiving 
the Arts and Humanities Endowments that would grow mightily 
during President Nixon's administration. America was "busting out 
all over" in 1964, not only at the Smithsonian but everywhere. It 
is fitting to remember that all the energy was not wisely spent; 
that a well-intentioned nation blundered into the Vietnam mis- 
adventure. The nation and its leaders were not faultless in that 
highly charged decade (or any other), but the common failings 
then were neither timidity nor conformity. Even around the Smith- 
sonian — especially here, I believe — one sensed a kind of estival 

Perhaps one had to have been here in the dead of institutional 
winter to appreciate it. Again "look backward lest we fail to mark 
the path ahead." Early in the Second World War, I had passed 
through the Museum of Natural History and found it as stifling 
as my wartime destination in the Southeast Asian forest. The ad- 
ministrator of the museum was unaffectionately known as the 
"Abominable No-man" for his unwavering diligence in barring the 
door against innovation, while the curatorial staff was preoccupied 
with housekeeping and the conduct of bureaucracy. Yet by 1964, 
a new generation of curators was emerging. Perhaps they repre- 
sented a phylogenetic leap or, more likely, were boosted by the 
winds of productive adventure blowing across the land. 

Raising our sights two decades ago, we surveyed the world of 
science, history, and art from the Castle and realized our discov- 
ered goals were not so much new ambitions as renewed intentions 
to realize the Institution's ancient promise. We found one challenge 
in Secretary Henry's aim to make the Smithsonian a center for 
"enlarging the bounds of human thought"; another in his boast 
that "we have from the first kept a keen eye on every discovery 
of science and every invention in art"; a third in his vision for a 
"College of Discoverers." Nor could we forget the mighty mandate 
of the legator himself "to found in Washington an Institution for 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge." 

First among my aims was the basically democratic one to make 
the Smithsonian known to its owners, the American people and by 
extension all humankind. The public had come to view the Smith- 

Statement by the Secretary I 7 

sonian as a dusty vitrine containing insects impaled on little pins, 
their names penned in a language as dead as the halls' appeal. We 
wanted to invite people in, to make them welcome, to accomplish 
the museum's principal work of attracting men, women, and chil- 
dren to exhibits and activities that stimulate the soul and the 

Second, if the Smithsonian were to claim its rightful place among 
learned societies, the deprivations of its own staff must end. It 
behooved us to appreciate the men and women who in some 
instances labored in Dickensian gloom, and behooved us specifically 
to create both an atmosphere in which they might thrive and an 
outlook that would attract gifted successors. 

Third, a fair reading of the founder's will and a quick study of 
the Institution's history showed substantial gaps in the curriculum. 
Both the original mandate and the precedents of practice encour- 
aged us to find or create ways to fill those gaps, as for example in 
art, environmental science, and aeronautica. 

Finally, it was incumbent on America's preeminently national 
museum complex to take its place as a leader both in this country 
and abroad. 

Not surprisingly, these interrelated goals answered problems that 
were connected. Over time an original premise of the place had 
turned topsy turvy: privately supported by a single bequest, the 
Institution had received from Congress a tiny sum in 1855 to pay 
for tending some miscellaneous collections, but now that stipend 
had mushroomed until the government provided 90 percent of the 
budget. No wonder the public didn't see the Smithsonian as their 
own; it belonged to the Feds. If people came to know the Smith- 
sonian better, we reasoned, not only would they profit personally 
and intellectually but they might come to support it more. In time, 
then, we might restore an organization supported equally by pri- 
vate persons and the government. 

There is a footnote to history, perhaps, in a memo written to 
me in 1981 by our then treasurer, Chris Hohenlohe: "In reviewing 
some historical material on Smithsonian budgets, I discovered the 
interesting fact that the operating budget for the current fiscal 
year, 1980 — just under $200 million — is equivalent to the total of 
all operating expenditures of the Smithsonian for the years 1847 
through 1963. Put another way, you will be overseeing a budget 
in this year alone which equals all of the moneys spent by your 
seven predecessors. Since your incumbency, you have already been 
responsible for overseeing 87 percent of all of the Smithsonian's 

8 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Above: Ralph Chapman, researcher in the Paleobiology Department of the 
National Museum of Natural History, leads a Resident Associate parent-child 
class about dinosaurs while the participants make plaster casts of a dinosaur- 
like animal. (Photograph by Lillian O'Connell) Below: Roger Morigi, a retired 
master stone carver at the Washington Cathedral, lets young visitors try their 
hand at carving as part of "The Grand Generation: Folklore and Aging" pro- 
gram at this year's Folklife Festival on the Mall. 

operating expenses since 1847. . . ." 

Personnel problems were also linked to the dependency on fed- 
eral appropriations. For reasons lost in the ossuaries of history, 
every Smithsonian employee was a federal worker first and a 
scholar, scientist, or technician second. The terms of employment 
did not necessarily address the career concerns of scholar or scien- 
tist. It was clear that we had to find ways to compete with univer- 
sities and other research institutions, to offer not only laboratory 
space, but staff assistance, publishing opportunity, and higher 
salaries which perforce must be funded from new private endow- 
ments. As a virtual ward of the government, the Institution might 
eschew individual enterprise and intellectual initiative. It behooved 
us to encourage our people in the unfettered pursuit of profes- 
sional interests. 

Looking back over these twenty years is like studying a great 
tapestry in the Textiles Collection, a complex of many threads. In 
that first fiscal year the Smithsonian bravely opened several new 
offices to embark on overdue work in various directions. We estab- 
lished an Office of Education and Training, then an Office of 
International Activities which William W. Warner directed with 
peripatetic eclat. It organized the first archaeological dig abroad 
with State Department cooperation. It helped unesco rescue Abu 
Simbel and the monuments of Nubia from the rising waters of 
Lake Nasser. It facilitated American scientists of all disciplines and 
affiliations to work abroad by making local currencies available 
to them as "counterpart funds." If it appeared that the Institution 
was embarked on an "outreach" campaign that year, the stage was 
being set for other drama through such activities as the first con- 
versations with Joseph H. Hirshhorn. 

Studying what had come before offered a splendid springboard, 
for a review of Smithson's legacy revealed that 1965 was the bi- 
centennial of the founder's birth. What better occasion to win 
academe and public alike to our renascent cause and, mirabile dictu, 
rededicate his namesake Institution. The convocation celebrating 
James Smithson's 200th birthday brought the pomp and panoply 
of a full-dress academic procession to the Mall as we conferred 
the first Smithson Medal on the Royal Society (of which our 
founder had been a member at age twenty-four). Some five hun- 
dred learned societies around the globe sent their representatives 
in recognition of the Smithsonian's contributions to learning since 
1846. These barkened back to the free exchange of scientific infor- 
mation and research under the first Secretary. 

10 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The academic procession from the Smithsonian Castle to the National Museum 
of Natural History for the formal opening of the Institution's eighth interna- 
tional symposium, "The Road after 1984: High Technology and Human Free- 
dom," on December 8, 1983. 

Fiscal year 1965 also saw the creation of the Resident Associate 
Program, which proved the Biblical lesson of manifold returns: 
"Give, and it shall be given unto you." Some subscribers thought 
the program an act of overt generosity on our part, yet it has 
earned more than it cost many times over. For one thing, it pro- 
vided a new way for the Institution to do its important work by 
offering a new vehicle to diffuse knowledge. For another, it brought 
into the Smithsonian fold a whole new constituency of friends who 
would be both self-motivated seekers and our ambassadors. This 
and subsequent Associates programs brought us close to people 
and them to iis. Resembling programs suggested by Secretary 
Walcott in 1926, they provided educational and recreation oppor- 
tunities for people who soon supported the Institution with their 
gifts and good offices. 

On the several scientific fronts: Donald Davis proved through 
the intriguing agency of moths that yucca and agave plants belong 
to one genus; through faunal evidence J. F. Gates Clarke demon- 
strated the then surprising hypothesis of continental drift: that 
Australia, New Zealand, Rapa Island, and South Africa were once 
joined. Pioneering volunteer observers joined the Prairie Network 
to track satellites and meteorites across the night skies; the new 
publications series Contributions to Anthropology was launched; 
we were given an estuarine tract, the Chesapeake Bay Center for 
Environmental Studies, now a 2500-acre natural workshop and 
laboratory; the Flight Cage at the National Zoo opened to the 
delight of visitors and avian occupants alike. 

On strategic fronts, the Regents authorized the start of sub- 
stantive conversations both with Mr. Hirshhorn and with the 
trustees of New York's beleaguered art museum at the Cooper 
Union Institute. Sites, the traveling exhibition service, was reac- 
tivated. Mary Livingston Ripley helped organize the soon highly 
effective Women's Committee, while her husband contemplated 
the sorry tradition that the Secretary was the only Smithsonian 
figure listed in the social directory, the Green Book. This was a 
fact that had nothing to do with any scholarly issue or museum 
policy; but it had everything to do with Washington's infrastruc- 
ture, with money and access to eleemosynary support anywhere. 
As surely as an expedition in Nepal needs caches of food, success 
in any Washington venture requires access to the seats of influ- 
ence, a fact of life that may have been neglected by previous 
Secretaries who did not believe their duties included fundraising. 
Meanwhile, mindful of Joseph Henry's belief that the Mall might 

12 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

be made one of the most delightful places in the United States, we 
began turning this greensward into a park for people, a lawn of 
living celebrations, as trumpeters mounted the Castle's North 
Portico and the National Symphony performed on the terrace of 
the new Museum of History and Technology. 

In the banner year of 1966, beetles arrived from the tomb of 
Tutankhamen; the Arts and Industries Building was renovated; 
Nathan Reingold began editing The Papers of Joseph Henry, a 
project jointly sponsored by the Smithsonian, the American Phil- 
osophical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences; the Divi- 
sion of Performing Arts made its debut; the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press began publishing, with some trade books in addition to 
a scholarly and scientific list. 

Above all. President Johnson proved himself a friend of art and 
of the Smithsonian. First, he was instrumental in saving the original 
Corcoran art gallery building from demolition. This architectural 
gem next to Blair House was transferred to the Smithsonian for 
restoration as the Renwick Gallery. Next, the President and Mrs. 
Johnson personally interceded in the cause of the Joseph H. Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden. I had solicited the Johnsons' 
help in this matter, believing that they appreciated the ineffable 
value of great art to the American people in general and Washing- 
ton in particular. It seemed unfortunate that Washington might 
lose this opportunity because of the presumption that nothing more 
on the Mall could have a donor's name on it. A truly passionate 
collector of modern art, Hirshhorn owned nearly seven thousand 
objects then valued at over $24 million, and he wanted to give the 
lot — within an edifice he would help build — to America. There 
was stiff competition between cities, nay among nations, to possess 
this collection, but the President's personal interest and interven- 
tion won it for us. The gift of this treasury was one of three signal 
art events in Washington's history, in the grand tradition of 
Charles Lang Freer's contribution of his unrivaled orientalia and 
Andrew W. Mellon's donation of the National Gallery of Art. 

Finally, 1966 marked the first of an annual miniconvocation of 
scholars, academic specialists, artists, musicians, critics, and scien- 
tists in cognate fields assembled as the Smithsonian Council. The 
purpose of the three-day meetings of this council is mutual ex- 
change: the Council familiarizes itself with the scholarly diversity 
of our Institution, while our colleagues are exposed to kindred 
souls in all fields. Each group comes to understand the other and 
in the telling we are able to disseminate our wares to the intellec- 

Statement by the Secretary I 13 

Above: Abram Lerner (left), then director of the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, with Helmut Schmidt, former Chancellor of West 
Germany, studying a work in the exhibition German Expressionist Sculp- 
ture, April 2, 1984. Below: Shown at the twentieth anniversary celebra- 
tion of the Organization of African Unity at the National Museum of 
African Art, December 20, 1983, are (left to right) Edward J. Perkins, 
Director, Office of West African Affairs, U.S. State Department; Henri A. 
Turpin, Counselor, Senegal; Secretary Ripley; Chester A. Crocker, As- 
sistant Secretary of State, Bureau of African Affairs; and Sylvia Williams, 
Director, National Museum of African Art. Photograph by Jeff Ploskonka 

tual world about. The experience has not always "worked," but 
the annual meetings serve as a fascinating inward look and out- 
ward exposure for both sides. 

The following year marked the bestowal upon the Smithsonian 
of the Lilly Collection of rare coins. Work began on the revised 
multivolume Handbook of North American Indians and the Urgent 
Anthropology Program. The year 1967 also brought new vitality 
to "people programs." Alarmed by the consensus among authori- 
ties at an Aspen conference that museums belonged to gentry, 
Charles Blitzer and I countered with a novel proposal: If less ele- 
gant people tacitly proved the brahmins correct by staying away 
from marble halls on the Mall, the Loop, and Fifth Avenue, then 
let us build smaller museums in lesser neighborhoods. In Washing- 
ton's inner city we found an abandoned movie theater, a willing 
community, and an administrator who was a local resident and 
knew the area and its people well. Then John R. Kinard opened 
the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, and its doors are still open, 
on the avenue later named for the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

The Department of Transportation was also born in 1967, and 
the Smithsonian took due notice. A vehicular extravaganza on the 
Mall (which already boasted the roundabout jitney of the carousel) 
featured a rally of antique cars, an exhibit of vehicles of the future, 
and even a demonstration of real levitation as a "test pilot" bound- 
ed around wearing a rocket belt. But in the most splendid event 
on our lawns that year, the first Festival of American Folklife, 
under the far-seeing direction of Ralph Rinzler, our expert in 
ethnicity and folkcrafts, celebrated the manifold creativity of the 
American people. 

In 1968, the Office of Museum Programs opened and, reflecting 
the spirit of the National Museum Act of 1966, provided an 
array of advisory and assistance programs to kindred institutions 
throughout the land. It also would serve as our conduit of news 
about goings on elsewhere in America and abroad. New York's 
Cooper Union Museum was reborn as a Smithsonian bureau, the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design, signif- 
icantly our only museum outside Washington, D.C. 

In Washington the fabled Patent Office Building became another 
of the Smithsonian's many mansions, this one to house both the 
National Portrait Gallery and the National Collection of Fine Arts. 
Here nomenclature presented conundrums fit for a taxonomist. 
Since 1910 the Smithsonian had a "National Gallery of Art" of 
sorts, but Andrew Mellon had appropriated the generic name with 

Statement by the Secretary I 15 

his famous gift in 1938. The Smithsonian's art holdings then ac- 
quired the title of National Collection of Fine Arts, a rather grandi- 
ose handle for the eclectic, interesting, yet fragmentary group of 
objets that dustily reposed in Hall 10 of the Natural History Mu- 
seum. It was this material that became the nucleus of the Patent 
Office's north side, which was later renamed most descriptively 
the National Museum of American Art. 

As for the National Portrait Gallery, this was no mere copy of 
a British model, but thanks to its first two directors, Charles Nagel 
and Marvin Sadik, a uniquely original museum: a source of visual 
information about famous Americans. 

In 1968, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 
was chartered by Congress as a Smithsonian bureau (under an 
independent board of trustees, like the Kennedy Center and the 
National Gallery of Art). In the same year the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, a joint venture with Harvard University, 
opened its largest field facility, later named the Fred Lawrence 
Whipple Observatory, atop Mount Hopkins in Arizona. As the 
decade drew to a close, we looked farther and farther ahead. 
Ground was broken for the Hirshhorn Museum, and plans were 
laid for a national magazine to report on everything that interested 
the Smithsonian "or should interest it," as founding editor Edward 
K. Thompson put it. 

As the new decade began, we received approval to build the 
National Air and Space Museum by a stroke of fiduciary genius 
that might stand every government agency in good stead today. 
Congress had authorized the expenditure of some $40 million for 
the new museum, and we had commissioned a fine design. But with 
costs skyrocketing, the construction bids were coming in at $65 
million and up. Representative Michael Kirwan, a former Regent 
and faithful friend on Capitol Hill, warned of disaster if we re- 
quested more money. Instead, we informed our architect, Gyo 
Obata, of our dilemma, told him that there was no alternative to 
a streamlined, stripped-down design. At the same time, we per- 
suaded a new President, Mr. Nixon, the Budget Office, and Con- 
gress that if there was to be a National Air and Space Museum 
in Washington on July 4, 1976, we must act quickly and push our 
design and budget through. For this we summoned a blue ribbon 
team: two Regents, William Burden and James Webb, and the 
charismatic figure of Michael Collins fresh from the first moon 
voyage. This astronaut pleaded our cause as the Director-elect of 
the world's most popular museum of the future. Meanwhile, the 

16 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

An aerial view of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's primary site for 
ground-based astronomy, the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hop- 
kins, Arizona, looking north toward Tucson. Several instruments, including a 
lO-meter-diameter gamma-ray collector and 1.5-meter and 61-centimeter optical 
reflectors (at lower left), and support and maintenance facilities are located on 
a mile-long ridge at the 7,600-foot level. The Multiple Mirror Telescope, a joint 
facility with the University of Arizona, is located on the 8,500-foot summit. 

Natural History Museum purchased a device of then novel design 
and priceless worth for its investigations of previously unperceiv- 
able minutiae, our first scanning electron microscope. The Institu- 
tion also abetted the exploration of ephemera by supporting a new 
branch in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the Center for Short-Lived 

The troubled 1970s saw new and diverse activity on and around 
the Mall. For one thing, the Kennedy Center opened. For another, 
citizens returned en masse to Washington to protest the tragic war 
in Vietnam. Here we were able to serve in a manner unexpected 
for repositories of fossils and art. When tear gas lacrimated the 
city, more than 80,000 people found fresh air in the environ- 
mentally contained Museum of History and Technology. 

In another sort of departure from inhumane policies, we annulled 
the rule requiring our researchers to present their papers for pre- 
publication review. And under the aegis of Charles Blitzer and 
David Challinor, the tasks of heading scholarly and scientific de- 
partments were put on a rotating basis — no more permanent 
chairmen — in hope of precluding the investiture of a bureaucratic 

In 1970, the Archives of American Art, an invaluable repository 
of the personal history and maturation of America's artists, be- 
came a Smithsonian bureau. Also, hospitality services for the 
Institution were expanded through the Visitors Information and 
Associates' Reception Center, which now directs a corps of volim- 
teers approximately as large as the Smithsonian's staff. Viarc 
opened in conjunction with the premiere issue of Smithsonian 
magazine, whose subscribers were automatically National Asso- 
ciates. The magazine won Regents' approval just after Earl Warren 
stepped down as Chief Justice and ex officio Chancellor of the 
Institution. Although many members of the Smithsonian commu- 
nity opposed our entering the hue-and-cry world of popular jour- 
nalism (as a few diehards still do), and grumblings about media 
grants were growing louder in many quarters, our newly appointed 
Chancellor, Chief Justice Warren Burger, led the Regents in ap- 
proving the magazine. Within two years, the magazine began 
showing a profit and has added handsomely to trust fund accounts 
over the years. It has also won kudos from both media experts 
and the public, who now subscribe as Associates in numbers ex- 
ceeding two million. 

In July 1970, the Smithsonian was privileged to enter the lime- 
light on Capitol Hill when Representative Frank Thompson chaired 

18 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

a committee that reviewed our operations, policies, and finances. 
While some bureau directors anticipated the hearings with dread, 
I welcomed this expression of congressional interest in the Smith- 
sonian, the first since 1855. We were fortunate that these overseers 
corrected an ill-advised plan: the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden would not transect the Mall. Beyond that, the com- 
mittee concluded that "the Smithsonian's value is basic and should 
be continued. Its work and research in science, education, history 
and the arts and, of course, its many museums far overshadow 
whatever criticisms . . . have been made." Further afield, the Fort 
Pierce Bureau in Link Port, Florida, began operations as a Smith- 
sonian marine station. 

In 1972, President Nixon returned from his historic visit to the 
world's most populous nation with a gift of two giant pandas from 
the people of China. They were ensconced at the National Zoo, 
which also prepared to embark on director Theodore H. Reed's 
masterful master plan. The Renwick Gallery opened at last, and at 
Treasury Secretary John B. Connally's invitation, the Group of 
Ten international finance ministers convened in the Castle. (It is 
alleged that during that meeting the dollar floated as a result of 
two of the finance ministers' getting stuck together in a balky 

The following year, the Regents approved the introduction in 
Congress of legislation authorizing planning for a Museum Sup- 
port Center on federally owned land in Silver Hill, Maryland. 
Having outgrown our buildings on the Mall and elsewhere, the 
several museums could now responsibly plan for the curation, 
preservation, and storage of priceless collections in what would be 
a state-of-the-art facility. But as we focused on new beginnings, 
two of the three former Secretaries died in 1973, and thus ended 
an actuarial miracle: until the demise of Leonard Carmichael and 
of Charles Greely Abbot, half of the eight men who had chaired 
this Institution since 1846 were still alive. (The first four died in 

In the Mall's landmark event for 1974, the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden opened at last, and to lasting acclaim as a 
repository of modern art. The following year the General Services 
Administration conferred on us an erstwhile experimental farm 
and army remount station in Front Royal, Virginia, which the Zoo 
put to use as a center for breeding, research, and conservation of 
rare animals. But 1975 was almost as notable for what did not 
occur. In three signal instances the Smithsonian proved that it no 

Statement by the Secretary I 19 

President Reagan meets Jayathu, an eighteen-month-old Asiatic elephant, a 
gift from J. R. Jayewardene of Sri Lanka, at the White House, June 18, 1984. 
Jayathu was accompanied by keeper Jim Jones of the National Zoological Park 
and her Sri Lanka keeper, S. S. M. Seelaratna. 

longer accepts everything that's offered; the old image of "the 
nation's attic/' repository of things wanted nowhere else, may be 
shelved, perhaps in someone else's garage. We declined acquisition 
of the San Francisco Mint, of the Saint Louis Post Office, and of 
the liner SS United States. We have also raised a few eyebrows by 
turning down Howard Hughes's plane, the Spruce Goose. 

The nation's Bicentennial witnessed celebrations almost every- 
where, but the year 1976 was an especial one on the Mall where 
our museums mounted twenty-three special exhibitions, a grand 
pastiche collectively called "The American Experience." At the 
suggestion of Frank Taylor, director general of the U.S. National 
Museum, this included the reopening of the Arts and Industries 
Building with a recreation of the 1876 Centennial Exposition at 
Philadelphia. In the Natural History Building the West Court had 
been developed to house a cafeteria, gift shop, and Naturalist 
Center. In New York, the refurbished and reorganized Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum under the consummate direction of Lisa Taylor 
opened in Andrew Carnegie's mansion on Fifth Avenue. But the 
signal premiere was on the Mall's south side: the July first open- 
ing of the National Air and Space Museum, which set some kind 
of record by welcoming two million visitors in the first forty-nine 

In the following years, the Smithsonian Institution Press added 
a new imprint, now known as Smithsonian Books, another pub- 
lishing venture of merit for the public and revenue for the Institu- 
tion. The Regents opened a special fund for Institution acquisitions, 
special research, and education. The Office of Biological Conser- 
vation became our coordinator and watchdog in the crucial realm 
of conservation activities. The Assistant Secretary for Public Ser- 
vice, Julian Euell, established the Office of Telecommunications 
under the able direction of Chic Cherkezian, thereby adding to the 
Institution's outreach efforts the powerful aid of electronic media. 

The decade's last year saw several major new projects. For one, 
the fifteen-year-old independent Museum of African Art, so far 
as we know the only American museum of its ken, became a new 
Smithsonian bureau. In the Southwest, the Multiple Mirror Tele- 
scope, a joint venture with the University of Arizona at Mount 
Hopkins, began scanning the skies with uniquely new acuity. In 
the Canal Zone, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute estab- 
lished a 13,000-acre biological preserve, the Barro Colorado Na- 
ture Monument. At home, the Regents established a new fellow- 
ship program for attracting eminent scholars and scientists in 

Statement by the Secretary I 21 


In 1980, Walter Adey's living coral reef — the first ever main- 
tained apart from the sea — was put on public display at the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History. The National Portrait Gallery 
acquired Gilbert Stuart's most famous portraits, perhaps the truest 
likenesses of George and Martha Washington, in a special partner- 
ship with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The following year, 
the specially designed Thomas M. Evans Gallery opened at Na- 
tural History as a showcase for traveling exhibitions. This was 
soon followed by the establishment of the James E. Webb Fellow- 
ships to promote excellence in the management of cultural and 
scientific nonprofit institutions, and by two projects of first-magni- 
tude importance to muscology. First, in 1983 the Museum Support 
Center was finally opened at Silver Hill, the world's model facility, 
we hope, for the maintenance of museum collections. Second, the 
first stage of an institution-wide inventory was completed: the 
painstaking task of identifying and counting all of the Smith- 
sonian's 100,000,000 artifacts and specimens. The results of this 
"great counting" will include cybernetic access to data describing 
every single one of our possessions. 

The last years of my administration have seen the National Air 
and Space Museum begin the project of placing its collection of 
over one million photographs onto laser videodisc. Also during 
this period, several Smithsonian museums jointly compiled a poly- 
math exhibition. Treasures of the Smithsonian Institution, for dis- 
play at the celebrated Edinburgh Arts Festival. It was August 1984, 
two hundred years to the month from James Smithson's introduc- 
tion to the Highlands and the Age of Enlightenment. 

Finally in 1983, there was the planning, authorization, and early- 
stage construction of the Smithsonian Center for African, Near 
Eastern, and Asian Cultures. This largely underground facility, 
initially endowed by Arthur M. Sackler to contain his priceless 
collection of Asian masterworks, will connect with the Freer, and 
will comprise also the fabled collections of the Museum of African 
Art. Like the youngest child of a parent, this new museum com- 
plex — the Quadrangle — must always have a special place in my 

The money for it has been raised and committed; funds for the 
structure's programs have already been pledged by a goodly num- 
ber of the governments and individuals across the vast arc of 
mostly new nations of that half of the world represented in the 
Center's title. My chief regret at relinquishing the torch now is 
leaving before the Quadrangle's completion. But like the Smith- 

22 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Brian Fisher, a thirteen-year-old junior high school student from Chicago, be- 
came the 75 milHonth visitor to the National Air and Space Museum on May 
24, 1984. He is greeted by museum director Walter Boyne. In the background, 
three medieval-costumed trumpeters herald the occasion. 

sonian itself, this building may never be finished save in a physical 
sense. Its purpose, its inner life as manifested in scholarly pro- 
grams and public appreciation of exhibits, will depend on those 
who follow me and my generation of curators, scientists, historians, 
and delineators of knowledge. 

The new Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures 
rises steadily (as I write) in its vast pit, looking in embryo like 
the beginnings of a coral reef in a tropical lagoon. The shelflike 
ledges appear in place and will superimpose themselves layer by 
layer. A delicate miniature forest of lacy pillars spreads up from 
the base like the skeletal frame of sea fans or the bare branches of 
gorgonians thrusting toward the light. 

Soon this solid foundation will all be filled in and a verdant 
green carpet will spread out like the top of the reef at low tide. 
Look for water splashing here and there, with two projecting gal- 
leries above, beautiful stranded granite boulders rich in color, set 
amongst the vegetation, a dream come true. 

Perhaps in years to come a similar Center for the New World 
can arise in the quadrilateral space east of the Air and Space 
Museum which was deeded to us some time ago by the Congress. 
The statute specified that plans for any structure on that last Mall 
building site must be approved in advance by Congress. (No one 
need be taken unawares by some vast teeth of Cadmus springing 
up overnight to obstruct the western vista from the Capitol towards 
the panorama of Mall and monuments.) This was a wise decision, 
one in which the Smithsonian concurred, testifying that we had 
no wish to encumber space with sheer manmade mass to obliterate 
openness, an increasingly precious commodity in our city. 

If the Quadrangle becomes the success we anticipate — novel in 
theme as well as structure — what a fine example it can serve for 
the future in our world. It will serve as a model for still another 
vast cultural history to be told and pondered: the sweep of two 
continents from the Bering Sea to Cape Horn trodden by the 
streams of emerging civilizations over the course of some 30,000 
years. Cultures have emerged in the flowing over these new worlds, 
from north to south, from west to east. No similar event can quite 
so clearly be defined on the rest of the planet; no effort has so far 
been attempted to describe in time and sequence this all-encom- 
passing tidal flow which continues even today in a way whose his- 
tory is only becoming known and whose future like the winds of 
time cannot be discerned. 

For the present our new Center for African, Middle Eastern, and 

24 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Asian Cultures is an experiment for the Institution, delving into 
cultural history in a new mode. I am intrigued to speculate on the 
pedestrian traffic this Center will bring, whether it will attract new 
thoughts, new ways of understanding half of the world's popula- 
tion. As the winds change so may our perceptions also of our 
fellow humans. Across the Mall, even on calm days, gusts and 
eddies of breeze remind one that this is a vast, still, quite open 
space. The wind, when it comes unpredictably, blows hither and 
yon. Sometimes the flags round the Washington Monument stand 
straight out, their whipping sound rising to a continuous muted 
roar like rapids in a stream in spate. 

Pandit Nehru once said, unforgettably, "Strange winds are blow- 
ing across the face of Asia. We know not whence they come nor 
where they go." His prescient words evoked a thrilling current 
within me like some music. Walking across the Mall one senses 
such electricity in the air, and visions of a kind, whether past or 
future, we cannot tell. 

Beneath the ambient noises of everyday, the ephemera of today's 
news or tomorrow's politics, there is a steady mass of public 
opinions and notions, indeed convictions, which like the breezes 
are independent of the noisemakers. In the turmoil and drama of 
communication most people do not listen, and do not hear or sense 
the presence of these notions. No opinion poll seems to be effective, 
either. What then could we hear if we cared enough? 

It seems that Eisenhower's farewell words were prescient also, 
often quoted but, like Cassandra's, unheeded. "Beware the military- 
industrial complex." It is not so much the question of the triumphs 
of technology. One cannot feel really alarmed by our nation's 
hegemony of military-industrial development. It moves anyway, 
ponderously, imperceptibly even, irrespective of the overt shouting 
and tumult. 

What the past years have wrought is a state of mind that seems 
more pervasive and indeed alarming than the surface evidence. 
Faith is at a nadir today. Religion has succumed to niggling com- 
plaints about other faiths, and to a fratricidal theocracy, unknown 
since the Middle Ages. We may decry the rise of militant Islamic 
sectarianism, but it is being mirrored all across the world in varie- 
ties of fanaticism unparalleled in recent time. In the name of re- 
ligion, pseudo-religion, or neo-religion, technology aids us today 
in constant acts of terror, blasphemy, and horror, enough to tip 
the balance so as to defeat faith itself. We have turned inward, 
towards inner self and thus selfishness with no restraint. Ambition 

Statement by the Secretary I 25 

Among the major works of art received by the Smithsonian this 
fiscal year were (above) Edgar Degas' portrait of Mary Cassatt, 
purchased as a gift to the National Portrait Gallery from the 
Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation and the Regents' 
Major Acquisition Fund, and (below) Edward Hopper's 1950 oil 
on canvas. Cape Cod Morning, one of the 169 paintings, sculp- 
tures, and drawings given to the National Museum of American 
Art by the Sara Roby Foundation. 

A record-breaking 105,000 visitors viewed the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service's The Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures from the Czecho- 
slovak State Collections during its seven-week showing at the National Museum 
of Natural History. Among the many dignitaries who saw the exhibition was 
Chaim Herzog, president of Israel. 

as of now is for oneself alone in every sense or sensibility. Mam- 
mon is worshiped, a companion to envy and greed in the denial of 

In this paroxysm of shock, there is a parallel settling down as 
of an outward buffer towards a numbing new conservatism, a 
search for conformity, the building of an overweening consensus. 
If there is in truth only a consensus, then bureaucracy administered 
by computer will be the answer to everything. There will be a 
mood of pseudocomplacency covering an essential malaise of the 
spirit in what may be observed. If possible, let it be routed out if 
we are to succeed in the restoration of our real faith. The cur- 
rent state is a presentiment of a failure in our culture. We must 
assume that the ideals embodied in our history are capable of a 
just and noble restoration, and perhaps this Institution is the one 
to be the bellwether. Let us then summon those strange winds to 
our cause and make the view of the Mall one of hope, of keening 
winds blowing our flags straight and whipping shrill. 


The Secretary's Executive Committee was diminished by the loss 
of three members in the last year. Paul Perrot, Assistant Secretary 
for Museum Programs since 1972, became director of the Virginia 
Museum of Fine Arts. Chris Hohenlohe, my erstwhile executive 
assistant and, since 1979, the Institution's valued Treasurer, left 
in November to pursue private financial enterprises. (Ann Leven, 
formerly of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Chase 
Manhattan Bank, now serves as Chris's successor.) Regrettably, 
Larry Taylor, Coordinator of Public Information, retired. 

Al Lerner has retired as founding director of the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. He has been succeeded by James 
Demetrion, who came from the Des Moines Art Center. Other new 
Smithsonian executives include Conservation Analytical Labora- 
tory director Lambertus van Zelst; Milo C. Beach, formerly of 
Williams College, who will head the Sackler Gallery; and William 
Moss, who left the John F. Kennedy Library to direct the Smith- 
sonian Archives. 

Within the Institution, Michael Robinson moved from the Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute to succeed Ted Reed as director 
of the National Zoological Park. Bill Klein, former director of the 
Radiation Biology Laboratory, became director of the Environ- 

28 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

mental Research Center, and senior folklorist Peter Seitel was pro- 
moted to director of the Office of Folkhfe Programs. 

To these and many other members of our dedicated staff, we 
owe a great debt of gratitude. As I have said before, the Smith- 
sonian is a community of talented and interested people on whom 
rests the Institution's vitality and greatness. I take pride in having 
been associated with them all. 

Statement by the Secretary I 29 

The Board of Regents 

The first meeting of the Board of Regents was held on January 23, 
1984. After the Chancellor welcomed the new Regent, Mr. Samuel 
Johnson, the Executive Committee reported on its January 4 meet- 
ing at which the Acting Treasurer, Mr. Jameson, described the size, 
purposes, and procedures of the Institution's current fund invest- 
ments. The Audit and Review Committee also reported on its 
meeting of October 18, 1983, in which the members discussed the 
status of the General Post Office building and collections manage- 
ment policies, and conducted overviews of Smithsonian radio pro- 
grams and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Ser- 
vice. The Personnel Committee reported that it had found no con- 
flict of interest whatsoever in the financial interests statements of 
the executive staff. 

Mr. Jameson gave a final report on the fiscal year 1983 trust 
and appropriated funds, discussed the status of fiscal year 1984 
funds, and noted the allowance from the Office of Management 
and Budget for fiscal year 1985 appropriated funds. The Invest- 
ment Policy Committee had met on November 17, 1983, to review 
investment performance and strategies of the three investment 
managers and reported that the annualized returns continued to 
exceed market averages. To diversify and participate in an addi- 
tional sector of the market, the committee recommended and the 
Regents agreed to invest $5 million of trust funds in a mutual 
fund specializing in science and technology issues. The committee 
also proposed and the Regents approved establishing a more 
liberal total return income payout rate to be applied to new en- 
dowment funds which the Secretary will determine to have high 
current income needs. Mr. Jameson presented a revised and up- 
dated Five-Year Prospectus, Fiscal Years 1985-89, which was ap- 
proved by the Regents. 

Secretary Ripley reported on the construction of the Quadrangle, 
on the status of fundraising, and, with the Assistant Secretary for 
Public Service, Mr. Rinzler, on the preliminary planning for the 
International Center. In other proposed actions, the Regents recog- 
nized Abram Lerner's accomplishments as founding director of the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and named the balcony 

30 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

room in his honor, approved in principle the expansion plans for 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, endorsed the preliminary planning 
for a Smithsonian presence at the 1984 Edinburgh Festival, au- 
thorized the Secretary to enter into agreements with the State of 
Maryland to designate the Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center as a National Estuarine Sanctuary, and requested that the 
congressional members of the Board of Regents introduce and 
support legislation authorizing the nonreimbursable transfer of the 
General Post Office building (along with appropriations for its 
repair and renovation) and other legislation to authorize planning 
and construction of science facilities for the National Air and 
Space Museum, the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, and the Whipple 
Observatory. They also voted to appoint Messrs. Michael Son- 
nenreich, John Al Friede, and Gustave Schindler and Mrs. Milton 
F. Rosenthal to terms on the Commission of the National Museum 
of African Art. 

After Secretary Ripley discussed a variety of status reports, the 
chairman of the Regents Search Committee, Dr. Bowen, described 
the process of searching for Mr. Ripley's successor, adding that in 
all of this committee's discussions and voluminous correspondence 
a recurring theme was an appreciation of the Secretary for his 
exceptional leadership of the Smithsonian over two decades. In 
executive session Dr. Bowen presented the Search Committee's 
recommendation and the Regents elected Robert McCormick 
Adams, Provost of the University of Chicago, as the ninth Secre- 
tary. Following the meeting, Messrs. Bowen, Ripley, and Adams 
met briefly with the heads of Smithsonian bureaus and offices in 
the Great Hall and then, along with Mr. Humelsine, held a press 
conference in the Under Secretary's office. 

The Regents' Dinner was held on the preceding evening, Jan- 
uary 22, in the National Museum of American History. After 
dinner Mr. Ripley greeted the guests and awarded to Paul N. 
Perrot, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs, the Secretary's 
Gold Medal for Exceptional Service. 

The Chancellor called to order the second meeting of the year 
in the Regents' Room at 9:30 a.m.. May 7, 1984. The Executive 
Committee reported on its meeting of April 11 in which this com- 
mittee, acting on behalf of the Regents, requested the congres- 
sional Regents to promote legislation effecting the reappointment 
of Regents Armstrong and Higginbotham for the statutory terms 
of six years. The Audit and Review Committee discussed its meet- 

Statement by the Secretary I 31 

ing of March 8 in which they had an overview of the Archives of 
American Art, discussed Coopers & Lybrand's consolidated audit 
of trust and federal funds for fiscal year 1983 and Report to Man- 
agement, considered factors in the Institution's construction priori- 
ties, and received reports on the Office of Audits' most significant 
recommendations in 1983 and on improvements in Smithsonian 
security programs. The Investment Policy Committee reported on 
its review of the investment managers' performance and the 
Regents, acting on this committee's recommendations, approved 
fiscal year 1985 total return payout rates for the endowment funds. 

Mr. Jameson presented a detailed report on the status of current 
year funds and the processes of budgeting for fiscal years 1985 
and 1986. After considerable discussion, the Regents voted to 
authorize the Secretary to negotiate contracts for the financing, 
construction, and operation of a new restaurant facility in the 
National Air and Space Museum and for the financing, appro- 
priate renovations, and operation of food services in other Smith- 
sonian museums; to create a Special Exhibition Fund for under- 
writing carefully selected, major, temporary exhibitions; to receive 
the Annual Report, Smithsonian Year 1983; to appoint Barbara 
Tuc;hman, Frank Stanton, and Robert McNeil to terms on the 
Commission of the National Portrait Gallery, to appoint Helen 
Neufeld and Colbert King to terms on the Commission of the 
National Museum of African Art, and to appoint Donald Ander- 
son, Walter Hancock, Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr., Eloise Spaeth, 
Charles Parkhurst, Gene B. Davis, and Margaret Dodge Garrett 
to terms on the Commission of the National Museum of American 
Art; and to endorse the Smithsonian's participation in the 1984 
Edinburgh Festival and authorize the Secretary to draw upon un- 
restricted trust funds for that purpose with the approval of the 
Executive Committee. 

Mr. Ripley reported on progress in the construction of the 
Quadrangle, noted that prospects were excellent for meeting or 
exceeding the original goal of raising $37.5 million in nonappro- 
priated funds, and described the closing stages of the fundraising 
campaign. He also presented a number of status reports on Smith- 
sonian programs and activities. 

On September 24, 1983, the National Board of Smithsonian 
Associates unanimously recommended that two distinguished ben- 
efactors of the Institution, Dr. Arthur M. Sackler and Mrs. Enid 
A. Haupt, be the first inductees into the Order of James Smithson. 
In recognition of their extraordinary contributions to the Smith- 

32 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

sonian, the Board of Regents heartily endorsed their induction 
into the Order at a suitable occasion to be arranged by the 

On Sunday evening. May 6, President and Mrs. Reagan were 
hosts to the Regents, members of the Smithsonian Establishment, 
and Secretary and Mrs. Ripley at a dinner in the Blue Room of 
the White House. During the proceedings the President raised a 
toast to Secretary and Mrs. Ripley and Mr. Ripley returned the 

The Regents' third meeting of the year was called to order by 
the Chancellor on September 17, 1984. The Executive Committee 
reported on its meeting of August 22 in which it reviewed and 
approved the Regents' agenda. Mr. Humelsine announced that in 
a poll through the mail, the Regents voted unanimously to induct 
Secretary Ripley into the Order of James Smithson and to present 
to Mrs. Ripley the Joseph Henry Medal. The Audit and Review 
Committee reported that on May 24, it conducted an overview of 
the National Zoological Park and of the Institution's product 
licensing program. In addition the Audit and Review Committee 
discussed Coopers & Lybrand's plan for their consolidated audit of 
fiscal year 1984 funds and the Smithsonian's measures toward im- 
proved food service operations and facilities. The Investment 
Policy Committee also reported on the performance of the invest- 
ment managers as of June 30. 

In presenting the Financial Report, Mr. Jameson described the 
status of current year federal and trust funds as well as the pend- 
ing action of the Congress on the fiscal year 1985 appropriations. 
After discussion the Regents approved the fiscal year 1985 budget 
for nonappropriated funds and the submission of the fiscal year 
1986 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget. 
The Regents also gave preliminary thought to a draft of the Five- 
Year Prospectus, Fiscal Years 1986-1990, which they will consider 
for approval at their next meeting. 

Among other actions the Regents endorsed the Smithsonian's 
participation in the Festival of India and authorized some contin- 
gent expenses; approved discussions leading to a donation of col- 
lections from the U.S. Patent Model Foundation; authorized nego- 
tiations with the Tupper family for their support of construction 
of a laboratory and conference facility, to be named for Earl S. 
Tupper, at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; voted to 
induct Mrs. Sara Roby into the Order of James Smithson in recog- 
nition of her generous contribution of her fine collection of twen- 

Statement by the Secretary I 33 

tieth-century realist masters to the National Museum of American 
Art; and discussed the George Eastman House Board of Trustees' 
suggestion that their photography collections be transferred to the 
Smithsonian. Secretary Ripley presented a detailed report on the 
construction, fundraising, and preliminary programming for the 
Quadrangle and introduced a variety of other status reports. 

In their final act in Secretary Ripley's administration, the Re- 
gents adopted the following resolution and ordered it to be laid 
upon the record: 


Whereas S. Dillon Ripley has served as Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution with great distinction for more than two 
decades and has overseen its extraordinary development to 
the benefit of the American people and the citizens of the 

Whereas Secretary Ripley has opened the halls of the Smith- 
sonian for record-setting numbers of citizens to enjoy through 
a vast array of stimulating exhibitions in the National Mu- 
seums, through a greatly expanded traveling exhibition ser- 
vice, and through both the printed and electronic media; 

Whereas Secretary Ripley has added immeasurably to the Insti- 
tution's international stature in museum techniques for ex- 
hibition and conservation, in studies of the physical and 
natural sciences, history and art, and therefore in fostering 
increased intercultural and international understanding; and 

Whereas Secretary Ripley has continued to pursue significant 
ornithological and ecological research enhancing the Smith- 
sonian's leadership in the conservation of nature: 

Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved by the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 
That S. Dillon Ripley is named Secretary Emeritus so that he 
may continue to be of service to the Board from time to time 
and Research Associate so that he may continue his scholarly 
investigations to the credit of the Institution, and to that end 
it is agreed that he shall be provided appropriate staff support 
and a grant for his research. 

Having adjourned their formal meeting, the Regents joined the 
Regents Emeriti, invited guests, and the staff and volunteers of the 
Institution for a noontime ceremony on the Mall marking the in- 

34 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

stallation of Mr. Adams as the ninth Secretary. Following a prelude 
of traditional and patriotic music from the U.S. Navy Ceremonial 
Band, the Chancellor introduced Mr. Ripley who expressed his 
gratitude for the support and pleasure he received from the Re- 
gents, the National Board of the Smithsonian Associates, the staff 
and volunteers, and countless others. The Chancellor then pre- 
sented a traditional brass key to Mr. Adams who delivered a brief 
address on his view of Smithsonian purposes. There followed a 
reception and luncheon in the Great Hall and Commons for the 
Regents, Regents Emeriti, and invited guests. 

On Sunday evening, September 16, the Chancellor and the Re- 
gents held a formal dinner in the National Air and Space Museum 
in honor of Secretary and Mrs. Ripley. As voted by the Board of 
Regents and on their behalf, Mr. Humelsine inducted Mr. Ripley 
into the Order of James Smithson and Mrs. Armstrong presented 
the Joseph Henry Medal to Mrs. Ripley. The Vice-President gave 
a toast to the Ripleys and announced that the Secretary will be 
receiving the President's Medal of Freedom. Concluding the cere- 
monies pianist Bruce Steeg and two vocalists presented a selection 
of musical favorites. 

Statement by the Secretary I 35 


FiscalYears 1965, 1975, 1980, 1983, 1984: 

(In $l,O0O,O00's) 










Trust Funds 
(Gross Revenues) 

Federal Grants 
J~ and Contracts 


1965 1975 1980 1983 1984 



To Plant and Endowment 

Auxiliary and Bureau Activities Expenses 

Administration and Facilities Services 

Special Programs 
Museum Programs 
Public Service 

History and Art 

1965 1975 1980 1983 1984 

SmUhsonian InstituHon • 1984 


Summary: Fiscal year 1984 marked a year of change at the Smith- 
sonian, most notably the appointment of Robert McC. Adams as 
the ninth Secretary of the Institution and the retirement of S. 
Dillon Ripley as the eighth Secretary. Mr. Ripley's extraordinary 
legacy is nowhere more visible than in the Institution's fiscal report. 
In fiscal year 1965, Mr. Ripley's first full year as Secretary, the 
Institution's operating budget was $30 million. For the year just 
ended, Mr. Ripley presided over a greatly expanded Institution with 
a budget tenfold that of fiscal year 1965. 

Mr. Ripley's twenty-year tenure, as referenced elsewhere in 
Smithsonian Year, brought new vitality to the Institution, vitality 
that cannot be measured in dollars. Mr. Ripley acted to shape the 
form and focus of the Institution. New museums were added, 
particularly in the arts. Under Dillon Ripley's aegis, the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum, the Hirshhom Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
the Renwick Gallery, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, and 
the National Museum of African Art joined the Smithsonian fam- 
ily. The National Museum of American Art and the Portrait 
Gallery found new homes in the Old Patent Office Building, lov- 
ingly restored under Mr. Ripley's guidance. The National Air and 
Space Museum opened its new building in July 1976. In 1983 con- 
struction began on the Quadrangle, Mr. Ripley's last and most 
expansive project on the Mall. 

Public accessibility to American culture and diversity was fur- 
ther enhanced by a variety of outreach activities, most notably 
Smithsonian magazine, which stands as the preeminent publica- 


tion of its kind in the world today. Other programmatic triumphs 
include the annual Folklife Festival, the Archives of American Art, 
and the extraordinarily active Associate programs. Were all this 
not sufficient, research efforts, assistance to other museums, and 
innovative exhibits enhanced the lay public's and the scholars' 
perspectives during Mr. Ripley's tenure. 

The accomplishments of the Ripley years have been supported 
in substantial proportions by federal appropriations. In recent 
years, nonappropriated trust funds have also contributed an in- 
creasing share. In 1964 there were some 40 private donors to the 
Institution; in fiscal year 1984 there were more than 30,000. The 
unprecedented sum of $37.5 million in private funds was raised, 
principally by Mr. Ripley, for the Quadrangle to match monies 
pledged by Congress for the project. 

Fiscal year 1984 marks the culmination of the growth, excite- 
ment, and achievement of the Ripley years. The following pages 
detail the Institution's finances. It is clearly apparent that the 
Smithsonian is a far more complex organization than it was in 
1964. Four Treasurers served Mr. Ripley: Edgar L. Roy and Otis O. 
Martin in the early years; T. Ames Wheeler from 1968 to 1979, 
and Christian C. Hohenlohe from 1979 to 1983. John F. Jameson, 
Assistant Secretary for Administration, served as Acting Treasurer 
from November 1983 through July 1984. Ann R. Leven, former 
Treasurer of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, joined the Institu- 
tion in August 1984. 

As the Smithsonian begins the Adams years, the Institution looks 
forward to a continuation of the broad-based support of both the 
Administration and the Congress and of the public at large for 
further enhancement of its research, exhibition, education, and 
collection management endeavors. 

Operating Funds — Sources and Application 

As may be seen from Table 1, the gross amount available for oper- 
ations in fiscal year 1984 was $304,350,000, an increase of 9 per- 
cent when compared to the previous year's total of $277,974,000. 
Federal appropriations contributed 51 percent of the fiscal year 
1984 revenues, nonappropriated sources accounted for 44 percent, 
and 5 percent were from federal agency grants and contracts. 

38 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

After deducting expenses of the nonappropriated auxiliary and 
bureau activities, net operating income increased by $18 million 
over the prior year to $206,452,000. Federal funds accounted for 
76 percent of net revenue, nonappropriated funds contributed 17 
percent, a slight increase over fiscal year 1983, with the 7 percent 
balance from federal grants and contracts. The application of funds 
by all Smithsonian bureaus is outlined in Table 2, with further 
supporting detail in other tables. 


Federal appropriations provide the core support for the Institution's 
continuing programs in research, exhibitions, education, publishing, 
and collections management, including related administrative and 
support services. They provide, as well, for the maintenance and 
protection of the collections and physical plant. 

Federal support for the Institution's operating programs totaled 
$156,683,000 in fiscal year 1984, an increase of $9.4 million over 
fiscal year 1983. Although the majority of this increase — some $5.4 
million — was required to cover inflationary increases in salaries 
and other expenses, significant new funding of $4 million was 
provided for a variety of program activities. Of this increase, $1.2 
million was received for operations and program requirements at 
the Museum Support Center, which in fiscal year 1984 completed 
its first full year of operation, and for strengthening the conserva- 
tion activity at the center. Complementing the growth in construc- 
tion support for major renovations and repairs (discussed below), 
funding was received in the operating account for professional 
architectural and engineering services and for facilities maintenance 
at two off-mall facilities — the Cooper-Hewitt Museum and the 
National Zoological Park. Other significant increases were provided 
for expansion of the Institution's computing capabilities, for en- 
hancing the security of buildings and collections, and for replacing 
and upgrading scientific research equipment at the Astrophysical 
Observatory and the Tropical Research Institute. 


Support from federal agencies in the form of grants and contracts 
totaled $14,878,000 in fiscal year 1984, an increase of 13 percent 
over the previous year. These funds constitute an important source 
of research support for the Institution while also benefiting the 
granting agencies by providing access to Smithsonian expertise and 

Financial Report I 39 

resources. As in prior years, the Smithsonian worked closely with 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (nasa). As 
reflected in Table 3, expenditures under nasa grants and contracts 
totaled approximately $11.3 million in fiscal year 1984, primarily 
for research programs at the Astrophysical Observatory. Sponsored 
research included balloon-borne telescope observations, the study 
of meteorite samples from the Antarctic, X-ray telescope studies, 
and the design of hydrogen masers. 

Support from other agencies provided an additional $3.6 million 
for such varied programs as an ecological study of the Chesapeake 
Bay Watershed, the 1984 Festival of American Folklife, and a 
mariculture project to study and develop food sources from the sea. 


Income from nonappropriated trust fund sources including gifts, 
grants, endowment and current fund investments, and revenue- 
producing activities totaled $132,789,000 in fiscal year 1984. After 
exclusion of expenses necessary to generate auxiliary and bureau 
activity revenues, net income available for Institutional programs 
equaled $34,891,000, an increase of $6.7 million or 24 percent, over 
fiscal year 1983. Of the total net income, $24.7 miUion, or 71 per- 
cent, was available for unrestricted program use and was distrib- 
uted as approved by the Board of Regents. The balance of approxi- 
mately $10.2 million was restricted, that is, available only for 
purposes specified by the benefactor. 

Restricted fund revenues of $10.2 million were up $1 million 
from the previous year. They consisted of $5.9 million from gifts 
and grants, $3.2 million from endowment investment income and 
interest earned on restricted current fund balances, and $1.1 million 
from other sources, primarily fundraising activities at the Archives 
of American Art and sales desk activities at the Freer Gallery of 
Art. Restricted endowment investment income served as the major 
funding source for oceanographic research administered by the 
National Museum of Natural History; for operations of the Freer 
Gallery of Art (now included in the Center for Asian Art); and a 
wide variety of research, exhibition, publication, and educational 
activities at other Smithsonian bureaus. Major gift support was 
received during the year for important additions to the collections, 
including Portrait of Mary Cassatt by Edgar Degas and Callers by 
Walter Ufer; for major exhibitions being developed by the National 
Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonian Institution Trav- 

40 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

eling Exhibition Service; and for research and archival activities 
of the Archives of American Art. 

Unrestricted funds include both those available for general op- 
erating purposes and a smaller category of Special Purpose funds 
that have been internally designated by the Institution. The former 
and larger category. Unrestricted General Purpose funds, is derived 
primarily from investment income and net revenues of the auxiliary 
activities. In fiscal year 1984, net general purpose unrestricted 
funds provided over $22 million for general Institutional needs, an 
increase of some $5.8 milHon over the previous year. As displayed 
in Table 5, this improved performance was due to increased income 
generated by the Institution's working capital pool invested at 
favorable rates and to the strong performance of the auxiliary 

As in past years, the Smithsonian Associate programs contrib- 
uted handsomely to auxiliary activity revenues, on both a gross and 
net basis, reflecting the continued popularity of the Smithsonian 
magazine and the generosity of the Contributing Membership. In 
fiscal year 1984, Contributing Members donated approximately 
$2.7 million in unrestricted gift support. Income from the Museum 
Shops benefited from generally strong sales enhanced by the new 
shop at the Museum of American History and high visitation to all 
museums. The Mail Order Program offered new items and an ex- 
panded catalog. The Smithsonian Institution Press experienced 
extremely favorable reviews and sales from its new recording, 
"Big Band Jazz from the Beginnings to the Fifties," and the popular 
publication Treasures of the Smithsonian. In October 1983, the 
Smithsonian-managed food service operations in the National Air 
and Space Museum building and the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden were restored to concession management, affect- 
ing the financial statements accordingly. 

The general unrestricted funds supported a portion of the Insti- 
tution's administrative costs and most importantly provided for, 
among other bureau activities, programs of the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum, the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center, 
the Office of Telecommunications, and the Office of Folklife Pro- 
grams. In addition, during fiscal year 1984, there were special 
allotments for several major exhibitions and related activities, in- 
cluding the Shanghai exhibition in the Thomas Mellon Evans 
Special Exhibition Gallery, the Hirshhorn tenth anniversary exhibi- 
tion, and Smithsonian participation in the Edinburgh Festival. The 

Financial Report I 41 

development of a new, integrated personnel/payroll system also 
received funding. Transfers to special purpose funds financed the 
Collections Acquisition, Scholarly Studies, and Educational Out- 
reach Programs ($2,250,000), stipends for pre- and postdoctoral 
fellows under the Smithsonian Fellowship program ($1,738,000), 
income-sharing to the bureaus for their discretionary uses ($638,- 
000), research grants to Smithsonian professional staff ($400,000), 
and other projects. An amount of $3.4 million was transferred to 
plant funds for Quadrangle development and for the purchase of 
a residence for Smithsonian Secretaries. To build the future re- 
sources of the Institution, $3.3 million was transferred to unre- 
stricted endowment. 

The Unrestricted Special Purpose funds were supplemented by 
approximately $4.6 million during fiscal year 1984, principally with 
monies generated by bureau activities. Illustrative of such revenue 
activities are fees charged for films at the National Air and Space 
Museum and the admission and membership fees at the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum. Investment income earned on unexpended fund 
balances and from designated endowments added $700,000. Gifts 
and miscellaneous income, such as zoo parking receipts that are 
being reserved for future expansion of parking facilities at the 
National Zoo, brought in another $1.2 million. 

Special Foreign Currency Program 

Foreign currencies, accumulated primarily from sales of surplus 
agricultural commodities under Public Law 83-480 and determined 
by the Treasury Department to be in excess of the current needs 
of the United States, are made available to the Institution through 
the Special Foreign Currency Appropriation. In fiscal year 1984, an 
appropriation of excess foreign currencies equivalent to $7,040,000 
was received under this program by the Smithsonian. Included in 
this amount was $4 million (as compared to last year's $2 million) 
to continue a program of grants to United States institutions for 
field research and advanced professional training in fields of tradi- 
tional Smithsonian interest and competence. 

An additional $2 million was provided to the Indian rupee re- 
serve account established in fiscal year 1980 to ensure continued 
program support of the American Institute of Indian Studies. The 

42 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

balance of $1,040,000 represented the second increment of support 
for the international effort to restore and preserve the ancient city 
of Moenjodaro in Pakistan. An additional amount in nonconvertible 
Pakistani currency is expected to be sought by the Institution to 
fulfill the United States' commitment to the project. Obligations 
during the fiscal year by research discipline and country are pro- 
vided in Table 8. 


New funding in fiscal year 1984 for construction and renovation 
projects at the Institution totaled $24,126,000. As shown in Table 
9, a federal appropriation of $9 million was provided for restoration 
and renovation of existing Smithsonian facilities. A further $3.5 
million was designated specifically for construction and renovation 
of National Zoological Park facilities both at Rock Creek Park and 
Front Royal. The types of projects funded include facade, roof, 
and terrace repairs necessary to maintain the structural integrity 
of buildings; the planning and installation of fire detection and 
suppression systems; improvements to utility systems to increase 
energy efficiency and to provide stable temperature and humidity 
conditions for the preservation of the collections; and repairs, mod- 
ifications, and improvements to preserve and maintain the Institu- 
tion's buildings in a safe and energy efficient manner. In addition, 
federal dollars covered construction of a much-needed veterinary 
hospital at Front Royal. 

By September 30, 1984, the Institution had achieved its $37.5 
million goal equal to one-half the estimated cost of constructing the 
Quadrangle Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures. 
Of the total raised, $10.8 million was received in fiscal year 1984: 
$8.1 million was from gifts and earned interest and $2.7 million 
was a transfer from unrestricted trust funds. It must be noted that 
Congress rescinded $8 million of the $36.5 million appropriated in 
fiscal year 1983 for its share of Quadrangle construction. This 
action was based on anticipated savings resulting from the unex- 
pectedly low contract bid for construction. In taking this action. 
Congress restated its commitment to sharing equally the project's 
cost and indicated a willingness to reconsider its decision based on 
identified need. 

Financial Report I 43 

Other nonappropriated receipts include grant support for con- 
struction of research facihties at the Tropical Research Institute, a 
donation for relocation of an antique greenhouse, and interest 
earned on unexpended gifts to plant funds. In addition to the $2.7 
million for Quadrangle construction, transfers from unrestricted 
funds were made for the purchase and improvement of a residence 
for Smithsonian Secretaries and for mortgage payments on prop- 
erty currently occupied by the National Museum of African Art. 

Endowment and Similar Funds 

As of September 30, 1984, the market value of the Smithsonian 
Endowment Fund was $132,416,000, as compared to $132,031,000 
on September 30, 1983. Of this, $131,113,000 is invested in the 
Pooled Consolidated Endowment Fund under outside investment 
management, $1,000,000 is on permanent deposit in the United 
States Treasury as required, and the remaining $303,000 includes 
restricted stock and donated real estate. As shown in Table 10, the 
majority of the funds, 56 percent ($74,672,000), represents re- 
stricted endowment, with income available only for the purposes 
specified by the donor. The remaining 44 percent ($57,744,000) are 
unrestricted endowment funds, with income available for general 
support of the Institution. Certain of the unrestricted funds, such 
as the Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History Endowment, have 
been designated by the Regents for specific purposes. A complete 
listing of all endowment funds, together with current book and 
market values, may be seen in Table 13. 

Investment of the Pooled Consolidated Endowment Fund is 
subject to policy guidelines established by the Board of Regents. 
Funds are managed by professional advisory firms under the over- 
sight of the Investment Policy Committee and the Treasury. During 
fiscal year 1984, the number of managers was increased to four 
with the addition of Granahan-Everitt Investments, Inc. As of the 
end of the year, the respective portion of the fund by manager was: 
Fiduciary Trust Company of New York (46 percent), Batterymarch 
Financial Management (30 percent), Torray Clark & Company (20 
percent), and Granahan-Everett Investments, Inc. (4 percent). 

For fiscal year 1984, the total rate of return (market appreciation 
as well as interest and dividend yield) of the Pooled Consolidated 

44 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Endowment Fund, as calculated by an independent investment 
measurement service, was +0.4 percent, as compared to +4.6 per- 
cent for the Standard & Poor's 500 Average and +2.2 percent for 
the Dow Jones Industrial Average, both calculated on the same 
basis. The year-end market values and the recap of activity of the 
Consolidated Endowment over the past five years are reflected in 
Tables 11 and 12, respectively. 

Under the Total Return Income policy followed by the Institu- 
tion, total investment return is defined as yield (interest and divi- 
dends) plus appreciation, including both realized and unrealized 
gains. A portion of this return is made available for expenditure 
each year, and the remainder is reinvested as principal. This total 
return income payout is determined in advance of the fiscal year 
by the Board of Regents based on a review of anticipated interest 
and dividend yields, support needs of the Institution's bureaus and 
scientists, inflationary factors, and the five-year running average of 
market values, adjusted for additions or withdrawals of capital. 
After income payout of $3,820,000 in fiscal year 1984 to endow- 
ments in the Pooled Consolidated Endowment Fund, $2,794,000 of 
excess interest and dividend yield was available for reinvestment 
into endowment principal. Net transfers to endowment, primarily 
to unrestricted endowment funds, provided an additional $3.5 
million with $283,000 received in gifts and other income. At the 
request of the donor, balances in the Shryock Endowment for 
Docents were transferred to restricted current funds. 

Upon request, a listing of the securities held in the Pooled Con- 
solidated Endowment Fund as of September 30, 1984, may be ob- 
tained from the Treasurer of the Institution. 

Related Organizations 

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts were established by Congress within the Institu- 
tion. Each organization is administered by its own board of trustees 
and reports independently on its financial status. Fiscal, administra- 
tive, and other support services are provided the Woodrow Wilson 
International Center for Scholars on a reimbursement basis; office 
space is made available for center operations. 

Financial Report I 45 

An independent nonprofit corporation, the Friends of the Na- 
tional Zoo (FONZ) operates under contract a number of beneficial 
concessions for the National Zoological Park. During calendar year 
1983 (FONZ's fiscal year), FONZ concession and rental fees to the 
Smithsonian amounted to approximately $431,000. In addition, 
FONZ contributed other important financial and volunteer support 
to zoo programs. Additional information on FONZ is to be found 
elsewhere in Smithsonian Year 1984. 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc., associated with the Institution 
since 1968, now operates as an independent, separately incor- 
porated entity dedicated to the improvement of reading abilities 
in children. Primary support is derived from private contributions 
and a federal contract with the Department of Education to operate 
the Federal Inexpensive Book Distribution Program. Administrative 
services are offered by the Institution on a contract basis. 

For fiscal year 1984, the Smithsonian also provided administra- 
tive and fiscal assistance to the Visions Foundation, a start-up 
venture in the arts. 

Accounting and Auditing 

The Institution's funds, federal and nonappropriated, are audited 
annually by the independent public accounting firm of Coopers 
and Lybrand. Their report for fiscal year 1984 is reprinted on the 
following pages. The Smithsonian's internal audit staff audits 
Smithsonian activities and financial systems throughout the year. 
Additionally, the Defense Contract Audit Agency conducts an 
annual audit of grants and contracts received from federal agencies 
and monitors allocated administrative costs. 

The Audit and Review Committee of the Board of Regents met 
several times during the year pursuant to their responsibility under 
the bylaws of the Institution. The committee is charged with 
reviewing the Smithsonian's accounting systems and internal 
financial controls; facilitating communication between the Board 
of Regents and the internal audit staff, the independent accounting 
firm, and the General Accounting Office; and reviewing operations 
of the Institution for compliance with approved programs and 

46 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Table 1. Financial Summary 
(In $l,OOOs) 

FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 


Federal Appropriations — Salaries & Expenses $131,170 $147,256 $156,683 

Federal Agency Grants & Contracts 13,217 13,125 14,878 

Nonappropriated Trust Funds : 

For Restricted Purposes 6,821 9,162 10,182 

For Unrestricted & Special Purposes: 

Auxiliary & Bureau Activities Revenues — Gross . . . 97,350 104,129 117,550 

Less Related Expenses (88,596) (89,397) (97,898) 

Auxiliary & Bureau Activities Net Revenue 8,754 14,732 19,652 

Investment, Gift, & Other Income 4,808 4,302 5,057 

Total Net Unrestricted & Special Purpose Revenue 13,562 19,034 24,709 

Total Nonappropriated Trust Funds*— Gross 108,979 117,593 132,789 

—Net 20,383 28,196 34,891 

Total Operating Funds Provided— Gross 253,366 277,974 304,350 

—Net $164,770 $188,577 $206,452 


Science $ 64,837 $ 68,895 $ 74,134 

Less SAO Overhead Recovery (2,487) (2,264) (2,226) 

History & Art 26,762 30,979 33,011 

Public Service 3,782 2,843 3,526 

Museum Programs 8,539 9,702 10,976 

Special Programs 9,533 13,342 14,805 

Associates & Business Management 543 1,057 884 

Administration— Federal** 9,719 11,032 12,201 

—Nonappropriated Trust Funds 5,733 7,226 8,211 

Less Smithsonian Overhead Recovery (5,338) (6,331) (6,528) 

Facilities Services 39,327 43,653 46,821 

Total Operating Funds Applied 160,950 180,134 195,815 

Transfers (Nonappropriated Trust Funds) 

Unrestricted Funds— To Plant 1,064 2,069 3,424 

—To Endowment 2,259 3,084 3,313 

Restricted Funds — To Endowment 318 637 222 

Total Operating Funds Applied & Transferred Out $164,591»**$185,924 $202,774 



Restricted Purpose (Incl. Fed. Agency Gr. & Contracts) $ (45) $ 1,765 $ 1,426 

Unrestricted — General Purpose 5 28 10 

—Special Purpose 404 860 2,242 

Total $ 364 $ 2,653 $ 3,678 



Restricted Purpose $ 5,906 $ 7,671 $ 9,097 

Unrestricted— General Purpose 5,048 5,076 5,086 

—Special Purpose 13,003 13,863 16,105 

Total $ 23,957 $ 26,610 $ 30,288 


Special Foreign Currency Program $ 4,320 $ 2,000 $ 7,040 

Construction 9,744 46,500 4,500 

Total Federal Appropriations (Incl. S&E above) $145,234 $195,756 $168,223 

•Figures do not include gifts and other income directly to Plant and Endowment Funds: FY 1982 — 
$2,197,000; FY 1983— $15,048,000; FY 1984— $8,484,000. 
••Includes unobligated funds returned to Treasury: FY 1982— $124,000; FY 1983— $62,000; FY 1984— 
•••Includes $185,000 available for FDR Centennial carried forward from FY 1981. 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds 

Year Ended September 30, 1984 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds and Endowments) 

(In $l,000s) 



I Funds 





General ties 


General tracts 


$ — 

$ 26,610 







$ 5,076 $ — 





$ 7 All $ 250 


Federal Appropriations 

Investment Income 

Grants and Contracts 


. 156,683 

3,108 — 

35 2,698 
— 112,179 
(6) — 

3,137 114,877 

3,236 — 

— 14,876 

5^359 — 

Sales and Revenue 


1,087 2 

Total Provided 

. 156,683 

10,182 14,878 

Total Available $156,683 $174,277 $ 8,213 $114,877 $18,456 $17,603 $15,128 



Assistant Secretary 

Natl. Mus. of Nat. History/ 

Museum of Man 

Astrophysical Observatory . 

Less Overhead Recovery . 
Tropical Research Institute . 
Environmental Rsch. Center 
Natl. Air & Space Museum . 
Natl. Zoological Park 

Total Science 




— 38 



History and Art: 

Assistant Secretary 

Natl. Mus. of Am. History . 
Natl. Mus. of American Art 

Natl. Portrait Gallery 

Hirshhorn Museum 

Center for Asian Art 

Archives of American Art . . 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum . . . 
Natl. Mus. of African Art . . 
Anacostia Museum 

Total History and Art 









































































































48 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Table 2. Source and Application of Operating Funds — continued 

Year Ended September 30, 1984 

(Excludes Special Foreign Currency Funds, Plant Funds and Endowments) 

(In $l,OOOs) 

Nonfederal Funds 






















General tracts 

Public Service: 

Assistant Secretary 






9 — 

Reception Center 






— — 







51 — 

Smithsonian Press 






6 — 

Total Public Service . . . 





























Museum Programs: 

Assistant Secretary 



Conserv. Analytical Laboratory 



Traveling Exhib. Service 


National Museum Act 

Total Museum Programs 

Special Programs: 
Am. Studies & Folklife Pgm. . 
Int. Environ. Science Pgm. . . . 
Academic & Educational Pgm. 
Collections Mgt./Inventory . . . 
Major Exhibition Program .... 

Museum Support Center 

JFK Center Grant 




















Total Special Programs . 

Associate Programs 

Business Management 


Less Overhead Recovery . . . 
Facilities Services 





— ( 



$143,989 $ 

$ 30,288 $ 














3,127 $ 










Transfers Out /(In): 


Coll. Acq., Schol. St., Outreach 

Net Auxiliary Activities 

Other Designated Purposes . . . 



Total Transfers 

Total Funds Applied . . . 

FUND BALANCES 9/30/84 . . 



19,013 (7,388) 
114,877 $ 2,351 $ 




8,793 $14,841 

$ — 

5,086 $ 


$16,105 $ 8,810 $ 



Financial Report 1 49 

Table 3. Grants and Contracts — Expenditures 
(In $i,ooos) 

Federal Agencies 

FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 

Agency for International Development $ — 

Department of Commerce 174 

Department of Defense 1,001 

Department of Energy 448 

Department of Health and Human Services 325 

Department of Interior 268 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration* 9,303 

National Science Foundation** 1,079 

Other 837 

Total $13,435 


$ 428 

















$13,062 $14,841 

^Includes $264,000 (FY 1982), $197,000 (FY 1983), and $399,000 (FY 1984) in subcontracts from 
other organizations receiving prime contract funding from NASA. 
•♦Includes $230,000 (FY 1982), $196,000 (FY 1983), and $250,000 (FY 1984) in NSF subcontracts 
from the Chesapeake Research Consortium. 

Table 4. Restricted Operating Trust Funds * 

Fiscal Years 1982-1984 

(In $l,000s) 














fers in 


end of 









FY 1982— Total $2,886 

FY 1983 — Total $2,971 

FY 1984: 

National Museum of 

Natural History $1,150 

Astrophysical Observatory 91 
Tropical Research 

Institute 44 

National Air & Space 

Museum 69 

National Zoological Park 19 

Other Science 139 

National Museum of 

American History .... 58 
National Museum of 

American Art 66 

National Portrait Gallery 18 

Hirshhorn Museum 70 

Center for Asian Art .... 1,131 

Archives of American Art 45 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum . 72 
Traveling Exhibition 

Service 79 

All Other 185 

Total FY 1984 $3,236 

$3,154 $ 781 $ 6,821 $6,571 $ (77) $ 173 $5,719 

$5,419 $ 772 $ 9,162 $6,823 $ (637) $1,702 $7,421 

837 $ 107 

$ 2,094 


$ — $ 





























































































$5,859 $1,087 $10,182 $8,571 $ (222) $1,389 $8,810 

*Does not include Federal Agency Grants and Contracts. 


$ 3,108 





Table 5. Unrestricted Trust Funds — General and Auxiliary Activities 

Fiscal Years 1982-1984 

(In $l,OOOs) 

Item FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 

General Income: 

Investments $ 2,921 

Gifts 18 

Miscellaneous 83 

Total General Income 3,022 2,559 3,137 

Auxiliary Activities Income (Net) : 

Associates* 8,126 9,864 13,075 

Business Management: 

— Museum Shops and Mail Order 856 

— Concessions, Parking and Food Services . . 1,513 

—Other (322) 

Performing Arts* (2,544) 

Smithsonian Press* 670 

Traveling Exhibitions (298) 

Photo Services 11 

Total Auxiliary Activities 8,012 

Total Funds Provided (Net) 11,034 


Administrative and Program Expense 12,505 

Less Administrative Recovery 7,825 

Net Expense 4,680 

Less Transfers : 

To Special Purpose for Program Purposes .... 3,328 

To Plant Funds 1,000 

To Endowment Funds 2,021 

































$ 5,076 

$ 5,086 

'Effective FY 1983, the Division of Performing Arts recording program was trans- 
ferred to the Smithsonian Press and the performing arts activities for which tickets 
are sold to the public were transferred to the Resident Associate Program. 

Financial Report I 51 

Table 6. Auxiliary Activities Fiscal Years 1982-1984 
(In $l,OOOs) 

Sales Net 
and Less rev- 
other cost of Gross Ex- enue** 
Activity revenue Gifts sales revenue penses (loss) 

FY 1982 $92,668 $1,757 $56,166 $38,259 $30,247 $8,012 

FY 1983 $98,826 $2,171 $57,527 $43,470 $29,638 $13,832 

FY 1984: 

Associates $ 69,798 $ 2,698 $46,127 $26,369 $13,294 $13,075 

Business Management: 

—Museum Shops* 26,762 — 14,752 12,010 8,299 3,711 

— Concessions/Parking/ 

Food Services 2,617 — 45 2,572 881 1,691 

— Other 97 — — 97 303 (206) 

Smithsonian Press 11,792 — 3,703 8,089 6,931 1,158 

Traveling Exhibitions 1,030 — 671 359 780 (421) 

Photo Services 

(Administration) 83 — 11 72 67 5 

Total FY 1984 $112,179 $2,698 $65,309 $49,568 $30,555 $19,013 

*Includes Museum Shops and Mail Order. 
**Before revenue-sharing transfers to participating Smithsonian bureaus of $380,000 (FY 
1982); $486,000 (FY 1983); and $638,000 (FY 1984). 

52 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Table 7. Unrestricted Special Purpose Funds 

Fiscal Years 1982-1984 

(In $l,OOOs) 

Revenue Deductions 

Gifts Bu- Net Fund 

Bu- and Pro- reau in- bal- 

In- reau other Total Trans- gram activ- crease ance 

vest- activi- rev- rev- fers in ex- ity ex- (de- end of 

Item ment ties enue enue (out) pense pense crease) year 

-Y 1982 $719 $2,925 $1,067 $4,711 $2,784 $4,908 $2,183 $ 404 $13,003 

-Y 1983 $686 $3,132 $1,057 $4,875 $5,078 $6,861 $2,232 $ 860 $13,863 

FY 1984: 

National Museum of 

Natural History $ 50 $ 7 $ 30 $ 87 $ 959 $ 794 $ — $ 252 $ 854 


Observatory 10 137 65 212 502 491 155 68 679 

rropical Research 

Institute 22 131 — 153 234 193 220 (26) 153 

^lational Air and Space 

Museum 243 1,400 35 1,678 73 1,433 921 (603) 1,993 

Environmental Research 

Center* 7 23 16 46 88 80 10 44 175 

Niational Zoological Park 210 — 200 410 90 225 — 275 2,310 

*4ational Museum of 

American History 23 13 85 121 566 638 5 44 482 

National Museum of 

American Art 14 5 139 158 23 119 4 58 175 

National Portrait Gallery 5 9 58 72 743 799 8 8 135 

iirshhorn Museum 15 — 17 32 327 73 — 286 464 

Zooper-Hev^^itt Museum . 1 849 347 1,197 23 374 648 198 202 

National Museum of 

African Art — 7 6 13 18 101 3 (73) 48 

pffice of Telecommunica- 
tions — 3 — 3 19 167 33 (178) 274 

iability Reserves — — — — — 16 — (16) 3,273 

Jnallocated Coll. Acq., 

Schol. Studies, and 

Outreach — — — — 133 — — 133 570 

ellowships 24 — — 24 1,363 1,194 — 193 1,034 

Museum Support Center 

Equipment — — — — — 269 — (269) 401 

^11 Other 55 89 243 387 2,227 739 27 1,848 2,883 

Total FY 1984 $679 $2,673 $1,241 $4,593 $7,388 $7,705 $2,034 $2,242 $16,105 

Effective in FY 1983, the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies was merged with the Radiation 
Biology Laboratory to form the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. 

Financial Report I 53 

Table 8. Special Foreign Currency Program 

Fiscal Year 1984 — Obligations 

(In $l,OOOs) 

Country ology 



atic and 


































India $4,730 

Burma 1 

Pakistan 1,137 

Total $5,868 

*Includes $180,000 for translation services in support of all programs. 

Table 9. Construction and Plant Funds Fiscal Years 1982-1984 

(In $l,000s) 

Sources FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 


Federal Appropriations : 

National Zoological Park $ 1,104 $ 1,550 $ 3,500 

Restoration and Renovation of Buildings 7,680 8,450 9,000 

Quadrangle 960 36,500 (8,000 ) 

Total Federal Appropriations 9,744 46,500 4,500 

Nonappropriated Trust Funds : 
Income — Gift and Other 

Special Exhibits Gallery 1 — — 

Smithsonian Environmental Research 

Center — Gain on Sale — 44 — 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Institute — Research Facilities — 66 20 

Erection of Jacksonville Bandstand — 174 12 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 31 163 32 

American Art and Portrait Gallery Building 183 21 21 

Quadrangle and Related 1,650 14,574 8,098 

Smithsonian Institution Building South 

Entrance 64 5 3 

Bequest of Real Estate 225 — — 

Belmont Conference Center — Gain on Sale . . — 1,405* — 

Horticulture Antique Greenhouse — — 16 

Total Income 2,154 16,452 8,202 

Transfers from Current Funds : 

National Museum of African Art 24 24 24 

Quadrangle 1,040 2,040 2,700 

East Garden — 5 — 

Secretaries' Residence — — 700 

Total Transfers 1,064 2,069 3,424 

Total Funds Provided $12,962 $65,021 $16,126 

*Total proceeds realized of $1,993,000 of which $1,750,000 was directed to construction 
of the Museum Support Center and $208,000 was transferred to endowment funds. 

54 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Table 10. Endowment and Similar Funds September 30, 1984 

Book value Market value 


Pooled Consolidated Endowment Funds: 

Cash and Equivalents $ 13,525,970 $ 13,525,970 

Bonds 11,346,884 11,431,145 

Convertible Bonds 4,048,125 4,408,300 

Stocks 87,939,422 101,747,648 

Total Pooled Funds 116,860,401 131,113,063 

Nonpooled Endowment Funds : 

Loan to U.S. Treasury in Perpetuity 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Notes Receivable 41,946 41,946 

Bonds 10,000 9,600 

Common Stocks 1,999 12,000 

Land 239,000 239,000 

Total Nonpooled Funds 1,292,945 1,302,546 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances . $118,153,346 $132,415,609 


Unrestricted Purpose: True Endowment $ 3,953,128 $ 5,014,889 

Quasi Endowment 49,312,990 52,728,976 

Total Unrestricted Purpose 53,266,118 57,743,865 

Restricted Purpose : True Endowment 48,031,154 55,770,264 

Quasi Endowment 16,856,074 18,901,480 

Total Restricted Purpose 64,887,228 74,671,744 

Total Endowment and Similar Fund Balances . . $118,153,346 $132,415,609 

Table. 11. Market Values of Pooled Consolidated Endowment Funds 

(In $l,000s) 

Fund 9/30/80 9/30/81 9/30/82 9/30/83 9/30/84 

Unrestricted $28,384 $30,399 $35,974 $ 54,677 $ 56,592 

Freer 20,771 20,472 22,596 32,096 31,125 

Other Restricted 28,175 27,101 30,288 43,911 43,396 

Total $77,330 $77,972 $88,858 $130,684 $131,113 

Table 12. Changes in Pooled Consolidated Endowment Funds 

for Fiscal Year 1984 

(In $l,000s) 

Gifts Inter- Change 

Market and est and Income in Market 

value trans- divi- paid Sub- market value 

Fund 9/30/83 fers dends* out total value 9/30/84 

Unrestricted $ 54,677 $3,083 $2,821 $1,378 $ 59,203 $ (2,611) $ 56,592 

Freer 32,096 — 1,597 1,029 32,664 (1,539) 31,125 

Other Restricted . 43,911 807 2,196 1,413 45,501 (2,105) 43,396 

Total $130,684 $3,890 $6,614 $3,820 $137,368 $ (6,255) $131,113 

•Income earned, less managers' fees of $546,041. 

Table 13. Endowment Funds September 30, 1984 







Avery Fund* $ 131,518 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial 38,243 

Hodgkins Fund* 226,558 

Morrow, Dwight W 228,867 

Mussinan, Alfred 72,528 

Olmsted, Helen A 2,404 

Poore, Lucy T. and George W.* . . . 512,423 

Porter, Henry Kirke, Memorial . . . 846,465 

Sanford, George H.* 3,784 

Smithson, James* 567,676 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary 

Vaux, Research (Designated)* . . 1,322,662 

Subtotal 3,953,128 


Forrest, Robert Lee 3,414,389 

General Endowment* 41,529,143 

Goddard, Robert H 27,020 

Habel, Dr. S.* 524 

Hart, Gustavus E 1,706 

Henry, Caroline 4,225 

Henry, Joseph and Harriet A 170,033 

Heys, Maude C 327,238 

Hinton, Carrie Susan 87,159 

Lambert, Paula C 156,692 

Medinus, Grace L 3,238 

Rhees, William Jones* 2,263 

Safford, Clara Louise 149,209 

Smithsonian Bequest Fund* 677,280 

Taggart, Ganson 1,434 

Abbott, William L. (Designated) . . 402,179 

Barstow, Frederic D. (Designated) . 3,368 
Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace 

History (Designated) 1,563,652 

Lindbergh, Charles A. (Designated) 12,628 
Lyon, Marcus Ward, Jr. 

(Designated) 13,541 

Webb, James E., Fellowship 

(Designated) 766,069 

Subtotal 49,312,990 

Total Unrestricted Purpose $ 53,266,118 


Arthur, James $ 114,851 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 104,163 

Barney, Alice Pike, Memorial 82,338 

Batchelor, Emma E 106,226 

Beauregard, Catherine, Memorial . . 132,066 

Bergen, Charlotte V 11,674 

Brown, Roland W 88,860 

Canfield, Frederick A 117,005 

Casey, Thomas Lincoln 42,299 

Chamberlain, Frances Lea 80,844 

Cooper Fund for Paleobiology .... 83,569 
Division of Mammals Curators 

Fund 6,122 

Drake Foundation 545,928 

Drouet, Francis and Louderback, 

Harold B. Fund 175,273 

Dykes, Charles, Bequest 158,678 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort .... 31,200 

Freer, Charles L 26,702,183 

Grimm, Sergei N 97,990 

Groom, Barrick W 52,723 

Guggenheim, Daniel and Florence . 380,996 

Hamilton, James* 3,815 

Henderson, Edward P., 

Meteorite Fund 1,096 

Hewitt, Eleanor G., Repair Fund . . 22,847 

Hewitt, Sarah Cooper 135,099 

Hillyer, Virgil 22,180 

Hitchcock, Albert S 4,561 

Hodgkins Fund* 104,830 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie 160,959 



































































$ 57,743,865 $1,441,251 $ 147,217 


$ 5,089 

$ 6,138 






























— 0— 




































— — 



— 0— 













Table 13. Endowment Funds September 30, 1984 — continued 







Hughes, Bruce 

Johnson, Seward, Trust Fund for 


Kellogg, Remington, Memorial . . . 

Kramar, Nada 

Lindsey, Jessie H.* 

Maxwell, Mary E 

Milliken, H. Oothout, Memorial . . 

Mineral Endowment 

Mitchell, William A 

Natural History and Conservation . 

Nelson, Edward William 

Petrocelli, Joseph, Memorial 

Reid, Addison T.* 

Roebling Fund 

Rollins, Miriam and William 

Shryock Endowment for Docents . 

Sims, George W 

Sprague Fund 

Springer, Frank 

Stern, Harold P., Memorial 

Stevenson, John A., Mycological 


Walcott, Charles D. and Mary 

Vaux, Research 

Walcott Research Fund, Botanical 


Williston, Samuel Wendell, 

Diptera Research 

Zerbee, Frances Brinckle 



Armstrong, Edwin James 

Au Panier Fleuri 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy 

Becker, George F 

Desautels, Paul E 

Gaver, Gordon 

Hachenberg, George P. and 


Hanson, Martin Gustav and 

Caroline R 

Hunterdon Endowment 

ICBP Endowment 

ICBP — Conservation Endowment . . 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore 

Loeb, Morris 

Long, Annette E. and Edith C 

Myer, Catherine Walden 

Noyes, Frank B 

Noyes, Pauline Riggs 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston 

Ramsey, Adm. and Mrs. Dewitt 


Rathbun, Richard, Memorial 

Roebling Solar Research 

Ruef, Bertha M 

Schultz, Leonard P 

Seidell, Atherton 

Smithsonian Agency Account 

Strong, Julia D 

Witherspoon, Thomas A., Memorial 


Total Restricted Purpose 












































— — 





















— — 

— — 


— 0— 

































— — 




— 0— 












— 0— 

















— — 




























— 0— 
































— 0— 













$ 64,887,228 

$ 74,671,744 







•Invested all or in part in U.S. Treasury or other nonpooled investments. 

•Total Return Income payout; does not include $215,411 of interest income for investn 




To the Board of Regents 
Smithsonian Institution 

We have examined the statement of financial condition of the 
Smithsonian Institution as of September 30, 1984 and the related 
statement of financial activity for the year then ended. Our exam- 
ination was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing 
standards and with generally accepted governmental auditing stan- 
dards and, accordingly, included such tests of the accounting rec- 
ords and such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary 
in the circumstances. We previously examined and reported upon 
the financial statements of the Smithsonian Institution for the 
year ended September 30, 1983, totals of which are included in 
the accompanying financial statements for comparative purposes 

In our opinion, the financial statements for the year ended 
September 30, 1984, referred to above, present fairly the financial 
position of the Smithsonian Institution as of September 30, 1984, 
and the results of its operations and changes in its fund balances 
for the year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted 
accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of 
the preceding year. 

1800 M Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20036 
December 14, 1984 

58 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


Statement of Financial Condition 

September 30, 1984 

(with comparative totals for September 30, 1983) 
(thousands of dollars) 

Trust Federal Totals, Totals, 
funds funds all funds 1983 


Cash on hand and in banks (Note 3) $ 3,827 $ 10 $ 3,837 $ 1,971 

Fund balances with U.S. Treasury (Note 4) 333 69,078 69,411 73,860 

Investments (Notes 1 and 5) 166,806 — 166,806 144,518 

Receivables (Note 7) 45,582 220 45,802 36,778 

Advance payments (Note 8) 697 13,135 13,832 13,490 

Merchandise inventory (Note 1) 8,902 — 8,902 8,459 

Materials and supplies inventory (Note 1) 2,017 1,249 3,266 3,499 
Amount to be provided for accrued annual 

leave (Note 1) — 7,124 7,124 6,690 

Prepaid and deferred expense (Note 1) . . . 11,573 — 11,573 9,668 

Property and equipment (Notes 1 and 9) . . 23,234 184,967 208,201 197,516 

Total assets $262,971 $275,783 $538,754 $496,449 


Accounts payable and accrued expenses, 
including interfund payable of $22,311 

(Note 7) $ 34,889 $ 10,202 $ 45,091 $ 39,096 

Deposits held in custody for other organi- 
zations (Note 2) 3,042 42 3,084 2,187 

Accrued annual leave (Note 1) 1,335 7,124 8,459 7,839 

Deferred revenue (Note 1) 24,815 — 24,815 22,015 

Total liabilities 64,081 17,368 81,449 71,137 

UNDELIVERED ORDERS (Note 1) — 62,597 62,597 56,778 


Unrestricted general purpose 5,086 — 5,086 5,076 

Special purpose 16,105 — 16,105 13,863 

Restricted 9,097 — 9,097 7,671 

Endowment and similar funds (Note 6) . . 118,153 — 118,153 103,009 

Plant funds (Note 9) 50,449 — 50,449 39,242 

Total trust fund balances 198,890 — • 198,890 168,861 

Operating funds — 175 175 75 

Construction funds — 9,427 9,427 18,068 

Capital funds — 186,216 186,216 181,530 

Total federal fund balances — 195,818 195,818 199,673 

Total all fund balances 198,890 195,818 394,708 368,534 

Total liabilities, undelivered orders 

and fund balances $262,971 $275,783 $538,754 $496,449 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements. 

Financial Report I 59 

Statement of Financial Activity 

for the year ended September 30, 1984 

(with comparative totals for the year ended September 30, 1983) 
(thousands of dollars) 


Total trust 

Current and similar 
funds funds 

— $ 






















Revenue and other additions : 

Appropriations, net (Note 10) $ 

Auxiliary activities revenue 114,852 

Federal grants and contracts 14,876 

Investment income (net of $546,000 for 

management and custodian fees) 11,902 

Net gain on sale of securities and real 

property 8,505 

Gifts, bequests and foundation grants 15,089 

Additions to plant 4,054 

Rentals, fees, commissions and other 3,019 

Total revenue and other additions 172,297 

Expenditures and other deductions : 

Research and educational expenditures 31,979 

Administrative expenditures 11,014 

Facilities services expenditures 1,172 

Auxiliary activities expenditures 93,632 

Acquisition of plant 3,797 

Property use and retirements (Note 9) 650 

Retirement of indebtedness 6 

Interest on indebtedness 18 

Total expenditures and other deductions 

Excess of revenue and other additions 
over (under) expenditures and other 
deductions (Note 12) 

Transfers among funds — additions (deductions) : 

Mandatory principal and interest on notes . . 

Nonmandatory for designated purposes, net 

(Note 13) 

Total transfers among funds 

Net increase (decrease) for the year .... 

Returned to U.S. Treasury 

Fund balances at beginning of year 

Fund balances at end of year 




















$ 30,288 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements. 

60 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


all funds 








$ — 



$ 4,500 

$ — 






































4,500 19,079 


13,141 14,393 
































(8,641) 4,686 

























$ 9,427 










$ 50,449 

$ 175 


Financial Report ! 61 

Notes to Financial Statements 

1. Summary of significant accounting policies 

Basis of presentation. These financial statements do not include the accounts 
of the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts or the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, which 
were established by Congress within the Smithsonian Institution (the Insti- 
tuition) but are administered under separate boards of trustees. (See Note 2.) 

The accounts of the federal funds have been prepared on the obligation 
basis of accounting, which basis is in accordance with accounting principles 
prescribed by the Comptroller General of the United States as set forth in 
the Policy and Procedures Manual for Guidance of Federal Agencies. The 
obligation basis of accounting differs in some respects from generally ac- 
cepted accounting principles. Under this basis of accounting, commitments 
of the operating fund, such as purchase orders and contracts, are recognized 
as expenditures, and the related obligations are reported on the balance 
sheet even though goods and services have not been received. Such commit- 
ments aggregated $33,045,000 at September 30, 1984. In addition, construction 
commitments amounted to $29,552,000 at September 30, 1984. 

The trust funds reflect the receipt and expenditure of funds obtained from 
private sources, federal grants and contracts, investment income and certain 
business activities related to the operations of the Institution. The federal 
funds reflect the receipt and expenditures of funds obtained from Congres- 
sional appropriations. 

Fund accounting. To ensure observance of limitations and restrictions placed 
on the use of resources available to the Institution, the accounts of the 
Institution are maintained in accordance with the principles of fund account- 
ing. This is the procedure by which resources for various purposes are 
classified for funds control, accounting and reporting purposes into funds 
established according to their appropriation, nature, and purposes. Separate 
accounts are maintained for each fund; however, in the accompanying finan- 
cial statements, funds that have similar characteristics have been combined 
into fund groups. Accordingly, all financial transactions have been recorded 
and reported by fund group. 

The assets, liabilities, and fund balances of the Institution are reported in 
self-balancing fund groups as follows: 

Trust current funds, which include unrestricted and restricted resources, 
represent the portion of expendable funds that is available for support of 
Institution operations. Amounts restricted by the donor for specific pur- 
poses are segregated from other current funds. 

Trust endowment and similar funds include funds that are subject to 
restrictions of gift instruments requiring in perpetuity that the principal 
be invested and the income only be used. Also classified as endowment 
and similar funds are gifts which allow the expenditure of principal but 
only under certain specified conditions and quasi-endowment funds. 

62 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Quasi-endowment funds are funds established by the governing board 
for the same purposes as endowment funds; however, any portion of 
such funds may be expended. Restricted quasi-endowment funds repre- 
sent gifts for restricted purposes where there is no stipulation that the 
principal be maintained in perpetuity or for a period of time, but the 
governing board has elected to invest the principal and expend only the 
income for the purpose stipulated by the donor. 

Trust plant funds represent resources restricted for future plant acquisi- 
tions and funds expended for plant. Pledges for the construction of the 
Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures are recorded as 
gifts in the plant fund in the period the pledge document is received. 
Federal operating funds consist of separate subfund groups maintained 
for each appropriation — Salaries and Expenses appropriations, which are 
available for obligation in the current year only. Special Foreign Currency 
appropriations and Barro Colorado Island Trust Fund, for which unex- 
pended funds from the current year can be carried forward and obligated 
in subsequent years. 

Federal construction funds represent the portion of expendable funds that 
is available for building and facility construction, restoration, renovation, 
and repair. Separate subfund groups are maintained for each appropria- 
tion — Construction and Improvements, National Zoological Park, Restora- 
tion and Renovation of Buildings, Museum Support Center and the Center 
for African, Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures (Quadrangle). 
Federal capital funds represent the amount of the investment of the 
United States Government in the net assets of the Institution acquired 
with federal funds and nonexpendable property transfers from Govern- 
ment agencies. 
Investments. All gains and losses arising from the sale, collection or other 
disposition of investments and property are accounted for in the fund in 
which the related assets are recorded. Income from investments is accounted 
for in a similar manner, except for income derived from investments of en- 
dowment and similar funds, which is accounted for in the fund to which it is 
restricted or, if unrestricted, as revenue in unrestricted current funds. Gains 
and losses on the sale of investments are recognized using the specific identi- 
fication method, whereby the cost of the specific security adjusted by any 
related discount or premium amortization is the basis for recognition of the 
gain or loss. 

Inventory. Inventories are carried at the lower of cost or market. Cost is 
determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, retail cost method (for 
those inventories held for resale) or net realizable value. 
Deferred revenue and expense. Revenue from subscriptions to Smithsonian 
Magazine is recorded as income over the period of the related subscription, 
which is one year. Costs related to obtaining subscriptions to Smithsonian 
Magazine are charged against income over the period of the subscription. 

The Institution recognizes revenue and charges expenses of other auxiliary 
activities during the period in which the activity is conducted. 

Works of art, living or other specimens. The Institution acquires its collec- 
tions, which include works of art, library books, photographic archives, 

Financial Report I 63 

objects and specimens, through purchase or by donation. In accordance with 
policies generally followed by museums, no value is assigned to the collec- 
tions on the statement of financial condition. Purchases for the collections 
are expensed currently. 

Property and equipment. Capital improvements and equipment purchased 
with trust funds and utilized in income-producing activities are capitalized 
at cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful 
lives of 3 to 10 years. Equipment purchased with trust funds for use by 
non-income-producing activities is treated as a deduction of the current fund 
and a capitalized cost of the plant fund. Depreciation on equipment capital- 
ized in the plant fund is recorded on a straight-line basis over the estimated 
useful life of 3 to 10 years (see Note 9). Equipment purchased with federal 
funds is recorded at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over a 
period of 10 years. 

Real estate (land and buildings) purchased with trust funds is recorded 
at cost, to the extent that restricted or unrestricted funds were expended 
therefor, or appraised value at date of gift, except for gifts of certain islands 
in the Chesapeake Bay and the Carnegie Mansion, which have been recorded 
at nominal values. Costs of original building structures and major additions 
are depreciated over their estimated useful lives of 30 years. Costs of reno- 
vating, restoring and improving structures are depreciated over their esti- 
mated useful lives of 15 years (see Note 9). 

Buildings and other structures, additions to buildings and fixed equipment 
purchased with federal funds are recorded at cost and depreciated on a 
straight-line basis over a period of 30 years. Costs of renovating, restoring 
and improving structures are depreciated over their useful lives of 15 years. 

Certain lands occupied by the Institution's buildings were appropriated 
and reserved by Congress for that purpose and are not reflected in the 
accompanying financial statements. Property and nonexpendable equipment 
acquired through transfer from Government agencies are capitalized at the 
transfer price or at estimated amounts, taking into consideration their use- 
fulness, condition, and market value. 

Government grants and contracts. The Institution has a number of grants 
and contracts with the U.S. Government, which primarily provide for cost 
reimbursement to the Institution. Grant and contract revenue is recognized 
when billable or received in the trust funds. 

Contributed services. A substantial number of unpaid volunteers have made 
significant contributions of their time in the furtherance of the Institution's 
programs. The value of this contributed time is not reflected in these state- 
ments since it is not susceptible to objective measurement or valuation. 
Annual leave unfunded. The Institution's civil service employees earn annual 
leave in accordance with federal law and regulations. However, only the cost 
of leave taken as salaries is funded and recorded as an expense. The cost 
of unused annual leave at year-end is reflected in the accompanying financial 
statements as an asset and accrued liability in the federal funds. 

2. Related activities 

The Institution provides fiscal and administrative services to several separately 

incorporated organizations in which certain officials of the Institution serve 

64 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

on the governing boards. The amounts paid to the Institution by these orga- 
nizations for the aforementioned services, together with rent for Institution 
facilities occupied, etc. totaled approximately $355,000 for the year ended 
September 30, 1984. Deposits held in custody for these organizations are 
$3,029,000 as of September 30, 1984. 

The following summarizes the approximate expenditures of these orga- 
nizations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 1984 as reflected in their 
individual financial statements and which are not included in the accompany- 
ing financial statements of the Institution: 


Visions Foundation, Inc $ 128 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc $6,400 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: 

Trust funds $4,100 

Federal appropriations $2,568 

3. Cash on hand 

Cash on hand — federal funds represents the amount of imprest fund cash 
advanced by the U.S. Treasury to imprest fund cashiers for small purchasing 

4. Fund balances with U.S. Treasury 

The account represents fund balances on the books of the U.S. Treasury 
available for disbursement. 

5. Investments 

Investments are recorded at cost, if purchased, or estimated fair market value 
at date of acquisition, if acquired by gift. At September 30, 1984, investments 
were composed of the following : 

Carrying Market 

value value 

($000s) ($000$) 

Current funds: 

Certificates of deposit $ 12,252 $ 12,254 

Commercial paper 3,949 3,940 

U.S. Government and quasi-Government obligations 33,701 33,084 

Common stock 28 9 

Preferred stock 30 57 

49,960 49,344 

Endowment and similar funds : 

Money market account 12,367 12,367 

Deposit with U.S. Treasury 1,000 1,000 

U.S. Government and quasi-Government obligations 10,028 10,063 

Corporate bonds 5,377 5,786 

Common stock 84,927 99,479 

Preferred stock 3,015 2,282 

116,714 130,977 

Financial Report I 65 







Plant funds : 

U.S. Government and quasi-Government obligations 
Common stock 

Since October 1, 1982, the deposit with the U.S. Treasury has been in- 
vested in U.S. Government securities at a variable yield based on market 
interest rates. 

Substantially all the investments of the endowment and similar funds are 
pooled on a market value basis (consolidated fund) with each individual fund 
subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of the value per unit at 
market value at the beginning of the month within which the transaction 
takes place. Of the total units, each having a market value of $203.92, 293,996 
units were owned by endowment and 348,976 units were owned by quasi- 
endowment at September 30, 1984. 

The following tabulation summarizes changes in relationships between 
cost and market values of the pooled investments: 


Market Cost 

End of year $131,113 $116,860 

Beginning of year $130,684 $101,672 

Increase (decrease) in unrealized net 

gain for the year 

Realized net gain 

for the year 

Total realized and 
unrealized net 
gain (loss) for the year 





per unit 

$ 14,253 








$ (6,254) $ (6.35) 

6. Endowment and similar funds 

Endowment and similar funds at September 30, 1984 are summarized as 

Endowment funds, income available for: 

Restricted purposes $ 48,031 

Unrestricted purposes 3,953 

Quasi-endowment funds, principal and income available for: 

Restricted purposes 16,856 

Unrestricted purposes 49,313 

Total endowment and similar funds $118,153 

66 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The Institution utilizes the "total return" approach to investment manage- 
ment of endowment funds and quasi-endowment funds. Under this approach, 
the total investment return is considered to include realized and unrealized 
gains and losses in addition to interest and dividends. An amount equal 
to the difference between interest and dividends earned during the year and 
the amount computed under the total return formula is transferred to or 
from the current funds. 

In applying this approach, it is the Institution's policy to provide, as being 
available for current expenditures, an amount taking into consideration such 
factors as, but not limited to: (1) 4V2% of the five-year average of the market 
value of each fund (adjusted for gifts and transfers during this period), (2) 
current dividends and interest yield, (3) support needs for bureaus and scien- 
tists, and (4) inflationary factors as measured by the Consumer Price Index; 
however, where the market value of the assets of any endowment fund is 
less than 110"/o of the historic dollar value (value of gifts at date of dona- 
tion), the amount provided is limited to only interest and dividends received. 
The total return factor for 1984 was $6.74 per unit to the Restricted and 
Designated Purpose Endowment Funds and $5.00 per unit to the Unrestricted 
General Purpose Endowment Funds; new units were purchased for the Unre- 
stricted Endowment Funds with the $1.74, the difference in the total return 
factor. The total return applied for 1984 was $2,594,000 to the Restricted 
and Designated Purpose Endowment Funds and $1,226,000 to the Unrestricted 
General Purpose Endowment Funds. 

7. Receivables 

Receivables at September 30,1984 included the following: 


Trust funds 

Accounts receivable, auxiliary activities; net of allowance for 

doubtful accounts of $919,000 $ 9,136 

Interfund receivables due from current funds : 

Endowment and similar funds 1,156 

Plant funds 21,155 

Interest and dividends receivable 2,036 

Unbilled costs and fees from grants and contracts 942 

Pledges 11,102 

Other 55 

Federal funds 

Service fees and charges 220 

Total, all funds $45,802 

8. Advance payments 

Advance payments represent advances made to Government agencies, educa- 
tional institutions, firms and individuals for services to be rendered or 
property or materials to be furnished. 

Financial Report I 67 

As of September 30, 1984, the Institution had advances outstanding to the 
U.S. Government of approximately $10,807,000, principally for construction 
services to be received in the future. The Institution at that date also had 
advances outstanding to educational institutions amounting to approximately 
$1,420,000, principally under the Special Foreign Currency Program. 

9. Property and equipment 

At September 30, 1984, property and equipment which have been capitalized 
(see Note 1) are comprised of the following: 

($000s) ($000$) 


Current funds 

Capital improvements $ 4,452 

Equipment 3,892 

Leasehold improvements 235 

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization (3,832) 

Endowment and similar funds 
Land 239 

Plant funds 

Land and buildings 21,984 

Equipment 2,389 

Less accumulated depreciation (6,125) 

Total, trust funds $ 23,234 


Capital funds 

Property 263,226 

Equipment 24,758 

Less accumulated depreciation (103,017) 

Total, federal funds 184,967 

Total, all funds $208,201 

Depreciation and amortization expense for 1984 for trust funds' income- 
producing assets amounted to approximately $957,000, which is included in 
auxiliary activities expenditures in the current funds. Depreciation of trust 
funds' nonincome-producing equipment and buildings for 1984 amounted to 
approximately $650,000. 

Depreciation expense reflected in expenditures of the federal capital funds 
for 1984 was $11,437,000. 

The balance of the plant fund at September 30, 1984 included $32,201,000 
of unexpended plant funds. 

68 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

10. Appropriations 

For the year ended September 30, 1984, the Institution was awarded 
$12,500,000 for various construction projects. Funds appropriated in the 
prior year for Quadrangle construction were reduced in fiscal year 1984 by 

11. Pension plan 

The Institution has separate retirement plans for trust and federal employees. 
Under the trust fund's plan, both the Institution and employees contribute 
stipulated percentages of salary which are used to purchase individual an- 
nuities, the rights to which are immediately vested with the employees. The 
cost of the plan for the year ended September 30, 1984, was $3,195,000. It is 
the policy of the Institution to fund plan costs accrued currently. There are 
no unfunded prior service costs under the plan. 

The federal employees of the Institution are covered by the Civil Service 
Retirement Program. Under this program, the Institution withholds from the 
gross pay of each federal employee and remits to the Civil Service Retirement 
and Disability Fund (the Fund) the amounts specified by such program. The 
Institution contributes 7% of basic annual salary to the Fund. The cost of 
the plan for the year ended September 30, 1984, was approximately $5,900,000. 

12. Excess expenditures and other deductions 

The net excess of expenditures and other deductions over revenue and other 
additions disclosed for federal construction funds in the Statement of the 
Activity for the year ended September 30, 1984 arose because certain appro- 
priations, having been recorded as revenue and other additions in prior years 
and carried forward as fund balance, were expended during the year. Addi- 
tionally, funds appropriated in the prior year were reduced in fiscal year 1984 
(see Note 10). 

13. Nonmandatory transfers for designated purposes 

The following transfers among trust funds were made for the year ended 
September 30, 1984 in thousands of dollars : 

Current funds 

ment and 

Unre- similar Plant 

striated Restricted funds funds 

Portion of investment yield 

appropriated (Note 6) $(1,466) $(1,353) $2,819 $ — 

Plant acquisitions (3,400) — — 3,400 

Income added to endowment 

principal — (190) 190 — 

Appropriated as quasi-endowment (3,313) (33) 3,347 (1) 

Total $(8,179) $(1,576) $6,356 $3,399 

Financial Report I 69 

14. Income taxes 

The Institution is exempt from income taxation under the provisions of 
Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Organizations described in 
that section are taxable only on their unrelated business income, which was 
immaterial for the Institution for 1984. 

It is the opinion of the Institution that it is also exempt from taxation as an 
instrumentality of the United States as defined in Section 501(c)(1) of the 
Code. Organizations described in that section are exempt from all income 
taxation. The Institution has not as yet formally sought such dual status. 

70 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

at the 

The Office of Public Affairs produced a new brochure. Exploring Your Heritage, 
featuring areas of the Smithsonian Institution of particular significance to 
members of the black community. The brochure was the first effort in a project 
aimed at encouraging visits to the Smithsonian by members of minority com- 

Top: A two-layered geodesic glass dome supports the body of a radiolarian, a 
kind of plankton. The animal's amoeboid body extends through the holes to 
communicate with the outside environment. The geodesic structure is an excel- 
lent means of distributing strength through equidistant trusses. Bottom: This 
radial spray of bladelike crystals belongs to the mineral hemimorphite, zinc sili- 
cate. Both of these were in the National Museum of Natural History's exhibition 
Exploring Microspace, March 16-July 15, 1984. 


Smithsonian Year • 1984 


National Air and Space Museum 

The National Air and Space Museum (nasm) remains the most 
popular museum in the world. On May 24 director Walter J. 
Boyne welcomed the 75 millionth visitor — a thirteen-year-old 
student from Chicago. This spring the museum enjoyed record- 
breaking days of more than 100,000 visitors. Attendance this year 
substantially exceeded that of any previous year since the opening. 

Under the leadership of a new associate director for research, 
NASM staff members continued their efforts to establish the mu- 
seum as the preeminent center for research in the history of air 
and space technology and geophysical science. The first National 
Air and Space Museum Research Report, to be published annually 
beginning in the fall of 1984, highlights the results of staff re- 
search and describes the collections, facilities, and resources avail- 
able to scholars. The Research Report will also promote interest 
in NASM fellowships, chairs, and research programs. 

A new committee structure will help to strengthen the nasm 
research effort. Staff committees assist in planning and implement- 
ing long-range research programs, solicit proposals for new pub- 
lications and research projects, develop ideas for new symposia 
and teaching programs, advise on visiting or contract appoint- 
ments, and recommend courses of action to the director. An ex- 
ternal Research Advisory Committee, composed of leading figures 
in various disciplines appropriate to nasm, will advise and assist 
the museum in developing new programs in history and science. 

Several major historical research programs are under way. Work 


is progressing on a multivolume Smithsonian History of Aviation. 
Scheduled to appear serially between 1986 and 1989, the volumes 
will provide a comprehensive history of flight from antiquity to 
the present. The series will consider not only the development of 
aerospace technology but the role of flight in shaping life in the 
twentieth century. As a part of this effort, major archival collec- 
tion and bibliographic projects are being undertaken. The program 
has also become a focal point for attracting talented interns, fel- 
lows, and visiting scholars to the museum. 

The Space Telescope History Project, a joint undertaking of the 
museum and Johns Hopkins University, will result in a published 
history of the ambitious orbital astronomical observatory of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (nasa). The book, 
to appear the year the Space Telescope is launched, will explore 
political, technological, scientific, and managerial aspects of this 
multi-billion dollar program. 

The Space Telescope History Project also includes an oral- 
history effort involving the collection of more than 100 transcribed 
taped interviews. This is an extension of the Space Astronomy 
Oral History Program, now in its third year. A catalogue of tran- 
scriptions completed to date is available. 

Yet another team project will study the origins of the nasa 
program to orbit a large space station. This effort will not only 
result in a book but also in the identification and preservation of 
papers documenting the development of space exploration. 

Staff members of the Space Science and Exploration Department 
and Aeronautics Department are compiling a bibliography of 
secondary materials on the history of air and space. This will be a 
carefully selected, heavily annotated listing of the most significant 
scholarly works in the field. 

In an attempt to extend the utility of museum resources, steps 
are being taken to explore the opportunities for interaction with 
major institutions of higher learning in the United States and 
abroad. This year a successful cooperative course entitled "Twen- 
tieth Century Technology" was conducted by museum staff in 
conjunction with New York University. Based on this initial effort, 
a pilot course in the history of science and technology, using the 
museum as a learning resource, is being designed and will be 
offered by New York and Oxford universities in 1985. Discussions 
with the University of Cambridge are leading to new areas of 
cooperation, including possible NASM/Cambridge summer projects 
in 1985. 

74 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

In geophysical science, the museum's Center for Earth and 
Planetary Studies continued to advance scientific research in plane- 
tary and terrestrial remote sensing. Orbital remote-sensing re- 
search concentrated on digital image-processing methods for anal- 
ysis of diverse types of data, while terrestrial remote-sensing 
research concentrated on the desert fringe areas in western Africa 
and on the inland delta of the Niger River in Mali. The center also 
continued terrestrial research on interpreting thermal infrared 
data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instru- 
ment on the Nimbus satellites, comparing these data with more 
conventional Landsat images. Under continued support by nasa's 
Planetary Geology program, research into the nature and origin 
of structural features on the surface of Mars was performed 
during 1984. 

Research at the museum was reflected not only in the seventy 
articles written by staff members, but in the museum's active and 
varied publishing program. Tom Crouch's The Eagle Aloft: Two 
Centuries of the Balloon in America received the 1984 Aviation/ 
Space Writers Association national award for best nonfiction book 
and was widely acclaimed as the definitive work on the subject. 
Vengeance Weapon 2: The V-2 Guided Missile, by Gregory 
Kennedy, and an article by Walter Boyne, "Boundary Layer: 
Macho Masochism," received awards from the Aviation/Space 
Writers Mideast Region. Black Wings: The American Black in 
Aviation, by Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, and the exhibi- 
tion booklet Milestones of Flight won awards from the Society 
for Technical Communication, Washington chapter. 

The variety of nasm publications is reflected in the nine new 
titles issued this year. The de Havilland DH-4: From Flaming 
Coffin to Living Legend, by Walter Boyne, is the seventh book in 
the Famous Aircraft of the National Air and Space Museum series. 
United States Women in Aviation, 1920-1929, by Kathleen 
Brooks-Pazmany, became the second in the continuing series on 
U.S. women in aviation. Combat Flying Clothing — Army Air 
Forces Clothing during World War II, by C. G. Sweeting, and 
Winged Wonders: The Story of the Flying Wings, by E. T. Wool- 
dridge, were the first comprehensive works published on those 
subjects in the United States. 

At Home in the Sky: The Aviation Art of Frank Wootton — the 
first art exhibition catalogue to be published by the museum — and 
a style manual for nasm correspondence, publications, and exhibi- 
tion scripts added new dimensions to the publications program. 

Science I 75 

The fifteenth anniversary of man's first landing on the moon was celebrated at 
the National Air and Space Museum with a Lunar Landing Party on the evening 
of July 20. More than 4,000 visitors enjoyed highlights tours, IMAX films, and 
a selection of lunar "touchables." 

Golden Age of Flight, a major new gallery at the National Air and Space 
Museum, is devoted to aviation between the two world wars. Two of the five 
airplanes displayed in the gallery include a reproduction of the Gee Bee Z 
(below), a distinctive aircraft of radical design that epitomized 1930s air racing, 
and the Beechcraft Staggerwing (top), a luxury private and business aircraft. 

Nasm's quarterly Special Presentations Calendar was expanded 
to include broader information on museum programs in a monthly 
format. Nasm also published its first theater booklet, highlighting 
in photos the spectacular footage from the imax films and describ- 
ing the films and the imax process. In addition, five nasm books 
were reprinted this year. Planning is also under way for a new 
series of monographs documenting the origins, historical and tech- 
nological context, and physical characteristics of the space artifacts 
in the nasm collection. 

Important steps were taken to strengthen the museum's archival 
and artifact collections. Staff members and interns inventoried 
thirty-eight separate reference and archival collections on space 
science, using the museum's data processing system as a cata- 
loguing aid. Finding aids were also prepared for two significant 
large collections, the papers of Andrew G. Halley, space law and 
space travel society pioneer; and the papers of the American 
Astronautical Society. In addition, nasm arranged to copy and 
electronically store portions of the Wernher von Braun papers. 

The museum remains a pioneer in the development of new 
archival technologies. The nasm System for Digital Recovery (sdr) 
will advance the art of archiving high-quality reproductions of 
manuscripts, photographs, and printed documents. The sdr com- 
bines a digital camera, a computer, a digital videodisc, a printer, 
and software to store, retrieve, and print all types of historical 
documents. The system also permits automatic indexing of printed 
material. Such new technologies will extend the accessibility and 
utility of the nasm archives and enable staff members to better 
serve the public. 

Nasm produced a second laser videodisc in 1984. Archival 
Videodisc 2, containing 100,000 photographs of aerospace per- 
sonalities and events, airships, balloons, commercial aircraft, air 
meets, trophies, military aviation, aerospace museums, and aero- 
nautical communications supplements the first videodisc, which 
contained aircraft photographs. Archival Videodisc 3, containing 
U.S. Air Force World War II and prewar photographs, is near com- 
pletion. Duplicate discs are available at low cost to other museums, 
educational institutions, governmental agencies, and the public. 

Twelve exhibitions were presented this year. A new gallery. 
Golden Age of Flight, tells the story of the pilots, engineers, in- 
dustrialists, and adventurers who contributed to the phenomenal 
growth of aviation during the period 1919-39. As an adjunct to 
this exhibition, the museum sponsored an art competition. 

78 / Smithsonian Year 1964 

Four major galleries were updated in 1984. Dr. Franklin's Win- 
dow: American Witnesses to the Birth of Flight, a new introductory 
unit for the Balloons and Airships gallery, was opened as part of 
the NASM celebration of the 200th anniversary of the first flight in 
the United States. A Dassault Falcon is the centerpiece of an addi- 
tion to the Hall of Air Transportation, describing development of 
the air express industry. An addition to the Apollo to the Moon 
gallery details the crucial space-age decisions made by The Admin- 
istrators of NASA. At Work in Space, a new unit in the Space Hall 
display, highlights the inflight coveralls of astronauts Guion S. 
Bluford and Sally Ride, donated by America's first black and first 
woman astronauts in space, respectively. 

Smaller exhibitions this year commemorated the aerospace con- 
tributions of German-Americans, on the 300th anniversary of 
Gernian immigration to America, and the first manned crossing of 
the Pacific by the balloon Double Eagle V. The Berlin Airlift was 
the subject of a special exhibition celebrating the centennial of the 
birth of President Harry Truman. 

Major art exhibitions included the works of Robert McCall and 
John Amendola. In the McCall exhibition were many of that 
artist's creative visions of future cities in space, space stamp de- 
signs, and several large-scale murals. The John Amendola show 
featured the commissioned art for many of the nasm book covers. 

Two new presentations were prepared by the nasm staff in 1984. 
The Oldest Dream: A Celebration of Flight, a multi-media show 
using film, slides, and numerous special effects, opened in Novem- 
ber 1983 in the Albert Einstein Sky Theater. Treasures of the 
National Air and Space Museum, a short film on nasm, is being 
shown at the California Museum of Science and Industry in Los 
Angeles and on United Airlines flights. 

The growth and preservation of the nasm collection remains at 
the heart of the museum's program. The first complete restoration 
of a space artifact, the Fairchild ATS-6 spacecraft, is under way at 
the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration and Storage Facility. 
Craftsmen there also completed restoration of the five aircraft for 
the Golden Age of Flight gallery. 

Among the aircraft added to the collections this year were the 
Quickie, a home-built aircraft; the Beck-Mahoney Sorceress, a 
racing biplane; HImat, a nasa research vehicle; the Spirit of Texas, 
the first helicopter to fly around the world; a Republic RC-3 Sea- 
bee amphibian; the MacCready Solar Challenger, which made the 
first solar-powered flight in history; the Hispano HA-200 Cairo jet 

Science I 79 

trainer, acquired from the Egyptian government; and a Grumman 
Goose, a classic amphibian. 

Some of the items added to the aheady impressive nasm collec- 
tion of spacecraft and space instruments were the Baker-Nunn 
satellite tracking camera used to photograph the first man-made 
satellites in 1957 and 1958; the Skylab X-ray telescope, one of 
two major imaging instruments aboard Skylab; and a test model 
of the Pioneer Venus space probe. 

Nasm continued to share its collections through loans to other 
institutions. Objects were lent to the California Museum of Science 
and Industry in time for their special exhibitions during the 1984 
Summer Olympics. Nasm also participated in the Treasures from 
the Smithsonian exhibition in Edinburgh. Three sites (Smithsonian 
Traveling Exhibition Service) exhibitions include objects from the 
NASM collection. In addition, the sites Black Wings exhibition was 
expanded from two to three traveling units. 

In a ceremony held beneath the Wright Flyer in the Milestones 
of Flight gallery, director Walter Boyne accepted one of the orig- 
inal propellers used on the first heavier-than-air powered flight 
from Wilkinson Wright, a grandnephew of the Wright brothers. 
World War I ace Ray Brooks reminisced about flying the SPAD 
XIII at a ceremony at the Garber Facility, where the SPAD XIII 
is being restored. In a ceremony on May 18, the Viking Lander on 
Mars was transferred from nasa into the nasm collection, making 
NASM the first truly interplanetary museum. 

The popular Garber Facility open house held in April attracted 
7,500 visitors. A Lunar Landing Party open house held at nasm 
on the evening of July 20, 1984, drew more than 4,000 people to 
celebrate the fifteenth anniversary of the first landing on the 

A new position of associate director for external affairs was 
established to oversee the museum's publications, education pro- 
grams, theater operations, and public affairs programs, and to 
increase the museum's ties to the academic and business com- 

The Samuel P. Langley Theater continued to be one of the most 
popular attractions in Washington, D.C. Since opening day, July 1, 
1976, the theater has attracted audiences totaling well over thirteen 
million. The award-winning To Fly!, the theater's first imax movie, 
remains its most popular attraction, having drawn audiences of 
more than three-quarters of a million this year alone and more 
than eight million since its first showing. Two evening imax 

80 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The National Air and Space Museum's videodisc project provides scholars and 
researchers access to the museum's vast collection of archival photographs — one 
million in all. Ten discs are planned, each containing 100,000 photographs of 
the aircraft, spacecraft, people, and artifacts associated with the history and 
development of aviation and space flight. 

festivals, featuring Volcano /Behold Hawaii and To fly!, Flyers, 
and Living Planet, were well attended, as were the annual aviation 
and space fiction film series. 

Financial sponsorship was obtained this year for two new imax 
films to be shown in the Langley Theater. Nasm will receive a 
share of the income from the rental of these films, which will be 
seen in theaters worldwide. The Dream Is Alive, sponsored by 
Lockheed Corporation and the Smithsonian Institution, is the first 
large-format film to be shot on location in space. Spectacular film 
footage was obtained by the astronauts using the imax camera on 
the Space Shuttle missions in April and August 1984. Additional 
filming is scheduled for future Space Shuttle missions. The Dream 
Is Alive is expected to premiere at nasm in the summer of 1985. 

The second new imax film. On the Wing, sponsored by Johnson 
Wax, will explore man's fascination with natural and mechanical 
flight. Innovative motion picture techniques will be featured, in- 
cluding the imaginative use of fiber optics and computer graphics. 
This film is expected to open at the museum in the spring of 1986. 

Dr. Paul MacCready, designer of the Gossamer series of ad- 
vanced flying machines, has assembled a team of specialists in 
aerodynamics, mechanical engineering, and paleobiology to study 
the feasibiUty of building, for nasm, a full-scale working replica 
of Quetzalcoatlus northropi, believed to be the world's largest 
flying creature. The dinosaur replica, if built, will be featured in 
the film On the Wing. 

The usual heavy schedule of lectures and symposia continued 
in the Langley Theater in 1984. Lt. Gen. James A. Abrahamson, 
manager of nasa's Space Shuttle Program, offered the seventh 
annual Wernher von Braun Memorial Lecture. The annual Lind- 
bergh lecture featured Jeffrey Quill, whose test flying played a 
prominent role in the evolution of the Spitfire. Nine GE-sponsored 
aviation lectures were well attended. Special presentations in the 
Albert Einstein Sky Theater included seven lectures in the annual 
"Exploring Space with Astronomers" series, the twice-weekly 
"Noontime with the Stars" talks, and the twelve monthly sky 

The three major symposia sponsored by nasm this year offered 
the public an opportunity to hear presentations by the foremost 
contributors to aerospace history and the geophysical sciences. 
"The Wright Flyer: An Engineering Perspective," commemorated 
the eightieth anniversary of the invention of the airplane and 
underscored the technical achievements embodied in the 1903 

82 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Wright Flyer. Papers offered by the five participating engineers will 
be published in the Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space series. 

"The Apollo Legacy/' held on the fifteenth anniversary of the 
Apollo 11 lunar landing, brought together five well-known sci- 
entists and four astronauts to review the scientific impact of the 
Apollo missions. 

"Vertical Flight: The Age of the Helicopter," a symposium held 
in conjunction with the Fortieth Annual Forum of the American 
Helicopter Society, featured presentations on the history and 
future of vertical flight. Selected papers, edited by Walter Boyne 
and Donald Lopez, were published in conjunction with the sym- 

The museum docents maintained a busy schedule, serving more 
than 39,000 visitors this year. Another 24,000 visitors toured the 
Garber Facility. Tours for school children reached 9,000 students. 

President Reagan helped celebrate nasa's twenty-fifth anni- 
versary at NASM. The President also delivered the keynote speech 
at the annual dinner honoring General James Doolittle, held at the 
museum. Vice-President Bush and the Premier of Bermuda, John 
Swan, were honored at a dinner in the Flight and the Arts gallery. 
The Vice-President also introduced the film Air Force One: The 
Planes and the Presidents at a special premiere at the museum. 
Nasm was chosen as the location for a reception in honor of the 
King and Queen of Nepal when they visited the Smithsonian. 

Major steps were taken toward the development of a new nasm 
facility at Dulles International Airport to house and display air 
and space craft that cannot be accommodated at nasm or the 
Garber Facility and to serve as a location for museum functions. 
The Federal Aviation Administration earmarked approximately 
100 acres of land at Dulles for the proposed facility, and bills were 
introduced in both houses of Congress to authorize its construc- 
tion. On April 25, a B-1 7G Flying Fortress flew into the Dulles 
site, and was donated to the museum by its owner and pilot in a 
special ceremony. 

Plans are under way for nasm to be the control center for a 
nonstop, nonrefueled, around-the-world flight attempt of the 
Voyager aircraft designed by Burt Rutan. Nasm is also exploring 
the possibility of being the control center for a nonstop, around- 
the-world balloon flight by the Endeavor, which would begin and 
end in Australia. 

The success of nasm is based on a blending of the new with the 
old — a creative use of modern technology and innovative manage- 

Science I 83 

ment strategies to solve the traditional museum problems of col- 
lection, preservation, and exhibition. In charting the future of the 
museum as a research institution, we hope to develop a similar 
creative approach that will make the priceless resources of our 
collection available to the scholarly community. 

National Museum of Natural History 


Exploring Microspace (March 16-July 15), an exhibition that 
traced the evolution of the microscope from the seventeenth cen- 
tury to the electronic age, and displayed video and photomural 
images of the unseen microscopic world, was one of five immensely 
popular Thomas M. Evans Gallery shows that helped bring a 
record six million visitors to the National Museum of Natural 
History (nmnh) in 1983-84. Live demonstrations of a scanning 
electron microscope and a state-of-the-art optical microscope, 
plugged into TV monitors, made it possible for the public to see 
museum science in action. Organized by curators Drs. Frederick M. 
Bayer, Richard H. Benson, and Richard S. Boardman, with assis- 
tance from the Armed Forces Medical Museum, Dr. Cecil Fox 
of the National Institutes of Health, the James Smithson Society, 
and the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Services (sites), the 
exhibition is now on a two-year tour of museums throughout the 
United States. 

The Art of Cameroon (February 1-June 17), a sixES-organized 
exhibition, surveyed the significance and splendor of one of 
Africa's major art traditions. Ban Chiang: Discovery of a Lost 
Bronze Age (November 2-January 31), organized jointly by sites 
and the University of Pennsylvania, exhibited archeological dis- 
coveries that have changed the prevailing view of Southeast Asia's 
role in the development of civilization. The Precious Legacy: 
Judaic Treasures from the Czechoslovak State Collections (Novem- 
ber 9-January 1) was a sites exhibition of one of the largest and 
most important Judaic collections in the world. Almost 2,000 peo- 
ple a day saw the exhibition weekdays and as many as 3,000 a 
day on weekends and holidays. A ticketing system was set up for 
the first time in the museum's history to prevent long lines from 
forming. Treasures from the Shanghai Museum: 6000 Years of 

84 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Chinese Art (August 11-November 30), the most comprehensive 
major Chinese art exhibition ever to tour the United States, dis- 
played 232 masterpieces from the collections of one of China's 
leading museums. This exhibition was organized by the Asia Art 
Museum of San Francisco in cooperation with the Shanghai 

Rotunda Gallery exhibitions in 1983-84 featured: Roger Tory 
Peterson at the Smithsonian (April 27-September 3), a compre- 
hensive retrospective of Peterson's bird art, marking the fiftieth 
anniversary of his influential book A Field Guide to the Birds (The 
exhibition was organized by curator Dr. Richard L. Zusi); Draw- 
ings of African Mammals (November 14-January 2) by African 
naturalist Jonathan Kingdon; photographs of The Nazca Lines by 
Marilyn Bridges (January 6-April 16); and Thirty Years of Scien- 
tific Illustrations Drawn in the Museum of Natural History (Sep- 
tember 7-November 4), a retrospective of museum scientific illu- 
strator Carolyn Barlett Cast's drawings of fossils, insects, birds, 
and invertebrates. 

Photographic Portraits of North American Indians: A Re- 
creation of the First Photographic Exhibition in the Smithsonian 
Institution (May 28-December 31) consisted of some 259 portraits 
of Native Americans, most of them members of official delegations 
that visited Washington, D.C., from 1857 to 1869, from the col- 
lections of the museum's National Anthropological Archives. The 
exhibition was organized by the archives' Paula Fleming. For the 
celebration of the 100th anniversary of the National Gem Collec- 
tion in 1984, curator John S. White placed on exhibition three 
spectacular new gifts — the 182-carat "Star of Bombay" sapphire, a 
bequest of film actress Mary Pickford; the 318-carat "Dark Jubi- 
lee" opal, donated by the Zale Corporation; and a 168-carat 
emerald pendant, a bequest of Anna Chase Mackay, a former 
Metropolitan Opera soprano. 

In late 1983 the museum opened Fossils Galore: Life in the Early 
Seas, a new highlight in its fossil exhibit complex. Fossils Galore 
marks the beginning of the Paleozoic era, 600 million years ago, 
when the first hard-shelled life appeared, followed by an astonish- 
ing increase in the number and variety of fossilized animals. It 
includes a display of the rare 530-million-year-old fossilized soft- 
bodied animals of the Burgess Shale. One of the Smithsonian's 
greatest scientific finds, these fossils were discovered at a site in 
British Columbia in 1910 by the Institution's fourth secretary, 
(1896-1927), geologist Charles D. Walcott. This marks the first 

Science I S5 

time that a large number of these curious specimens, which pro- 
vide the best information we have on soft-bodied life in the early 
Cambrian seas, have ever been exhibited. Paleobiology collections 
manager Frederick J. Collier organized the exhibition. 


The premiere performance of "The Beadle of Prague," a dramatic 
cantata commissioned in association with the exhibition The 
Precious Legacy, was one of the many special presentations that 
enlivened and added educational strength to Evans Gallery exhibi- 
tions in 1983-84. A four-day festival, featuring dance perfor- 
mances, film presentations, lectures, chefs' demonstrations of 
Chinese cuisine, and programs on calligraphy, kitemaking, paper 
folding, brush paintings, and other traditional Chinese arts, was 
presented to help late summer visitors appreciate the exhibition 
Treasures from Shanghai. Fifty-six special docents were trained to 
give group tours for Evans Gallery exhibitions, serving more than 
13,000 persons. Teachers' workshops were conducted to acquaint 
instructors in area schools with the content of the exhibitions 
Exploring Microspace and Treasures from Shanghai. 

"Wandering Birds in the Southern Ocean," by Dr. George Wat- 
son; "Snorkling and Science in the Sea of Cortez," by Dr. Mark 
Littler; "Native Writings of the Massachusetts Indians," by Dr. 
Ives Goddard; "Fossil Birds and the Polynesian Conquest of Na- 
ture in the Pacific," by Dr. Storrs Olson; "The Elusive Mud 
Dragon and His Kin," by Dr. Robert Higgins; and "Exploring 
Microspace," by Dr. Richard Benson were among the eleven slide- 
illustrated lectures by museum curators on their research and field 
work presented during 1983-84 in the regular free Friday Film 
and Lecture Series. A special holiday film festival featuring out- 
standing natural history films was presented during the Christmas- 
New Year week. 

The Discovery Room, which celebrated its tenth anniversary 
with a week-long program of special events, was visited by more 
than 100,000 persons in family and school groups during the year. 
The Naturalist Center increased its hours, starting in April, dou- 
bling its summer visitorship, and is now open seven days a week. 
Workshops were held to inform high school teachers of the cen- 
ter's resources, significantly increasing student usage. 

Two-hundred-and-eighty-one docents participated in the regular 
school and public programs, providing services to 165,000 persons. 

86 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


New evidence that the hand of man may have had a greater respon- 
sibility than is generally assumed for many extinctions of island 
plant and animal communities in the past 10,000 years was pub- 
lished in 1984 by Dr. Storrs Olson and Dr. David Steadman. With 
colleague Dr. Gregory Pregill, of the San Diego Museum of Natural 
History, they reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy 
of Sciences on their fossil finds on Antigua, Lesser Antilles, where 
they discovered a mass of accumulated fossils in a sediment-packed 
limestone fissure. Radiocarbon dating brackets this material into a 
period between 4,300 years ago, when the island's first human set- 
tlers arrived, and 2,560 years ago. Analysis of the fossil sample 
showed 33 percent of the species to be extinct on Antigua — includ- 
ing lizards, snakes, birds, bats, and rodents — which if extrapolated 
to the total original biota would indicate that man may have eradi- 
cated one-third of the island's fauna. 

Steadman, Pregill, and Olson concluded: "If Antigua is at all 
representative, then the endemic or localized distributions that 
characterize many insular species may actually be more a conse- 
quence of recent habitat degradation than such factors as niche 
partitioning and competition, which are now popularly assumed to 
regulate the kind and even number of species on islands under 
natural conditions." 

Many months of work by ichthyologist Dr. Victor Springer cul- 
minated in early 1984 in the Smithsonian Institution Press publica- 
tion of the hand-colored plates of one of the nineteenth century's 
most outstanding illustrated scientific classics — a monumental atlas 
of Indo-Pacific fishes that is the masterwork of the great Dutch 
ichthyologist Pieter Bleeker. Atlas Ichtyologique des Indes Orien- 
tales Neerlandaises, Plates for Tomes XI-XIV (Atlas of Fishes of 
the Dutch East Indies) contains 150 color plates of Indo-Pacific fish 
fauna — including sharks, rays, blennies, gobies, siganids, and jacks 
— the richest and most magnificent in the world. All profits from 
the sale of this work go into the Leonard P. Schultz Fund, managed 
by Springer and used for research, collection and purchase of fish 
specimens, and exploration and publications relating to fish. 

The museum's Marine Mammal Salvage Program, designed to 
recover data and specimens of marine mammals on the U.S. Atlan- 
tic Coast that would otherwise be lost to science, has been in opera- 
tion since 1972, and is yielding an enormous amount of data bear- 
ing on migratory patterns, size, and distribution of populations. 

Science I 87 

and eating and breeding habits. After recovering an average of 50 
to 100 or more stranded animals a year, with a high of 200 in 1977, 
the stranding frequency fell into a puzzling lull from 1980 through 
1983 with only five to ten recoveries each of these years. In Septem- 
ber 1984 the lull ended with a sudden influx of strandings reported 
on the coast of Virginia and North Carolina: an Antillean beaked 
whale, only the fortieth ever reported in the scientific literature, 
stranded at Bogue Banks, N.C.; three Risso's dolphins came ashore 
on Ocracoke Island, N.C.; and seven bottle-nosed dolphins strand- 
ed in the Virginia Beach area. Program director Dr. James Mead 
tentatively hypothesizes that the fluctuation in strandings can be 
explained by changes in the distribution of marine mammals rela- 
tive to onshore currents. Data on these strandings were reported in 
the department's U.S. Marine Mammal Stranding Report, issued 
quarterly to the scientific community. 

Gigantism and dwarfism provide fascinating opportunities for 
the study of evolutionary patterns and mechanisms. Among the 
three squirrels, "giants" occur in three different lineages on three 
continents, and pygmy squirrels have similarly evolved indepen- 
dently on three different continents. Mammalogist Dr. Richard 
Thorington is attempting to understand what factors have caused 
these squirrels to be large or small and how these size changes are 
accomplished. Among his 1983-84 case studies were field reports 
on the ecology, behavior, and anatomy of one of the largest tree 
squirrels in the world, the Malabar squirrel of India, which weighs 
four to five pounds, and the fox squirrels of the southeastern United 
States, the largest tree squirrels in North America. 

As part of his overall study, Thorington is looking into the origin 
and significance of intriguing anatomical parallels between both the 
pygmy and giant arboreal squirrels and primates. The objective is 
to study cases in which evolution has repeatedly followed similar 
paths, and to examine the developmental and ecological constraints 
that may have led to such parallel evolution. Both the smallest 
monkeys and smallest tree squirrels have some behavioral and bio- 
logical similarities. Giant tree squirrels would seem to have little in 
common with the giant ceboid monkeys of South America — the 
spider and howling monkeys — yet they have parallel specializations 
of the shoulder musculature, which suggests that allometry (factors 
controlling the relative growth of a body part in proportion to the 
entire body) places similar constraints on large squirrels and large 

88 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Peter J. Harmatuk (right) shows Dr. Richard Fiske, director of the National 
Museum of Natural History, some fossil shark teeth he collected at the Lee 
Creek Mir\e in North Carolina. (Photograph by Doc Dougherty) 


Because so little is known about the biology, natural relationships, 
and distributions of a large percentage of the insect life in South 
America's vast tropical rain forests. National Museum of Natural 
History entomologists go there as often as possible to collect speci- 
mens. In January, February, and March 1984, they joined scientists 
from throughout the world in the first detailed multidisciplinary 
biological investigation of Cerro de la Neblina, one of the largest 
and highest of the unexplored mesas (tepuis) in southern Vene- 
zuela's vast "Lost World" wilderness region. Rising 7,500 feet to a 
forested plateau and then onward to a 10,000-foot-high cloud- 
covered peak, Neblina, the "Mountain of the Mists," is a remnant 
of a vast eroded tableland that covered the region hundreds of mil- 
lions of years ago. High vertical cliffs, deep canyons, and steep rock 
slopes isolate the mountain's high plateau and peak from the rain 
forests that surround its base, creating an "island in the sky" en- 
vironment where flora and fauna have evolved that do not exist 
anywhere else on earth. 

Airplane and helicopter support was provided for the expedition 
by the sponsoring Venezuelan organization, the Foundation for 
the Development of Physical, Mathematical and Natural Sciences. 
Expedition coordinator and leader Dr. Charles Brewer-Carias ar- 
ranged to fly groups of scientists, including the Smithsonian's Don- 
ald Davis, Robert Robbins, Oliver Flint, Jerry Louton, and Vicki 
Funk, and U.S. Fish and Wildhfe scientists Roy McDiarmid and 
Mercedes Foster, to San Carlos, a tiny military settlement on the 
northern reaches of the Rio Negro, one of the major tributaries of 
the Amazon. Loading their equipment into dugout canoes powered 
by outboard motors, they were taken downriver to another outpost, 
from which they were flown by helicopter across fifty miles of un- 
broken, uninhabited rain forest to a base camp at the base of the 

From this site, collecting forays were made by scientists into 
Neblina's lowland forests and major river canyon. Davis, Louton, 
Funk, McDiarmid, and Foster were among those taken by heli- 
copter up to the wind- and rain-swept plateau where they set up 
temporary camps and collected insects, plants, animals, and birds 
in the scrub- and forest-covered boggy terrain. The plateau proved 
as taxonomically enlightening as the scientists had hoped; a high 
percentage of the plants and insects have structural peculiarities 
reflecting their genetic isolation and sebsequent changes in form 

90 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

resulting from their isolated habitat. Tens of thousands of insects 
were collected and are now being sorted and prepared for study. 
The participation of U.S. scientists in the expedition was sponsored 
by the Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Research Fund and the 
National Science Foundation. Important assistance was provided by 
the Institute of Tropical Zoology, Central University of Venezuela, 
Caracas; the Institute of Agricultural Zoology, Central University 
of Venezuela, Maracay; and the Venezuelan National Herbarium. 
The exploration of Neblina is expected to continue into 1985. 

At Tambopata, Peru, a wildlife reserve in the Amazon basin 
lying within what many biologists believe is the richest forest 
region in the world. Dr. Terry L. Erwin is studying the insect life 
of the tropical forest canopy — one of the last unexplored biotic 
frontiers on earth. In 1983-84 he completed four seasonal surveys 
in the preserve, using an insecticidal fog to collect a million insect 
specimens from the treetops of five different forest types within the 
reserve. Erwin's preliminary data show that ^7 percent of the tropi- 
cal-canopy insects are restricted to a specific forest type, and that 
about 13 percent are confined to mostly one species of tree, a find- 
ing that he believes has practical implications for the preservation 
of tropical wildlife. He estimates that there are as many as 200 
types of tropical forests, and to preserve the incredible diversity of 
insect life they hold (possibly as many as 50 million species), as 
many forest types as possible should be represented when reserves 
are established — not just ones that make convenient picnic areas 
for tourists. Working with Dr. Erwin, to help him document, gain 
an understanding, and preserve the flora and fauna of this rich 
region are scientists from the Smithsonian and other major institu- 
tions in the United States, along with students and professors at 
the Peruvian universities of La Molina and San Marcos in Lima and 
from the universities at Callatena and Cuzco. 

Among the other entomological collecting activities in South 
America in 1983-84: coleopterist Dr. Paul J. Spangler brought back 
more than 25,000 insects — including numerous new species — from 
the Takutu Mountains of Guyana, an expedition sponsored by 
EARTHWATCH; Dr. Johnathan Coddington collected arachnids and 
myriapods in Venezuela and Trinidad; and Dr. Wayne Mathis 
made a major collection of shore flies from Peru, Colombia, and 

Science I 91 


Capitalizing on opportunities to make large documented collections 
of fossils is an important priority for National Museum of Natural 
History paleobiologists. At a huge open-pit mine on the south 
bank of the Pamlico River, near Aurora, North Carolina, seventeen 
years of collecting work led by the museum has established the 
site as one of the richest known fossil deposits in the world, and 
made possible the greatest single advancement ever in knowledge 
of middle Atlantic Coastal Plain paleontology. 

The first of three large volumes of research papers on the site 
was pubhshed in September 1983 by the Smithsonian Institution 
Press. Geology and Paleontology of Lee Creek Mine, North Caro- 
lina (Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, No. 53), edited 
by Dr. Clayton E. Ray, contains fourteen papers on Lee Creek 
geology and paleontology, and a biography by Dr. Frank C. Whit- 
more, Jr., of the late Dr. Remington E. Kellogg, a marine mammal 
authority and former director of the Smithsonian's U.S. National 
Museum, to whom the three volumes are to be dedicated. It was 
Kellogg who initiated Smithsonian studies at the Texasgulf-owned 
mine in 1967 after he received a small collection of vertebrate 
fossils from geologist Jack E. McClellan. 

Scientists have studied curious Middle Atlantic Coast vertebrate 
fossils since colonial times, but before the Lee Creek Mine existed 
there was no way to learn about deposits in the critically impor- 
tant Miocene and Pliocene Yorktown and Pungo Formations in 
North Carolina, except through limited information that could be 
gleaned by drilling. Aware that the Lee Creek Mine presented a 
research opportunity that must be exploited, Kellogg enlisted col- 
leagues at the Smithsonian, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other 
scientific institutions, asking them to look into Lee Creek material 
pertaining to their specialties and to collect at the site. The result 
was that a trickle of fossils soon became a torrent; the mine to 
date has yielded one of the largest fossil sea bird faunas in the 
world; a superb collection of true seals, as well as an abundance of 
new and different species of whales; and a remarkable assemblage 
of sharks and bony fish, extensive enough to be considered the 
essential reference for reconstructing the history and development 
of the modern Western Atlantic fish fauna. 

Although no small amount of this material was gathered by 
scientists, the single most important and productive collector at 
the Lee Creek Mine for the Smithsonian over the past seventeen 

92 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

years has been Peter J. Harmatuk. For years, every weekend or 
day off, Harmatuk drove the thirty miles from his home in Bridge- 
ton, North Carolina, to Lee Creek, where he spent countless hours 
roaming the piles of recently excavated dirt, looking for fossils. In 
1975 he retired early from his successful career as a factory man- 
ager so that he could pursue paleontological fieldwork for the 
Smithsonian more intensively. Dr. Ray writes: "He has collected 
with unflagging enthusiasm more fossils of more kinds for science 
than anyone who has ever worked the middle Atlantic Coastal 
Plain, discovering specimens unprecedented in kind, quantity, or 
quality. If one ever needed a reminder that paleontology tradi- 
tionally has been and remains largely a field science, the enjoy- 
ment and advancement of which is open to everyman to the extent 
of his ability, effort, and interest, Peter Harmatuk provides irre- 
futable proof." 

Dr. G. Arthur Cooper, paleobiologist emeritus, was awarded the 
Penrose Medal, the highest honor given to American geologists, 
at Geological Society of America meetings in Indianapolis, in 
October 1983. Cooper, in his fifty-fourth year at the museum was 
cited for "being the world's foremost expert on brachiopods; for 
being an inspirational teacher to generations of young paleontolo- 
gists, for building a national collection of brachiopods and other 
invertebrate fossils that is unparalleled in the world and for apply- 
ing his rich knowledge of fossil lore to the resolution of geological 

Research geologists Drs. Ian G. Macintyre and Kenneth M. 
Towe continued their investigation into the thousands of projec- 
tions — resembling stalactites — that coat the ceiling of a huge, un- 
charted limestone marine cave off Belize, Central America. The 
projections, caused by the extensive precipitation of magnesium 
calcite, have no known counterpart in any other marine environ- 
ment in the world. In 1983-84 experiments were carried out that 
will assist in establishing the role that bacteria play in the origin 
of the carbonate precipitations. Large schools of fish frequent the 
cave opening, fifty feet below the sea surface, including sharks 
that rest on the cave floor and on ledges in the ceiling. Macintyre 
and Towe believe that these fishes and sharks release organic 
wastes that upon decaying produce by-products that are respon- 
sible for the precipitation. 

Science I 93 


The luxuriant coniferous forests, meadows, and alpine slopes of the 
Altai Mountains in southwestern Siberia are similar in many ways 
to the vegetation of the Rocky Mountains. Dr. Stanwyn G. Shetler 
in mid-1983 took part in a joint Soviet-American botanical expedi- 
tion that explored this region of Asia — traveling by horseback to 
reach the most rugged mountainous areas. The trip is believed by 
Dr. Thomas Elias of the New York Botanical Garden, the U.S. 
Team leader, to be the most important field expedition American 
botanists have made in the USSR in modern times. One of the ex- 
pedition's objectives in the Altai Mountains was to expore jointly 
with Soviet botanists the relationship between the plants of these 
central Asian mountains and the plants of the Rocky Mountain 
region of North America. During the second half of the expedition, 
the field party visited the western Sayan Mountains in the Tuvan 
Autonomous Republic, a wilderness where American botanists had 
never collected before and where they studied the resemblances be- 
tween this region's plants and those of Alaska and boreal North 

The expedition, organized by the Main Botanical Garden in 
Moscow and the Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk, 
was the eighth U.S. plant collection on Soviet territory under the 
auspices of a special bilateral exchange program begun in 1976. 
The U.S. botanists returned with about 5,000 specimens, repre- 
senting 400-500 species, which were divided more or less equally 
between the Smithsonian, the New York Botanical Garden, and 
the University of Alaska. The material represents an invaluable 
collection of Siberian plants that will now be available in North 
America to all future workers. Shetler was able to collect speci- 
mens of most of the species of bellflowers (family Campanulaceae) 
native to southern Siberia, and these collections and observations 
will contribute greatly to his ongoing studies of this plant family. 

Dr. Dan H. Nicolson spent two months in the summer of 1984 
in southwestern China (Yunnan Province) collecting plants as one 
of four Americans on a Sino-American exchange program. The 
group did most of its collecting in the Cang Shan mountain range 
west of the ancient walled city of Dali, about 400 kilometers 
west of Kunning, the capital of Yunnan, on the Burma Road. More 
than 19,000 specimens were collected. All collections were divided 
equally between China and the United States, the Smithsonian 
receiving one-third of the U.S. duplicates. The flora involved (Sino 

94 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

(Himalayan) is the richest temperate flora in the world and is of 
great interest, not only to scientists, but to horticulturists. Four 
Chinese botanists are scheduled to come to America in 1985 as part 
of the exchange program worked out between the Academia Sinica 
and the National Science Foundation. 

In other Chinese related research, the museum's Dr. Thomas 
Soderstrom is working with Dr. Julian Campbell of the University 
of Kentucky on the classification of the complex bamboos of 
Sichuan. It is in the wilds of Sichuan that the last surviving popu- 
lation of giant pandas live — feeding on various bamboos. Both 
scientists are trying to improve our general knowledge of these 
Sino-Himalayan bamboos, so important to the survival of the giant 

In 1983-84 the museum became one of six multinational spon- 
soring organizations of a long-term project to produce a flora of 
Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Nearly a dozen museum 
botanists — coordinated by Dr. Richard Cowan — will be involved. 
The University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, will be the admin- 
istrative center for the program. Other participants are the 
Botanischer Garten and Museum, West Berlin; the New York 
Botanical Garden; the Natural History Museum of Paris; and the 
overseas research arm of the French Government. 

Botanists Dr. Mark M. Littler, Diane Littler, Dr. James Norris, 
and Katina Bucher made a surprising discovery in 1984 while sur- 
veying the marine plant life off San Salvador Island, Bahamas, in 
a research submersible with colleagues from the Harbor Branch 
Foundation, Inc. Exploring an uncharted seamount at a depth of 
880 feet, they found it covered with a calcareous form of red 
algae, establishing a new maximum depth record for photosyn- 
thetic plant life on earth. In the past it was thought that light 
penetration in the ocean was insufficient for sustainable plant 
growth below 100 fathoms (600 feet). The discovery indicates 
that the role of macroalgae in deep-water oceanographic processes 
is much greater than previously believed. 


The oral traditions of the older Mayan men and women who live 
in Chiapas, Mexico, are being lost as elderly people carry their 
knowledge to the grave. Many of the younger Mayans are literate 
in Spanish — but increasingly ignorant of their ancient culture. 
After Indian participants in a 1982 anthropology conference at 

Science I 95 

San Cristobal, Chiapas, expressed concern over this loss, ethnolo- 
gist Dr. Robert Laughlin began organizing and overseeing a 
writer's cooperative dedicated to preserving Mayan Indian culture. 
The "House of Writers" is composed of six members, represent- 
ing the Tzotzil towns of Chamula and Zinacantan, and the Tzeltal 
towns of Oxchuc and Tenejapa. Laughlin, who for many years 
has studied Mayan civilization and is the author of a dictionary 
of Tzotzil, a language spoken by more than 200,000 Mayan 
Indians, prepared alphabets in Tzotzil and Tzeltal for use by the 
group and edited the first five bilingual illustrated booklets of 
history and folklore published by the cooperative in 1983-84 at 
the State of Chiapas Press. The books are now being distributed 
in the communities. The project has the backing of Mexico's 
National Indian Institute. 

The museum's Human Studies Film Archives, the only national 
organization dedicated to collecting and preserving motion picture 
and video documentation of world culture, now has 1.5 million 
feet of footage, including some of the most important anthropo- 
logical film collections formerly in private hands. In 1983-84 alone, 
the archives received in trust more than 900,000 feet of film, in- 
cluding John Marshall's substantive documentation of the Kung 
bushmen of southern Africa, footage of the Yanomamo Indians 
of Venezuela and Brazil by Timothy Asch and Napoleon Chagnon, 
and Allison and Marek Jablonko's research films of the Maring 
people of the Papua New Guinea highlands. 

Arctic, volume 5 of the Handbook of North American Indians, 
was published in January 1985. The sixth volume in the series 
to be completed, it describes the Arctic people and all Eskimo 
groups from Siberia to Greenland. Research and editing on the 
Great Basin (volume 11) are underway. All Handbook volumes 
are in print, with more than 55,000 copies sold. The series is under 
the general editorship of William C. Sturtevant. 

Dr. Herman Viola, director of the museum's National Anthro- 
pological Archives, produced a lavishly illustrated overview of the 
treasures of The National Archives of the United States, in honor 
of the National Archives' fiftieth anniversary. Dr. William Trous- 
dale, curator of Far Eastern Archeology, edited an English memoir 
of nineteenth-century Afghanistan that provides a valuable chron- 
ical of the political events of the time as well as interesting infor- 
mation on Afghan archeology, history, and industry. Drawing 
heavily on the museum's Tibetan collections. Dr. Paul Taylor, 
curator of Asian Ethnology, organized an exhibition for the Smith- 

96 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

soman's Renwick Gallery celebrating the Tibetan Yak. This animal 
occupies a central position in Tibetan life — somewhat as the bison 
did for America's Plains Indians — not only as a source of meat and 
milk protein and of wool, hide, and horn for tents, clothing, and 
utensils, but also as the pack animal on which the country's trade 
depends. Taylor was also instrumental in the acquisition of the 
large private library of the late Professor John M. Echols, an 
authority on Indonesian languages and developer of Cornell Uni- 
versity's Southeast Asian Studies program. This single purchase 
helps fill in a serious gap in Smithsonian Asian Ethnology library 

Major new archeological excavations were undertaken in 1983- 
84 by Dr. Dennis Stanford at the classic Clovis paleolndian arche- 
ological site at Blackwater Draw in eastern New Mexico. Core 
samples taken in 1983 determined that the site had not been com- 
pletely destroyed, as feared, by twenty years of commercial gravel 
mining in the area; extensive Clovis, Folsom, Agate Basin, and 
Cody archeological deposits remain and are now being explored 
by Stanford and geologist Vance Haynes (University of Arizona) 
and other experts in the field of paleontology, palynology, and 
soil analysis. 

Two months of archeological surveys in Labrador in 1983-84 
by Dr. William C. Fitzhugh provided a much clearer picture of 
how early Maritime Archaic peoples lived. Evidence of early 
single-family round or oval pithouses dug into boulder beaches 
were found by Fitzhugh on the islands of Aillik, Big Bay, Natsa- 
tuk, Karl Oom, Immilikuluk, and other locations. Excavation of 
several of these sites produced diagnostic implements and radio- 
carbon samples that should provide keys to the early develop- 
mental sequence of this period (ca. 6500-4500 BP). 

Dr. Gus Van Beek returned for the eleventh year to Tell 
Jemmeh, in Israel's western Negev Desert, where he excavated two 
areas representing a crucial but unknown period in Philistine cul- 
ture history (tenth to ninth century B.C.), recovering a fine series 
of burnished red slip pottery that came from four successive 
occupation periods and that should make it possible to trace the 
development of pottery forms and decorative techniques during 
this century. 

Physical anthropologist Dr. Donald J. Ortner in July 1984 began 
a detailed and comprehensive study of 300 bone specimens in the 
museum's human skeletal collections that exhibit pathological con- 
ditions of special significance. The three-year study, supported by 

Science I 97 

a National Institutes of Health grant, is expected to shed light on 
the origins and development of disease — and its relations to en- 
vironmental and cultural factors — both of which remain important 
in the treatment of disease today. 


Over the past fifteen years the scattered fragments of possibly as 
many as 1,000 meteorites, preserved in the Antarctic polar ice cap 
for as long as ^A million years, have been found by U.S. and 
Japanese expeditions. This amazing scientific bonanza amounts to 
more than 25 percent of the total number of meteorites collected 
on earth in the past 200 years. Drs. Brian Mason and Roy S. 
Clarke have been charged for the past eight years with the respon- 
sibility of characterizing and describing the largest portion of the 
U.S. Antarctic material. Mason, a specialist in the mineralogy of 
chondrite and achondrite meteorites, the types mostly found in 
Antarctica, in 1983-84 published in the Antarctic Meteorite News- 
letter descriptions of 151 specimens, including several distinctively 
new and unusual mineralogical types. Clarke, a specialist in the 
much more scarce iron meteorites, published on three new speci- 
mens. This basic analytical work is opening up new vistas of 
knowledge on the composition of parent meteoritic bodies, and 
laying the groundwork for other important discoveries. For ex- 
ample, scientists now believe there is evidence that the flux of 
meteoritic types received by the earth may have changed over geo- 
logic times. Some of the meteoritic material under study by Mason 
and Clarke was found by Dr. Robert Fudali, who has accompanied 
two recent National Science Foundation-funded U.S. expeditions 
to Antarctica. On last year's trip Fudali and six other scientists 
logged more than 800 miles on snowmobiles during forty-two 
days at remote stations on the polar plateau west of the Trans- 
antarctic mountains, collecting more than 300 meteorites and me- 
teorite fragments, including several rare carbonaceous chondrites. 
Dr. Kurt Fredriksson is interested in developing more sensitive 
equipment for quantifying chondrite meteorite trace element con- 
tent and ratios. Collaborating with a group of scientists working 
at the Max Planck Institute, Mainz, West Germany, in 1983-84, 
he worked out an ion probe technique for this purpose that is 
more sensitive than standard electron microprobe analysis. Fred- 
riksson presented his findings at the 9th Symposium on Antarctic 
Meteorites in Tokyo. 

98 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Museum volcanologists in 1983-84 carried on research focusing 
on various aspects of global volcanism. In his quest to understand 
how volcanoes develop and grow. Dr. Tom Simkin is looking at 
submerged seafloor volcanoes, which are many times more numer- 
ous than those above sea level. Diving in the research submersible 
Alvin, at depths of 1 to 3 kilometers in June 1984, Simkin investi- 
gated several young volcanoes on the Pacific floor with shapes 
similar to the Galapagos Islands volcanoes, 1500 kilometers to the 
south, that he has studied for years. These volcano shapes, al- 
though uncommon among oceanic islands, are now being recog- 
nized in many detailed seafloor studies, and Simkin's dives pro- 
duced evidence that they form in much the same way as their 
Galapagos equivalents. 

Dr. Richard Fiske, director of the National Museum of Natural 
History, is involved in a long-term project at the Soufriere volcano 
of St. Vincent, British West Indies, which erupted violently in 
1979, and is expected to erupt again before the end of this cen- 
tury. In June 1974 Fiske and his colleagues installed a new "tilt" 
station on the southwestern slopes of the volcano that will make it 
possible to determine with reasonable precision the location of 
swelling caused by subterranean lava surges. The project objective 
is to develop an inexpensive, low-tech monitoring system that can 
be used by Third World nations to determine when potentially 
dangerous volcanoes will erupt. 

Arenal, a highly explosive Costa Rican volcano, has been under 
study by Dr. WiUiam Melson since its last major eruption in 1961. 
Last year Melson started fieldwork on an intensive combined 
volcanological and archeologic study of Arenal Volcano's tephra 
apron. The work has revealed that Arenal's first major explosive 
eruption occurred about 1000 B.C. Repeatedly, the region was re- 
inhabited by Indians, and the study is making it possible to pre- 
pare a remarkably precise chronology of their cultural changes 
from the frequent catastrophic burial of habitation sites. This work 
is being carried out with Payson Sheets, University of Colorado 
at Boulder, and, in addition to Smithsonian funding, it has received 
support from the National Science Foundation and National Geo- 
graphic Society. 

Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects was pub- 
lished in December 1983 by the Smithsonian Institution Press. 
Volcanologists Tom Simkin and Richard Fiske, coauthors with 
Sarah F. Melcher and Elizabeth Nielsen, in 1983-84 gave more 
than a dozen Krakatau talks to both scientific and lay audiences 

Science I 99 

in the United States, Canada, Japan, and Holland. The great inter- 
est in the eruption — the most famous volcanic catastrophe in re- 
corded history — was also evident in the extraordinarily rapid sales 
of the book. 


Concern over the high prevalence of cancer in fish living in chem- 
ically contaminated bodies of water, and the potential human 
health hazard posed by consuming these fish, using the water, or 
being associated with production of the polluting chemicals, fo- 
cused attention in 1983-84 on the museum's Registry of Tumors 
in Lower Animals. The registry, created and funded by the Na- 
tional Cancer Institute, has for eighteen years been the only clear- 
ing house in the world for information on the phenomena of 
cancer in fish and other vertebrate and invertebrate coldblooded 

Working out of an office and laboratory in the Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology, director John Harshbarger and his staff 
maintain a specimen depository of more than 5,000 specimens 
from the United States and forty other countries. Every week, new 
material arrives for examination. In the past year, Harshbarger 
studied, diagnosed, and described 450 cases of disease. Reports of 
these diagnostic studies were entered into the registry's com- 
puterized databank and circulated to scientists throughout the 
world. Among the cases Harshbarger studied last year with various 
collaborators were tumors in the liver and other organs of a feral 
population of sauger and walleye fishes inhabiting Torch Lake in 
Michigan, which is heavily polluted by chemicals and residues of 
copper mining; liver and skin cancer in brown bullhead catfish 
from the industrially polluted Black River, Ohio; and liver cancer 
in tomcod fish from the Hudson River. Testifying in October at a 
congressional subcommittee hearing on the growing incidence of 
tumors and cancers in polluted waterways, Harshbarger recom- 
mended the initiation of systematic and regular surveys of fish 
populations in waterways throughout the nation to help locate 
dangerous sources of pollution so that sport fishermen and con- 
sumers will be able to determine if the fish and shellfish they 
catch, buy, and consume come from contaminated areas. 

Spectacular video footage documenting never-before-seen be- 
havior patterns of deep-water echinoderms was compiled in April 
1984 by the museum's Dr. David Pawson, Dr. Porter Kier, and 

100 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Dr. Gordon Hendler, and Dr. John Miller of the Harbor Branch 
Foundation, Inc. In the third in a series of dives carried out by the 
four scientists over the last year off the Bahama Islands in the 
Harbor Branch research submersible, Johnson-Sea-Link-II, descents 
were made as deep as several thousand feet along the sometimes 
steep underwater slopes, to investigate the deepwater echinoderm 
fauna — starfish, sea urchins, brittlestars, basketstars, sea cucum- 
bers, feather stars, and sea lillies. The rich, diverse echinoderm 
fauna in this area has never been explored firsthand until now, 
although scientists have long known about the animals living 
there, as a result of collections made more than a century ago with 
the help of dredges. The dredges, however, often brought up dead, 
damaged specimens, which gave little information on the animals' 
deUcate structures, behavior, or lifestyle. But the highly mobile 
Harbor Branch submersible, outfitted with sophisticated collecting 
equipment, can pluck animals from the rugged sea floor slopes 
and bring them back alive in nearly pristine condition. Eighteen 
dives were made on the April cruise, each lasting about three to 
five hours. 

Approximately eighty species of echinoderms — 500 specimens 
in all — were collected; at least twenty of these new to the scien- 
tists' survey list. To date, the Bahamas survey has yielded nearly 
120 deepwater species, some new to science, and thousands of new 
specimens for Smithsonian and Harbor Branch collections. In addi- 
tion, hours of color videotape footage and hundreds of still photo- 
graphs were shot. Detailed analysis of the specimens and film is 
now in progress. 


Several major collections of plankton were received in 1983-84 
from the western North Atlantic, northern Caribbean, and the 
eastern Gulf of Mexico, and interesting collections of fishes and 
benthic invertebrates were also taken from the Gulf of Alaska 
and the Caribbean. During the year the sosc staff prepared 135 
shipments containing 51,916 specimens for shipment to sixty-three 
specialists and to five permanent repositories. Staff research proj- 
ects included Dr. Frank Ferrari's work at the California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game's Laboratory in Stockton, studying a 
small copepod accidentally introduced from the Yangtze River 
delta in China into the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta in Califor- 
nia; and Dr. Gordon Hendler's series of experiments at Carrie Bow 
Cay concerning the ability of brittlestars to change color. 

Science I 101 


Numerous scientists from various organizations of the Smith- 
sonian^ joined by colleagues from other institutions, visited the 
museum's Marine Station at Link Port, near Ft. Pierce, Florida, in 
1983-84 to conduct research on a wide variety of topics in marine 
sciences — from sedimentology and the spectral quality of under- 
water light to systematic, ecological, reproductive, and behavioral 
studies. The museum's Dr. Robert P. Higgins and Dr. Reinhardt 
Kristensen, a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow affiliated with the 
University of Copenhagen, carried out a dredging and coring sur- 
vey of the meiofauna living in the sediments of a ten-square-mile 
area off the coast of Ft, Pierce at depths of ten to fifteen meters. 
Both scientists are authorities on the systematics and life histories 
of meiofauna — diminutive multicellular organisms adapted to liv- 
ing in spaces between grains of sediment and sand on ocean floors 
and beaches. The fact that these organisms represent a relatively 
unexplored biological frontier was underscored in October 1984 
when Kristensen announced the discovery and description of a 
new meiofaunal phylum — Loricifera. It was only the third time in 
this century that a new phylum has been added to the animal 
kingdom, bringing to thirty-nine the total of these high-level 
classification groups. 

Loricifera — less than one-hundredth of an inch in length — is 
distinguished from the four other meiofauna phylum by a mouth 
apparatus that consists of a flexible tube that can be telescopically 
retracted into the animal. It also has clawlike and clubshaped 
spines on its head that help keep it firmly attached to the sedi- 
ment. Kristensen has documented the animal group in sea-bottom 
samples from waters off France, Greenland, the South Pacific, and 
the Atlantic coast of the United States. At Link Port he and 
Higgins collected a wide range of meiofauna, including larval and 
molting loriciferan specimens that yielded significant new informa- 
tion on the life histories of this recently recognized phylum. 

Among the other studies in 1983-84 were research on gastropod 
systematics by the museum's Richard S. Houbrick; a study of the 
reproductive biology of brooding ophiuroids by Dr. Maria Byrne, 
a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow; and an investigation of the life 
history of the rock boring barnacles by Joseph Dineen, a Univer- 
sity of Maryland graduate student. Dr. Judith Winston, American 
Museum of Natural History, and Dr. Eckart Hakansson, Univer- 
sity of Copenhagen, continued their study of the life histories and 

102 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Johnson-Sea-Link II, still attached by ropes and crane to its mother ship, the 
R/V Johnson, prepares to embark with National Museum of Natural History 
and Harbor Branch Foundation scientists in search of echinoderms in the Ba- 
hamas. (Photograph by Jeff Tinsley) 

population ecology of two free-living species of bryozoans. Elec- 
trophoretic enzyme studies by the museum's Dr. Kristian Fauchald 
on a species of polychaete from both sides of the Florida peninsula 
demonstrated apparent inherent differences in morphologically ex- 
tremely similar populations. The museum's Dr. Raymond B. Man- 
ning and Darryl L. Felder, of the University of Southwestern 
Louisiana, conducted a study of parasitic peacrabs (pinnotherids), 
which live in burrows of mud shrimps (pinnotherids). Dr. Anson 
Hines, of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, studied 
the growth patterns of four xanthid crabs that differ in size at 

A study of the behavior of amphipods by the museum's Dr. 
J. L. Barnard and James D. Thomas, of the Newfound Harbor 
Marine Institute, stressed the function of appendages, individually 
and cooperatively in performing such tasks as tube building, 
grooming, and feeding and in inter- and intraspecific confronta- 
tions. With the help of time-lapse photography, supervised by 
Kjell Sandved, the museum's scientific photographer, the tube- 
building behavior of two amphipod species was documented with 
special attention to the production and manipulation of silk strands 
by the appendages to form the tubes. 


The first full year of operation of the Museum Support Center 
(msc) has been marked by the staffing of key positions, the im- 
plementation of special policy procedures governing pest control 
and inventory management, the installation of a sophisticated 
electronic security system, and the first phase of construction of 
the collection storage equipment. In addition, the initial move of 
both people and collections into the center took place. The Na- 
tional Museum of American History was the first to formally 
take occupation of assigned space, bringing in the first collection 
object, a harpsichord, for conservation treatment. Next, the Con- 
servation Analytical Laboratory moved to the Support Center, 
vacating its former quarters in the Museum of American History. 
Subsequently, the National Museum of Natural History established 
its botany plant-mounting lab, paleobiology sedimentology lab, 
and vertebrate zoology histology lab at msc. An acarologist asso- 
ciated with the National Institutes of Health and working in affili- 
ation with the museum's Department of Entomology has moved 
his entire lab, including his scanning electron microscope and his 

104 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


significant reference collection of ticks, from Montana into the 

Until permanent storage systems are completed, msc has been 
able to provide limited temporary storage for collection materials 
from Natural History, as well as special space for use by the 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service and the Museum of 
African Art. Preparations are currently underway to accommodate 
the needs of the new Sackler Gallery and the Center for Asian 
Art, which will use space at msc loaned to them by the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology until the new Quadrangle building is ready. 
The Support Center was honored in a local competition sponsored 
by the regional power companies for being one of the best de- 
signed and constructed new buildings in the area as regards energy 

National Zoological Park 

In fiscal year 1984 the National Zoological Park (nzp) continued 
its commitment to education, science, recreation, and conservation 
through animal exhibits, symposia, publications, research with the 
collection, and research and breeding of endangered species. These 
programs were accomplished through the combined efforts of the 
Office of Animal Programs, the Office of Support Services, and the 
Office of the Director. 


There were many notable changes in the animal collection of the 
National Zoological Park, including significant births and deaths 
as well as major acquisitions. In late November 1983, Ling-Ling, 
the female giant panda, was critically ill with a serious kidney 
infection with associated anemia. After successful treatment by the 
veterinary staff, Ling-Ling's condition improved so dramatically 
that she had a normal heat cycle in the spring. On March 19, 1984, 
Ling-Ling mated twice with Hsing-Hsing and became pregnant. 
After a gestation period of 139 days, she gave birth, but her cub, 
a male weighing 5.3 ounces, was stillborn, as a result of a bacterial 

Many of the rare and endangered species maintained by the 
National Zoological Park produced offspring during this period. 
The second spectacled bear cub was born and the Cuban croco- 

Science I 105 

diles laid twenty-nine eggs, many of which hatched, for the first 
time at the National Zoo. The first pygmy hippo in seven years 
was born. There were also births to the grey seals, sea lions, golden 
lion tamarins, maned wolves, scimitar-horned oryx, Pere David's 
deer, titi monkeys, red pandas and Goeldi's monkeys. Several es- 
tablished breeding programs of the departments of Ornithology 
and Herpetology continued with hatchings by Ruddy ducks, Lay- 
san teal, white-winged wood ducks, white-naped cranes, Stanley's 
cranes, rufous beaked snakes, giant day and leopard gekkos, and 
red-footed and leopard tortoises. A total of 1,233 births and 
hatchings were recorded for calendar year 1983 by the National 
Zoo, which ended that year with 2,932 animals in its collection. 

The major animal acquisition in fiscal year 1984 was an infant 
Asiatic elephant presented to President Reagan on June 18, by 
the president of Sri Lanka. The elephant, named Jayathu, was a 
Zoo favorite, with a personality that charmed many zoogoers. Un- 
fortunately, she contracted a serious digestive problem and died 
on August 30, despite massive efforts by the veterinary and keeper 
staff. Other significant acquisitions included black palm cockatoos 
from Malaysia, birds of paradise from New Guinea and green- 
winged macaws. Two new research projects were initiated on 
species completely new to the National Zoo's collection. In col- 
laboration with the Duke Primate Center, the National Zoo suc- 
cessfully reproduced western tarsiers, acquired from Malaysia, for 
the first time. Tarsiers have been little maintained or exhibited in 
zoos because of their delicate and noctural nature. Field studies 
are to be conducted on behavioral ecology in order to develop a 
more comprehensive understanding of the biology of tarsiers. 

Dr. Eugene Morton traveled to Guam and returned with four 
Guam rails, a species disappearing from the island with astonish- 
ing rapidity. In spearheading an attempt to breed Guam rails in 
captivity. Dr. Morton hopes that the decline of the species on 
Guam can be reversed and that captive-bred rails can be reintro- 
duced to the island. Eggs have already been laid and hatched by 
this endangered species. Many other bird species on Guam are 
endangered as well, and nzp will also be participating in a captive- 
breeding program for the Guam kingfisher. 

Several other staff members are deeply involved in national and 
international captive-breeding programs for endangered species, 
including Dr. Katherine Ralls and Jonathan Ballou, who represent 
the National Zoo on the iucn's Survival Service Commission's Cap- 
tive Breeding Specialist Group. Dr. Devra Kleiman and Ballou 

106 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The first of the "Pennies for Pandas" is contributed by a District of Columbia 
public school student with the assistance of Mrs. Nancy Reagan and Pvussell 
Train, head of the World Wildlife Fund, outside the National Zoo's panda yard. 

maintain the International Studbook for Golden Lion Tamarins, 
while Scott Derrickson has become nzp's representative for the 
Bali Mynah Propagation Group, with Guy Greenwell as special 
advisor in management. Nzp is deeply involved in formulating 
plans to reintroduce the Bali mynah to Indonesia, using captive- 
bred stock. Other Species Survival Plan programs underway in- 
clude those for gorilla, black rhino, and Indian rhino. 

The animal inventory is in the process of being completely com- 
puterized, which will ease nzp's ability to maintain records and 
retrieve information. Currently, all bird transactions are recorded 
directly into the computer; ultimately, nzp hopes to be able to 
communicate directly with the International Species Inventory 
System (isis) in Minnesota through the Smithsonian computer 

The outdoor furniture in the giant panda yards was completely 
replaced in a unique effort that involved nzp staff and more than 
400 volunteers from the Friends of the National Zoo. Included in 
this building effort were swings, platforms, feeding trees, tires, 
and other wooden sections designed to encourage greater activity 
in the giant pandas. 

The Department of Animal Health (dah) continues to strive for 
furthering veterinary care of the animal collection at both Rock 
Creek Park and the Conservation and Research Center (crc) in 
Front Royal, Virginia. The clinical staff participates in research 
and development of techniques; conducts postgraduate training; 
publishes extensively; and attends and leads continuing educa- 
tion — all in an effort to further zoological medicine. 

International involvement is exemplified by the participation of 
Drs. Mitchell Bush and David Wildt in reproductive and im- 
mobilization studies in South Africa; presentations at international 
scientific meetings; and involvement in ongoing field studies such 
as the Golden Lion Tamarin Project in Brazil. 

Reproductive research continues in endocrinology and the de- 
velopment of techniques in the areas of semen and embryo collec- 
tion, transfer, and cryopreservation. These programs are conducted 
by Dr. Wildt and his graduate students in collaboration with the 
National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute, and 
the Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences. 

Ongoing clinical research, intended to be directly applicable to 
veterinary care, includes studies of Mycobacterium ssp. in hoof- 
stock, rabies prophylaxis and vaccination response in nearly all 
species of mammals, monoclonal killed canine distemper vaccines. 

108 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

appropriate anthelmintics for reptilian parasites, and adrenal re- 
sponse to immobilization and surgical manipulation in selected 
primate, ungulate, and carnivore species. 

Veterinary facilities at crc are under construction to provide that 
facility with a fully equipped animal hospital to provide surgical, 
hospitalization, and clinical laboratory support for that portion of 
the animal collection. 

The computerization of the dah medical records is proving in- 
valuable in maintaining medical histories of individual animals, 
allowing retrospective studies of health conditions, and providing 
a monitor for preventative health care for the entire collection. 

The Department of Pathology actively engages in applied re- 
search and teaching as important spinoffs of the diagnostic ser- 
vices that are provided to the zoo collection. Research centers 
around the disease problems that exist in the collection, with 
emphasis on the development of prophylactic measures against 
infectious diseases and parasites that affect the animals. 

This department maintains a very active residency program, 
teaching pathology of zoo animals as a unique specialty at the 
postgraduate level to veterinary pathology residents from the 
Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and to an in-house pathology 
resident as well as instructors from various veterinary colleges. 

Research, supported by the Charles Ulrich and Josephine Bay 
Foundation, through the American Association of Zoo Veterinar- 
ians, to study viral diseases in zoo animals, has continued to be 
most productive. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
and the Department of Animal Health have collaborated with us 
in studies that have led to new information about the use of 
canine distemper, parvovirus and rabies vaccine in certain zoo 
animals. Nzp has also continued collaborative research of the rac- 
coon rabies epizootic that has occurred in the southern and middle 
Atlantic states and has engaged in joint studies concerned with 
epizootiologic aspects with the National Park Service, the Univer- 
sity of the District of Columbia, and the Centers for Disease Con- 
trol. Information from more than three years of monitoring the 
epizootic as it moved from Northern Virginia to Washington, 
D.C., was presented at the North American Symposium on Rabies 
in Wildlife, held at Johns Hopkins University in the fall of 1983. 

Another ongoing project has been studying the effect of intra- 
venous avian tuberculin on the hemogram of tuberculous and non- 
tuberculous quail (Coturnix coturnix), which was funded by the 
Friends of the National Zoo (fonz). 

Science I 109 

Pasteurella multocida has been identified as the cause of an out- 
break of septicemic deaths in southern potoroos (Potorous api- 
calis), in which the organisms acted as an opportunist during peri- 
ods of stress associated with aggression in the potoroo colony. 
The syndrome resembled pasteurellosis of rabbits in which the 
pasteurella organism is introduced by a carrier animal and becomes 
overt during stressful periods. 

New projects include iron metabolism studies in rock hyrax 
(Procavia capensis) with hemachromatosis, and its possible asso- 
ciation with gastric grassanemiasis, and the identification and 
epizootiologic aspects of equine herpes virus (ehv-1) that was 
recovered from an aborted onager (Equus hemionus onager) fetus 
and implicated in a neurologic syndrome of a yearling zebra 
(Equus hurchelli). A retrospective study of sera that had been 
banked from various equidae at Rock Creek Park and Front Royal 
indicated exposure of most of the zebras to ehv-1 at both sites as 
early as two years prior to the abortion. There were, however, no 
recognizable clinical signs such as the upper respiratory infections 
that occur frequently in domestic horses in any of the zebras or 
onagers. The herpes virus isolated from the onager fetus was 
identified as a unique subtype by virologists at the University of 
Kentucky, Lexington, and is being further studied. 

Dr. Richard J. Montali attended an international symposium on 
the diseases of zoo animals in Brno, Czechoslovakia, and delivered 
a paper on reproductive strategies in zoo animals coauthored with 
Drs. Wildt and Bush of the Department of Animal Health. Dr. 
Montali also attended the Primate Pathology Workshop in San 
Francisco and presented a paper on special disease problems in 
folivorous monkeys and their implication on the management of 
these highly specialized primates in captivity. He lectured on gross 
lesions of zoo animals at a C. L. Davis Foundation for Veterinary 
Pathology session and presented a four-hour seminar at the Cen- 
ters for Disease Control in Atlanta on the pathology of zoo 


There were a variety of continuing and new research projects at 
the National Zoo. One of the more exciting involved the rehabili- 
tation and training of captive-born golden lion tamarins prior to 
their reintroduction in the Po(;o das Antas Reserve in Brazil. Dr. 
Devra Kleiman accompanied fifteen golden lion tamarins to the 
Rio de Janeiro Primate Center in November 1983. Both before and 

110 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

after their arrival in Brazil, Dr. Benjamin Beck, Dr. Kleiman, and 
several Brazilian students worked with these animals to train 
them in techniques of foraging for, finding, and exposing new 
foods. At the same time. Dr. James Dietz has been working on 
the behavioral ecology of wild golden lion tamarins in Brazil in 
order to determine their feeding habits, home range and move- 
ments, and social organization. As part of the Golden Lion Tam- 
arin Reintroduction Project, Lou Ann Dietz has been coordinating 
a local and national educational program in Brazil concerning con- 
servation of golden lion tamarins. 

Dr. Rudy Rudran held another successful wildlife management 
training course at the crc with students from Peru, Sri Lanka, 
China, Nigeria, and Malaysia. Dr. Rudran also conducted wildlife 
management training courses in Brazil and visited Argentina and 
Venezuela to follow up on previous studies. Dr. Morton continued 
his research program on the evoluation of animal vocal communi- 
cation, welcoming Eyal Shy from the Edward Grey Institute in 
Oxford to initiate a research project on the function of bird song. 
He has initiated a major work on the evolution of animal com- 
munication in collaboration with Kimberly Young. Dr. Morton and 
Dr. Russell Greenberg continued collaborative studies on the de- 
velopment of feeding behavior in migratory warblers, relating the 
differences in behavioral development in species to their feeding 
adaptations as adults. 

Dr. Katherine Ralls continued her studies of sea otter behavioral 
ecology and held a workshop on the Genetic Management of 
Captive Populations at Front Royal, assisted by population man- 
ager Jonathan Ballou. Lisa Forman initiated studies on the genetics 
of golden lion tamarins and dorcas gazelle, in collaboration with 
Dr. Stephen O'Brien at the National Institutes of Health genetics 
laboratory. These will be the first studies in which pedigrees of 
known captive populations are compared with the actual degree of 
biochemical heterozygosity. 

Dr. Steven Thompson joined the National Zoo as a postdoctoral 
fellow to initiate studies of the comparative energetics of eutherian 
and marsupial mammals, with a National Science Foundation grant 
and a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellowship. He will be collaborat- 
ing with Dr. Martin Nicoll, a postdoctoral fellow with Dr. Edwin 
Gould, concerned with the behavioral ecology and metabolic rates 
of conservative mammals such as tenrecs. The research will focus 
on the changes in the metabolism of marsupials and eutherian 
mammals during the course of the reproductive cycle. 

Science I 111 

Dr. John Gittleman, postdoctoral fellow with Dr. Kleiman, con- 
tinued his work on red panda development and vocalizations. He 
also collaborated with Dr. Olav Oftedal in a study of behavioral 
development and lactation in black bears, conducted on wild black 
bears in Pennsylvania. Dr. Oftedal and Dr. Daryl Boness con- 
tinued fruitful collaborations, with work on the hooded seal lacta- 
tion and milk composition being initiated on the ice floes off the 
southeastern coast of Labrador. They have discovered that hooded 
seals have the shortest lactation period of any mammal. They also 
continued their long-term studies of behavioral development and 
lactation in the California sea lion in California, with the assis- 
tance of Dr. Katherine Ono. Mary Allen continued her studies 
of insect-eating animals and captive diets. 

Dr. John Seidensticker continued the Field Studies Programs 
at CRC, concentrating on the dispersal and foraging behavior of 
raccoons, in collaboration with Dr. James Hallett and Dr. Margaret 
O'Connell. Theodore Grand expanded his studies of functional 
morphology of mammals with a comparison of the morphology 
of several ungulate species as it relates to their ecology. 

The animal collection of the Department of Zoological Research 
was involved in several programs, including studies of marsupial 
and eutherian energetics and also of the basic reproductive biology 
and management of several little-known forms. Miles Roberts and 
the keeper staff completed several papers for publication, one of 
them on the captive reproduction and management of the little 
known rock cavy. 

Fred Koontz completed his University of Maryland Ph.D. thesis 
on the behavior of captive elephant shrews. Susan Lumpkin and 
Devra Kleiman initiated a project to develop a series of books on 
the Management of Wild Mammals in Captivity, to be published 
by the University of Chicago Press. 

Dr. Gould continued his analysis of regurgitation in gorillas 
and stereotyped behaviors in zoo animals; he also visited Malaysia 
to initiate field studies there. Dr. Wolfgang Dittus and Anne 
Baker-Dittus continued their long-term study of the Tocque ma- 
caques of Sri Lanka; she is concentrating on behavioral develop- 
ment and differential maternal investment and he is concentrating 
on long-term demographic data for this uniquely well-known 
population as well as on their social structure and communication 

Dr. Dale Marcellini and Tom Jenssen continued collaborative 
work on lizard behavioral ecology in the Caribbean area, looking 

112 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

In July 1984 the first 
Cuban crocodile was 
hatched at the National 

The National Zoo's 
Smokey Bear tries out 
his new "feeder" tree, 
which automatically dis- 
penses food pellets and 


both at the evolution of display patterns and interspecific com- 
petition. Dr. Christen Wemmer traveled to Asia to pursue his 
studies of the morphology and breeding of captive elephants, while 
developing the Smithsonian research program in Nepal, deriving 
from the long-term tiger studies. Dr. Wemmer has also been con- 
tinuing his interest in the behavior and ecology of the Cervidae, 
and Dr. Michael Stuwe is conducting in-depth studies of the 
behavior of white-tailed deer at crc. 


Four American zoos (National, Los Angeles, New York, and San 
Diego) are attempting to develop a cooperative project with the 
WildUfe Department of Sabah, East Malaysia, for the captive 
propagation, as well as field research and protection, of proboscis 
monkeys. Dr. Gould is serving as the project coordinator. An im- 
portant part of the project will be to help Sabah develop a propa- 
gation center for proboscis monkeys and eventually a wildlife park 
at the Sepilok Orang Sanctuary near Sandakan. 

The National Zoo joined the American Association of Zoological 
Parks and Aquariums (aazpa) consortium to save the Sumatran 
rhino. Dr. John Frazier went to India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldive 
Islands to survey turtle-nesting areas as part of the marine turtle 
conservation program. Dr. Seidensticker was a consultant for the 
World Bank in developing guidelines for elephant conservation 
within the context of major agricultural and forestry development 
projects. The National Zoo received a grant from Resources for 
the Future to assess the impact of habitat change on indigenous 
wildlife populations at the Conservation and Research Center. 
Dr. Rudran conducted a seven-week Wildlife Conservation and 
Management Training course at crc, where thirteen biologists 
from developing nations took part. 

Prior to the summer course. Dr. Rudran conducted wildlife con- 
servation courses for fourteen students in Brazil and nine students 
in Venezuela, and supervised field projects in Argentina that were 
initiated in 1982. 

Drs. Ralls and Siniff received a grant to study the ecology, be- 
havior, and conservation of California sea otters. In Nepal, Smith- 
sonian conservation efforts have broadened from the former tiger 
project to include a more inclusive study of the terai ecosystem. 
Dr. Wemmer is senior research coordinator for the new Smith- 
sonian Institution Nepal Terai Ecology Project. In 1984, Drs. 

114 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Mishra and Dinerstein initiated research on the effects of fire and 
mammalian herbivores on terai forest succession. In December 
1983 Drs. Robinson, Wemmer, Gould, Seidensticker, Rudran, Sun- 
quist, and Frazier, along with David Kessler, participated in the 
"Bombay Natural History Society Centenary Seminar on Conser- 
vation of Wildlife in Developing Countries." Dr. Wemmer con- 
sulted with members of the iucn Asian Elephant Group in India 
and initiated efforts to investigate the population biology of cap- 
tive elephants in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, and Nepal. The 
National Zoo joined a breeding consortium with eleven other in- 
stitutions and private aviculturists to establish a self-sustaining 
captive population of black palm cockatoos. 

Charles Pickett went to Pakistan on behalf of the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service and the Pakistan Department of Forestry to con- 
sult on the establishment of a national zoo in Islamabad and to 
promote crane conservation. He traveled throughout the country, 
meeting with conservation officials and presenting lectures on 
crane conservation, captive breeding, and current research needs. 
During the same trip, he visited the Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary in 
India and participated in the annual census of endangered Siberian 
crane. Joan Smith began monitoring the captive population of 
white-winged wood ducks in the United States as studbook liaison 
for the Wildfowl Trust, Slimbridge, England. Dr. Scott Derrickson 
continued to serve on the Whooping Crane Recovery Team and 
consulted with a number of institutions in the United States 
and abroad concerning crane propagation and reintroduction 

Jon Ballou was appointed aazpa studbook analyst for the Bali 
mynah, and is completing a genetic and demographic analysis of 
the U.S. captive population in preparation for a propagation/ 
reintroduction program in Indonesia. Drs. Kleiman, Seidensticker, 
Morton, and Derrickson, along with Judith Block and Messrs. 
Greenwell and Ballou, are currently cooperating with the aazpa, 
the iCBP, and the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry in the planning, 
coordination, and implementation of this important conservation 

The most significant event in the bird collection this year was 
the successful breeding and hatching of the Guam rail. Other sig- 
nificant hatchings of birds included: Darwin's rhea, Aleutian 
Canada goose, white-winged wood duck, Laysan teal, white-naped 
cranes, and Bali mynah. 

Specimens of the following endangared species were born this 

Science I 115 

year: giant panda, Goeldi's marmoset, golden lion tamerin, maned 
wolf, clouded leopard. Eld's deer, Persian onager, and Przewalski's 
horse. Of note was the ninety-eighth Fere David's deer fawn and 
the eighty-eighth scimitar horned oryx calf born at crc. Six sable 
antelope calves were born in the new, large-scale breeding pro- 
gram with this species at Front Royal. 


The National Zoo's Office of Education completed two major proj- 
ects in 1984: writing Families, Frogs, and Fun, the final report on 
the three-year National Science Foundation grant for HERplab, a 
learning laboratory in the Zoo's Reptile House; and, with the sup- 
port of the Friends of the National Zoo, organizing a week-long 
workshop for zoo educators on conservation in zoos. 

The HERplab project, begun in 1981 to develop model family 
educational activities that other zoos could duplicate, ended July 
31, 1984. The book Families, Frogs, and Fun describes how the 
project grew, explains the underlying philosophy, and shares what 
was learned in the process. The hope is that it will guide col- 
leagues who want to start or renovate a learning lab, as well as 
stimulate thoughts of others interested in families and in learn- 
ing or in creating interactive exhibits. 

The Zoo Educators' Workshop, held May 14-18, 1984, brought 
together educators from five U.S. zoos to look for new ways to 
reach visitors with the message of conservation. Conservation and 
the Zoo Visitor documents this workshop; it reports notes from all 
talks and details the process of developing objectives and projects. 
Limited copies of both Conservation and the Zoo Visitor and 
Families, Frogs, and Fun are available through the Office of 

School programs and tours continued to be extremely success- 
ful. One original program on reptiles and amphibians began for 
prekindergarten through sixth grades, using the HERplab facilities 
and some of its activities. Guides ask questions and encourage 
careful observation and discussion among students to promote 
appreciation of reptiles and amphibians. 


Renovation of the Monkey and Elephant Houses was completed 
in October and November of 1983, respectively. Both provide 
additional facilities for animal management and public viewing. 

116 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Construction of Olmsted Walk, which is designed to enhance 
and preserve the natural and historical character of the zoo, is 
beginning in the fall of 1984. It will encompass a series of small 

At the Conservation and Research Center, a veterinary hospital 
is being constructed. It should be ready to provide for the con- 
tinued health and welfare of the animals at crc by April 1985. 
A new west wing to crc's Small Animal Facility will be completed 
by the winter of 1984. 

Updating of fire protection devices, security monitoring, and 
occupational health standards by the Office of Police and Safety 
has resulted in a substantial decrease in reported accidents and 
crime and improved health conditions of personnel and animals 
during fiscal year 1984. 

The Office of Graphics and Exhibits (oge) completed the design 
and fabrication of Smokey Bear's feeder tree, and Dr. Michael 
Robinson officially welcomed the public to the exhibit on July 25, 
1984. A seven-panel exhibit on the return of captive-bred golden 
lion tamarins to their native habitat in Brazil was dedicated in 
early August. Photos of Nepal were exhibited in June. 

A new system of public information was implemented and 
"building closed" signs were standardized. The first Zoo Staff 
Directory was distributed in June. Design was completed on a 
fundraising brochure for the crc wildlife conservation training 
program. Serving in a support capacity, oge assisted the Zoo sym- 
posia, Summerfest, fonz (Friends of the National Zoo) nights, the 
panda furniture project, poster exhibits, and the Sunset Serenades. 


After thirty years of dedicated service to the Smithsonian, Dr. 
Theodore H. Reed, Senior Adviser for Animal Programs and for- 
mer director of the National Zoological Park, retired effective 
July 3, 1984. On May 21, 1984, Dr. Michael H. Robinson, former 
deputy director of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 
was appointed director of the National Zoological Park. 

On July 12, 1984, Dr. Devra G. Kleiman assumed the duties of 
assistant director for Zoological Research and Educational Activi- 
ties and Dr. Christen Wemmer was appointed assistant director 
for Conservation and Captive Breeding Programs. Also on July 
12, Dr. Scott Derrickson was appointed curator of birds allowing 
Dr. Eugene Morton to resume his position as zoologist attached 
to the Department of Zoological Research. 

Science I 117 

The Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) celebrated its twenty-fifth 
birthday in 1983 with expanded programs and increased grants 
to assist Nzp in education, conservation, and research projects. 
Fonz has grown from a few neighborhood supporters and a $15 
treasury in 1958 to a 50,000-member organization with forty full- 
time employees and an annual budget of more than 4 million dol- 
lars. Some $400,000 was committed to NZP-directed wildhfe studies. 

A principal part of fonz support is the dedicated core of 530 
volunteers who each year spend 45,000 hours to staff a dozen 
different educational programs that serve tens of thousands of 
zoogoers. This year, 104 volunteers spent 1,650 hours conducting 
an around-the-clock watch on the giant pandas. 

Recent emphasis on fundraising efforts has produced a bequest 
brochure and staging of the first National ZooFari dinner-dance 
benefit to launch the Theodore H. Reed Animal Acquisition Fund. 

Financial information for calendar year 1983 is detailed below. 
In addition, a percentage of the FONz-run food, shop, and parking 
services is available to the Smithsonian for the benefit of the 
National Zoo and is reported as income in the Financial Report 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 


Financial Report for the Period 

January 1-December 31, 1983 

[In $l,000s] 

Net increase/ 

(decrease) to 

Net revenue Expenses fund balance 

FUND BALANCE @ 1/1/83 $1,193 


Membership $ 566 $ 481 85 

Publications 140 135 5 

Education ^ 72 598 (526) 

Zoo Services ' 3,789 3,134* 655 

Totals $4,567 $4,348 $ 219 

FUND BALANCE @ 12/31/83 $1,412* 

1 Excludes services worth an estimated $276,399 contributed by FONZ volunteers. 

^ Includes gift shops, parking services, and food services. 

•■' Includes $430,586 paid during this period to the Smithsonian Institution under contractual 

* Net worth, including fixed assets, to be used for the benefit of educational and scientific 
work at the National Zoological Park. 

118 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Office of Fellowships and Grants 

The Office of Fellowships and Grants (ofg) continued to serve as 
a Smithsonian link with scholarly organizations throughout the 
world, encouraging research by individuals horn universities, mu- 
seums, and research organizations in the fields of art, history and 
science. Scientists and scholars are placed throughout the Smith- 
sonian to utilize the unique resources available, as well as to inter- 
act with the professional staff. At present, two major activities are 
managed and developed by this office : Academic Programs and the 
Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program. 

Academic Programs at the Smithsonian support and assist visit- 
ing students and scholars. Opportunities for research are provided 
at Smithsonian facilities, to be conducted in conjunction with staff 
members. Residential appointments are offered at the under- 
graduate, graduate, and professional levels. 

The Institution further enhances the quality of its research and 
extends its scholarly reach through the Smithsonian Foreign Cur- 
rency Program (sfcp). This program offers grants to the Smith- 
sonian and other scholarly institutions in the United States to 
conduct research in a limited number of foreign countries where 
"excess currencies" are available. It is particularly effective in 
strengthening the "increase and diffusion of knowledge" on an 
international scale. 


Academic Programs at the Smithsonian complement programs 
offered at universities. The national collections and the curators 
who study them are unparalleled resources not available anywhere 
else. At the Smithsonian, historical and anthropological objects, 
original works of art, natural history specimens, living plants, 
animals, and entire ecosystems are available for study. Educational 
experience is enhanced by combining university training with field 
research — and the breadth of field opportunities at the Smith- 
sonian is unmatched. 

The Office of Fellowships and Grants administered a variety of 
academic appointments in 1984. Under the program of Research 
Training Fellowships, begun in 1965, sixty-eight pre- and post- 
doctoral fellowships were awarded this year. These appointees 
pursue independent research projects under the guidance of staff 
advisers for periods of six months to one year in residence at one 
of the Institution's bureaus or field sites. Topics of study for 

Science I 119 

Smithsonian fellows included: the regional patterns of settlement 
and early survival of intertidal barnacles; the American landscape 
in painting and prints from 1600 to 1820; observational and ex- 
perimental studies in optical and infrared astronomy and radio 
and geoastronomy; energetics of reproduction in eutherian and 
marsupial mammals; material culture of the Mackenzie Eskimo at 
contact time; goods and money in American rural life, 1780 to 
1870; and a history of Black American art, 1650 to 1941. 

In addition to the general program funded through the Office 
of Fellowships and Grants, competitions for fellowships are also 
held for specific awards. The First Ladies Fellowship, which sup- 
ports the study of costume in America at the National Museum 
of American History, was awarded for the third year. At the 
National Air and Space Museum, the second recipient of the A. 
Verville Fellowship will be studying the new American airplane 
of 1934, and the Guggenheim Fellow will be doing a case study on 
the nature of technological change, 1958 to 1983, emphasizing 
civilian space station concepts. 

In addition, twenty-one graduate student fellowships were 
offered for ten-week periods during 1984.' The participants are 
usually junior graduate students beginning to explore avenues that 
develop into dissertation research. This year some of these fellows 
studied: metallurgy in ancient Ecuador and its role in New World 
metallurgical development; the history of air conditioning in 
America, 1906 to 1979; cranial variation in the beaked whale; 
growth forms in two species of palms; and photography as public 

A number of senior fellowships continued to be offered. Smith- 
sonian Institution Regents Fellows in residence this year included 
Ekpo Eyo, director-general of the National Commission for Mu- 
seums and Monuments in Nigeria, who was at the National Mu- 
seum of African Art working on archeological excavations at Ife 
and Owo and an illustrated history of Nigeria from the Stone Age 
to the nineteenth century. The National Museum of American 
History was host to Merritt Roe Smith, professor of the history of 
technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working on 
an interpretive history of the mechanization of U.S. industry in 
the antebellum period. 

At the National Museum of Natural History, loseph Ewan, 
emeritus professor of botany at Tulane University, engaged in 
research for a biographical bibliography of trail narratives of nat- 
uralists in South America; and James Griffin, senior research sci- 

120 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

entist in the Department of Anthropology at the University of 
Michigan, researched Hopewell burial mound cultures of the upper 
midwestern United States; and at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 
George Nelson, an architect, was involved in research on the 
theory of the workplace. 

To honor Regent Emeritus James E. Webb, the Institution estab- 
lished a number of fellowships in his name designed to promote 
excellence in the management of cultural and scientific not-for- 
profit organizations. The second awards were offered in 1984. 
Catherine Ross, M.B.A. candidate at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, worked in the Smithsonian's Office of Facilities Services. 
Three Smithsonian staff members were selected to spend training 
periods away from the Institution: EHzabeth Beuck Derbyshire, 
Office of Folklife Programs, as a candidate for Master of Public 
Administration at George Washington University; Elizabeth 
Greene, Department of Mineral Sciences, as a candidate for a 
Master of Arts in Museum Studies at George Washington Uni- 
versity; and Kenneth Yellis, Department of Education, National 
Portrait Gallery, as a candidate for Master of Public Administra- 
tion at George Washington University. 

This year several new features have been added to the program. 
Webb fellows will be appointed for two years each and will be- 
come members of the newly formed Webb Fellows Society. They 
will advise the Office of Fellowships and Grants regarding the 
shape and administration of the Webb Fellowship Program and 
counsel persons contemplating applying for a Webb Fellowship. 
The first eight Webb fellows, who are the founding members of 
the Society of Webb Fellows, are the four appointed this year 
along with the following who were appointed last year: Brooks 
Parsons, University of North Carolina; Deborah Jean Warner, 
Department of History of Science and Technology, National Mu- 
seum of American History; Rebecca Keith Webb, Smithsonian 
Museum Shops; and Jon Yellin, Office of Programming and 

In 1984 the Smithsonian received a three-year grant from the 
Rockefeller Foundation Residency Program in the Humanities for 
postdoctoral fellowships at the National Museum of African Art 
and the Center for Asian Art. The grant will support research in 
residence at the museums in the areas of African art history and 
anthropology, especially material culture, and in Asian art history 
for research in the collections and on topics that may initiate 
scholarly symposia, exhibitions, and other major museum activities. 

Science I 121 

During 1984 bureaus continued to offer support for visiting 
scientists and scholars in cooperation with the Office of Fellow- 
ships and Grants. These awards made possible visits to the Smith- 
sonian by nineteen persons, principally scholars at midcareer, who 
did not fall within the framework of the research training pro- 
gram. The OFG also continued the administration and partial sup- 
port of the short-term visitor program. Fifty persons spent from 
one week to a month at the Institution conducting research, study- 
ing collections, and collaborating and conferring with professional 

The expanded role of internships in the academic community 
continued to be reflected within the Institution. The National Air 
and Space Museum funded seven interns through ofg this year. 
The Cooper-Hewitt Museum again appointed four students under 
the Sidney and Celia Siegel Fellowship fund. Internships in en- 
vironmental studies at the Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center also continued. The Smith College-Smithsonian Program 
in American Studies is now in its fifth year and seven students 
will participate in a seminar course and conduct research projects 
under the direction of staff members through this program. Other 
interns were placed through bureau internship coordinators, while 
the OFG administered all stipend awards for internships. 

For the fourth year the ofg offered academic opportunities to 
improve minority participation in Smithsonian programs. These 
opportunities included fellowships for minority faculty members 
and faculty from minority colleges, and internships for minority 
undergraduate and graduate students. Awards were made to six- 
teen interns who were placed at a variety of bureaus and offices 
on the Mall and at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Cen- 
ter and the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Some of these ap- 
pointments have already developed into permanent relationships. 
The ofg also awarded five fellowships to faculty members to con- 
duct research on subjects such as the black middle class family 
in historical and societal contexts, an examination of the attitude 
and levels of knowledge possessed by parents concerning the role 
and function of toys and play in children's development, black 
residential patterns and the city, and Cincinnati from 1802 to 1850. 

The Smithsonian's Cooperative Education Program, administered 
by the ofg, is a student employment program that encourages 
minority graduate students to work in professional and adminis- 
trative positions at the Institution for sixteen to twenty-six weeks, 
separated by periods of study at their university. It offers the 

122 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

potential for permanent employment at the Smithsonian. Since 
January 1983, when the ofg assumed management, thirty-one 
student co-op appointments have been made in various Smithsonian 
bureaus and offices. 

The position of academic network coordinator was added to the 
OFG in 1984 to sustain and enhance these efforts to bring minority 
scholars and students to the Institution. This position serves as a 
link between the Smithsonian and the outside scholarly commu- 
nity, developing communication between the two and furthering 
efforts to incorporate minorities into the Smithsonian workforce 
and research opportunities. 

The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program (sfcp) awards 
grants to support the research interests of American institutions, 
including the Smithsonian, in those countries in which the United 
States holds blocked currencies derived largely from past sales of 
surplus agricultural commodities under Public Law 480. The pro- 
gram is active in countries in which the Treasury Department de- 
clares United States holdings of these currencies to be in excess 
of normal federal requirements, including, in 1984, Burma, Guinea, 
India, and Pakistan. Research projects are moving toward con- 
clusion under program support in the former excess-currency 
countries of Egypt, Poland, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia. 

The Smithsonian received a fiscal year 1984 appropriation of 
$4 million in "excess" currencies to support projects in anthro- 
pology and archeology, systematic and environmental biology, 
astrophysics, earth sciences, and museum professional fields. From 
its inception in fiscal year 1966 through fiscal year 1984, the sfcp 
has awarded about $57 million in foreign currency grants to 233 
institutions in forty-one states and the District of Columbia and 
Puerto Rico. 

This year the projects, which ranged over many disciplines, 
included: ethnographic studies of northern populations in Paki- 
stan; archeological investigations in the Egyptian Western Desert; 
paleoanthropological studies of Later Miocene hominids in Paki- 
stan; photographic documentation of the Buddhist cave paintings 
at Ajanta, India; historical investigation of the depletion of tropical 
forests in India; architectural survey of Indian temples; documen- 
tation of contemporary architecture; studies of the reproductive 
behavior of mugger crocodiles; studies of the history and move- 
ment of ancient ground waters using fission tracking procedures; 
and ecological and behavioral studies of the native bees of 

Science I 123 

During this year the Smithsonian conveyed $1,040,000 equiva- 
lent in Pakistan rupees, the second installment of the U.S. con- 
tribution to the UNESCO campaign to salvage and preserve Moen- 
jodaro, the 4,500-year-old Indus civilization city in Pakistan. This 
site, first discovered in 1921, is being eroded by highly saline 
groundwater and floods of the meandering Indus River. A ground- 
water-control scheme to lower the water table is in place and 
numerous other operations are underway. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Ever since Galileo Galilei turned his crude optical telescope on the 
heavens and found that the vague cloud known as the Milky Way 
was, in fact, "a congeries of innumerable stars grouped together 
in clusters," the advance of astronomical discovery has followed 
closely the development of new instrumentation. During the past 
twenty-five years particularly, the flight into space of detectors 
sensitive to infrared. X-ray, and ultraviolet radiation has created 
a vision of the universe that would astound even the remarkably 
prescient Galileo. 

Although the direct relationship between new instrumentation 
and new discoveries is clearly recognized, it is no longer practi- 
cal — or even possible — for the visionary scientist simply to patch 
together magnifying lenses in a wooden tube, walk into the evening 
dark, and discover unknown worlds. Not only have all the "easy" 
tasks of astronomy been accomplished, but society itself has 
become more complicated. In the late twentieth century, astron- 
omy — all science, really — is no longer so much an individual enter- 
prise as a collective activity, supported by the general public, 
responding to national goals, and answering broad questions. 

More practically stated, the advance of modern astronomy — 
through the development of new instrumentation — requires copi- 
ous funding, large teams of specialists, and, most important, many 
years of careful planning and design. Indeed, the time scale for 
most major instruments is a decade or more, especially if the 
instrument is to be a national or international facility. 

Significantly, then, planning began this year at the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory (sao) on several long-range projects 
that hold the promise of advancing astronomical knowledge. The 

124 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

largest of these potential projects, and one that has inspired con- 
siderable effort by the observatory staff, is a proposed array 
of telescopes for observations of submillimeter-wave radiation. 
The submillimeter band of the electromagnetic spectrum is the 
only wavelength region yet unexplored from the ground. The 
need for sufficiently precise machining of antennas and, more im- 
portant, for receivers capable of detecting such celestial radiation 
efficiently, has prevented development of this promising field 
until quite recently. Several single-dish submillimeter telescopes 
are now either under construction or in planning stages through- 
out the world, and an internal committee of observatory scientists 
recommended that sao consider the more ambitious approach of 
an array of six dishes, each of six-meter diameter, with the dishes 
movable along several-hundred-meter-long arms of a Y-shaped 
set of tracks. The scientific possibilities of such an instrument are 
rich, ranging from the study of newly forming stars to the study 
of the dynamic phenomena taking place at the cores of active 
galaxies. The concept for the array, dubbed star for Submillimeter 
Telescopes Arrayed for high Resolution, is being reviewed by 
about forty scientists in the United States and Europe. 

High spatial resolution, that is, the ability to discern distinct 
features of individual astronomical objects located close together 
is a goal of all observational astronomers. The resolving power of 
an instrument increases with the size of its aperture, but practical 
considerations of weight and cost limit the size of any single mir- 
ror or antenna. One means of increasing aperture is by employing 
the principle of interferometry in which the signals gathered by 
two or more telescopes are combined to produce a resolution 
equivalent to that of a single instrument with a diameter equal to 
the maximum distance between any two of the telescopes. The 
STAR array uses this principle in the submillimeter region of the 
spectrum; but, in the optical region, several sao groups are also 
investigating means for achieving unprecedented resolutions 
through interferometers in space. 

In space, above Earth's obscuring atmosphere, properly posi- 
tioned and finely controlled optical instruments can, theoretically, 
achieve resolutions limited only by the quality of the telescopic 
system. The resultant resolutions may be as much as 10,000 to 
100,000 times that possible with ground-based instruments. Sev- 
eral designs for such space interferometers have been suggested by 
sag scientists : a linear array of mirrors mounted on a thirty-meter- 
long rigid structure; two mirrors orbiting up to ten miles apart 

Science I 125 

and feeding their separately received signals into a third "beam- 
combiner" satellite orbiting between them; and, small, modular 
interferometers that could fit into the Space Shuttle bay. 

Obviously, these and other instrument development projects at 
SAO require imagination, innovation, ingenuity, and not a little 
institutional courage. Risks are inherent in all pioneering attempts: 
careers, funds, and time must be committed many years in advance 
to projects whose outcomes cannot be guaranteed — or even 
guessed at. Still, sao has a long history of successful scientific 
risk-taking. The tradition of innovation in engineering and instru- 
ment-making can be traced from Langley's bolometer of the 1880s 
to Whipple's sateUite-tracking cameras of the 1950s to the Multi- 
ple Mirror Telescope of the 1970s, a joint project with the Uni- 
versity of Arizona. The concept of multiple-mirror arrays for 
optical telescopes, considered radical, revolutionary, and, to some, 
even foolhardy when first proposed, was recommended this year 
as the preferred design for the proposed National New Technology 
Telescope, a fifteen-meter-diameter optical giant. Sao's spirit of 
innovation certainly seems justified by this decision. In the next 
century, astronomers may look back on sao's submillimeter-wave 
array or its optical interferometers as similarly vital milestones in 
the advancement of astronomy. 

The development of new instrumentation for astronomy is only 
one part of the diverse research program carried out by sao in 
collaboration with the Harvard College Observatory. Together 
under a single director, the two observatories form the Center for 
Astrophysics (cfa), where investigations of the joint staff are 
organized by divisions. Some highhghts of research activity dur- 
ing the past year, by division, follow; for more detailed informa- 
tion on specific subjects, readers are invited to consult the bibliog- 
raphy of scientific papers by observatory scientists published else- 
where in this volume. 


Because most of what is learned about celestial objects is gained 
by detailed studies of the light their atoms and molecules emit 
and of the modification of this light on its way to Earth, precise 
and comprehensive laboratory and theoretical studies of atomic 
and molecular properties are needed to understand the processes 
occurring in such objects and to interpret astronomical observa- 
tions made with ground-based and satellite-borne telescopes. The 
Atomic and Molecular Physics Division carries out research in 

126 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

theoretical and experimental physics and chemistry to provide 
these data and the basic understanding of the processes. Atomic 
and molecular physics research benefits from the interaction be- 
tween theorists and experimentalists, and members of the division 
do research on processes common to the Sun, the interstellar 
medium, comets, and planetary atmospheres. 

The light reaching Earth from a distant star begins its journey 
as a stream of X-ray or gamma-ray photons deep inside the hot 
interior of the star. As this light makes its way to the surface, 
it interacts with the atoms and ions in the star's outer layer. Some 
of these interactions, for example, a "recombination" in which 
the electron of an atom is captured by a positive ion to produce 
an "excited state," produce a distinctive light signal that can be 
used to infer the temperature, density, and chemical components 
of the star's atmosphere. In the laboratory, experiments are being 
devised so that the radiation emitted by excited systems can be 
used to identify and study corresponding processes in astrophysi- 
cal plasmas. 

The absorption of light by molecules in laboratory, atmospheric, 
or astrophysical gases is an important process because in many 
cases it can lead to dissociation of the molecule or to production 
of energetic forms of the molecule, which can influence other 
processes in the gas. Progress has been made this year in under- 
standing the process in a quantitative way. For example, by mak- 
ing laboratory measurements at high resolution of the absorption 
of light by molecular oxygen at various pressures, we have im- 
proved knowledge of the strength of the absorption at particular 
ultraviolet wavelengths. These new measurements imply that sig- 
nificant changes must be made in the estimates of stratospheric 
concentrations of ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide. 
The implications for our understanding of the effects of human 
activity on the environment may prove of considerable importance. 


The High Energy Astrophysics Division is primarily involved in 
the study of X-ray emission from celestial sources, including some 
of the most energetic and exotic objects in the universe, such as 
pulsars, neutron stars, and black holes. Because X-rays cannot 
pass through Earth's atmosphere. X-ray astronomy must be carried 
out from space. 

At present, division members are heavily involved in the analy- 
sis of scientific data from nasa's two High Energy Astronomy 

Science I 127 

Observatories, the heao-1 and heao-2, the latter better known as 
the "Einstein SatelHte." The Einstein observations represent the 
most sensitive X-ray data available, and ongoing research programs 
involve all types of known astronomical objects. A data bank has 
been established at sao to allow full access to the Einstein data by 
the international scientific community. 

A highlight of research this year was the discovery of X-ray 
emission from hot gas associated with the outer regions, or 
"haloes," of elliptical galaxies. As stars evolve, they liberate large 
amounts of gas, and the fate of this gas in elliptical galaxies has 
been a long-standing puzzle. Most astronomers believed that this 
gas simply flowed out of the galaxies in what is called a galactic 
wind. However, our X-ray observations have now shown that this 
is not the case; surprisingly, the gas is still contained in the 
galaxies. By processes still unknown (but possibly involving energy 
provided when stars explode as supernovae), the gas is heated to 
very high temperatures and glows in the X-ray band. Moreover, 
the X-ray data allow us to probe, for the first time, the underlying 
gravitational force required to hold this gas. Indeed, the haloes 
of elliptical galaxies must contain a mass equivalent to one trillion 
suns. However, most of this underlying mass is not contained in 
stars observed in visible light, nor is it contained in the X-ray- 
emitting gas we have observed. The nature of this invisible mate- 
rial, which accounts for most of the mass of the elliptical galaxies 
(and many other astronomical systems as well), is currently one 
of the great mysteries of astrophysics. 

Division members are also working with the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration (nasa) on the design and defini- 
tion studies for the next large X-ray satellite, the Advanced X-ray 
Astrophysics Facility (axaf). The fabrication of two sets of X-ray 
mirrors should allow the development and demonstration of those 
techniques eventually required to build the axaf telescope. Com- 
pletion of these test mirrors is scheduled for mid-1985, when a 
series of detailed X-ray tests will verify their performance. Im- 
provements in the manufacture of X-ray mirrors and in the per- 
formance of X-ray detectors suggest that axaf will be 100 times 
more sensitive than the Einstein Satellite. 

Work continued on the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope 
(nixt) with design, testing, and initial fabrication of various ele- 
ments, all geared to a 1986 rocket flight. Nixx uses a revolutionary 
approach to X-ray imaging involving alternating multiple layers 
of high and low absorption materials such as tungsten and carbon 

128 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

and is capable of providing very high spatial resolution imaging 
and simultaneous spectroscopy for studies of the hot outer atmo- 
spheres of our Sun and other stars. 


There are two main scientific themes to the research in optical and 
infrared astronomy: What is the large-scale structure of the uni- 
verse, how did it get that way, and what will be its fate? How 
and when did galaxies form, how have they evolved and what can 
we learn about these processes from detailed studies of our own 
galaxy? To pursue these questions, division scientists rely heavily 
on ground-based telescopes, such as the facilities at the Fred Law- 
rence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, the site of 
the Multiple Mirror Telescope (mmt). Optical observations were 
complemented by infrared measurements made from the ground, 
NASA aircraft, and high-altitude balloons. 

When viewed over scales as large as a billion light years, the 
universe appears frothy. Galaxies tend to congregate in clusters 
and sheets surrounding vast empty regions. This general picture, 
which has defied easy theoretical interpretation, was suggested 
most clearly by the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey, 
which was able to map out the distribution of 2,400 of the brighter 
galaxies, mostly in the northern sky. Because unexpectedly large 
structures showed up in the initial survey, it is now being extended 
deeper into space and into the southern sky. In the north, much 
time on the 60-inch Tillinghast Reflector at the Whipple Observa- 
tory is dedicated to this effort, which will take several years to 
complete. In the south, a collaboration with the Observatorio 
Nacional de Brasil is producing redshifts of the same quality as 
the northern data from Mt. Hopkins. These efforts should enhance 
the scientific value of the Redshift Survey, already considered by 
many to be the most important contribution to observational cos- 
mology of the past ten years. 

The Century Survey, a related project that has just begun, will 
ultimately provide a complete list of positions and magnitudes for 
all galaxies brighter than a carefully calibrated limit in a narrow 
strip running through the north galactic pole. This survey will go 
much deeper into space than the Redshift Survey, and the final 
catalog is expected to contain 100,000 galaxies. The importance of 
this effort was emphasized recently when division scientists 
showed that the principal earlier work (the Shane-Wirtaanen 
counts) is inadequate for studies of the large-scale structure of the 

Science I 129 

universe because of previously unrecognized systematic errors 
present in the data. 

An important result from the mmt was the identification of 
primordial clouds of gas that contain almost enough matter to 
form galaxies. This was part of a general effort to study the 
spectra of the most distant quasars using very high spectral reso- 
lution, an area where the mmt is the world leader. In this applica- 
tion, the quasars serve as bright "laboratory lamps" shining 
through the intervening clouds of intergalactic gas, whose char- 
acteristics may be deduced from the narrow (absorption) lines 
that they introduce into the continuous spectrum of the light from 
the quasar. 

Several investigations focused on the structure and dynamics of 
star systems in our own galaxy. One such study concentrated on 
the oldest stars. Mostly the galaxy has a flattened disklike appear- 
ance, but there is also a population of stars in a more spherical, 
halo distribution above the galactic plane. These stars must have 
formed in the earliest stages of the formation of our galaxy itself, 
and in their atmospheres is preserved information about the abun- 
dances of the chemical elements present ten to fifteen billion years 
ago. A survey identified a few hundred new halo stars, more than 
doubling the number known previously. This identification has 
already led to a new determination of the rotation of the galactic 
disk and, for the first time, to a precise determination of the 
velocity needed by an object to escape from the galaxy. These 
results are important because they will help determine the total 
mass of the Milky Way. 

Four major programs in infrared astronomy were pursued. In 
the first, a small, helium-cooled infrared telescope has been con- 
structed for space flight aboard the Spacelab 2 mission of the 
Space Shuttle, now scheduled for April 1985. This instrument will 
be used to map the sky for diffuse infrared sources. In the second 
program, a one-meter balloon-borne infrared telescope is used, for 
example, to discover star-forming regions in the galaxy. The third 
program is a design study for a three-meter balloon-borne tele- 
scope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy. The fourth 
involves the use of an experimental two-dimensional infrared 
camera for ground-based observations of star-forming regions, 
galaxies, and planetary nebulae. A similar camera proposed by 
SAO, in collaboration with other organizations, was selected for 
design study as one of three instruments to fly on nasa's Space 
Infrared Telescope Facility. 

130 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

This image of a spiral galaxy was produced with a light-sensitive electronic 
detector known as a charge-coupled device, or CCD, attached to an optical 
telescope at the Whipple Observatory in Arizona. The Smithsonian has been a 
pioneer in the development of these detectors. (Photograph by Rudolph Schild) 

A 102-centimeter balloon-borne infrared telescope designed by the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory for photometry, spectroscopy, and high-resolution 
mapping of star-formation regions in the galaxy was launched from Texas in 
April 1984 as part of an on-going program of balloon astronomy. 

Division scientists also were involved in gamma-ray astronomy, 
using the ten-meter reflector at the Whipple Observatory to search 
for high-energy gamma-rays from several sources and carrying out 
design studies for a very large gamma-ray telescope in space that 
would make use of the expended external tank of the Space 
Shuttle as part of the Space Station program. 


Members of the division study the planets and small bodies of the 
solar system in three ways: by telescopic observation, by theoreti- 
cal analysis, and by examining samples of extraterrestrial mate- 
rials in the laboratory. 

The observation program centers on the Oak Ridge Observatory 
in Harvard, Massachusetts, which is well suited for determining 
the exact orbital paths of comets and asteroids in the solar system. 
To do this requires that positions of the bodies be determined 
very precisely on a number of different nights. Travel costs and 
the intense competition for telescope time make it impossible to 
use the larger western telescopes for such observations. 

The Oak Ridge program of regular observations is coordinated 
with the work of the International Astronomical Union's Minor 
Planet Center and Central Telegram Bureau, both of which are 
directed by a division member. These facilities verify observations 
of comets and asteroids, compute their exact orbit, and dissemi- 
nate this information to institutions around the world in a timely 
way. In the last year, 125 lAU Circulars and 900 Minor Planet 
Circulars were distributed. About 200 newly discovered asteroids 
were formally assigned numbers, and improved orbits were deter- 
mined for about 1,000 other new objects. These functions are self- 
supporting through an annual contribution from the iau and sub- 
scriptions purchased by professional and amateur astronomers. 
This year particular effort has been put into the establishment of 
a computer service, which allows subscribers to see the IAU Circu- 
lars on the day of issue, and carry on other transactions with the 
Central Telegram Bureau and Minor Planet Center, via computer 
and telephone. 

Data from the nasa Voyager spacecraft contributed to several 
observational programs as well. A division member who is also a 
member of the Imaging Team of the Voyager mission to the outer 
planets investigated a variety of phenomena observed by Voyager 
on Jupiter, Saturn, and the satellites of these planets. An example 

132 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

of these is the observation that Europa (one of Jupiter's four larg- 
est satellites; about the size of Earth's moon) appears to be 
actively erupting water at its surface. Europa is thought to con- 
tain about 5 percent water, in the form of an ice crust about eighty 
kilometers thick. Apparently heat from the satellite's interior melts 
the base of the ice crust and erupts the water in surface "vol- 
canoes/' in a manner closely analogous to the melting of rock 
and the eruption of lava on Earth. Another division scientist used 
Voyager photographs to complete a preliminary geological map 
of an area on the surface of the Jupiter satellite Ganymede. 

Theoretical studies in the division included an investigation of 
the way comets decay and, in some cases, break up. Comets are 
masses of snow and dust a few kilometers in size: as their orbits 
carry them near the Sun, the warmth vaporizes the snow; streams 
of escaping vapor can act like rocket engines, changing the orbital 
path of the comet. Eventually every comet's snow is completely 
vaporized away, but there is still a question of what is left: A 
coherent asteroid? Or an incoherent collection of pebbles and dust 
that disperses in space? 

The detailed properties of meteorites and lunar samples were 
studied in the laboratory, using microscopic and microanalytical 
techniques. Meteorites contain a cryptic record of events and pro- 
cesses associated with the origin of the solar system, and even pre- 
solar system history. Lunar samples contain an equally cryptic 
record of the earliest internal evolution of a small planet. The 
meteorite research centered on the origin of chondrules, tiny 
igneous droplets that are abundant in the most primitive class of 
meteorites. These objects were somehow melted and partly vapor- 
ized at the time when the solar system was being formed. Such 
processes may have occurred when aggregations of presolar inter- 
stellar dust fell into the primordial disk of gas that gave rise to 
the solar system: as the aggregations plunged through the gas 
they were heated by gas drag, much like meteors in Earth's upper 
atmosphere, and melted into droplets. 

Laboratory determinations were also made of the concentration 
of radioactive isotopes in meteorites collected in Antarctica by the 
National Science Foundation (nsf) Polar Program, and also in 
Antarctic ice samples. The levels of these radioactive isotopes 
reveal how long the meteorites have lain on or in the ice since they 
fell, and how long it has been since the ice formed (fell as snow) 
on the polar ice cap. A division member has participated in two 
of the NSF meteorite-collecting expeditions to Antarctica. 

Science I 133 


Radio and Geoastronomy Division staff pursue a broad range of 
research topics, including tests of Einstein's theory of general rela- 
tivity, the physical structure of other planets, chemical composition 
of clouds in space, the processes by which stars are bom, the mo- 
tions of radio stars, physical properties of very distant radio stars, 
extragalactic radio sources, measurements of continental drift, ir- 
regularities of the rotation of Earth, research on atomic clocks, and 
the development of new instrumentation. 

Two important efforts are now under way to develop powerful 
new instruments for astronomical research. First, a Centerwide com- 
mittee investigated the desirability and feasibility of an array of six 
radio antennas operating in the submillimeter portion of the radio 
spectrum. The design calls for six antennas, each with diameters of 
six meters, spaced up to several hundred meters apart along the 
arms of a "Y" configuration. Necessarily located on a high moun- 
tain topto reduce the interference from water vapor in the atmo- 
sphere, the array's resolution will be better than one second of arc, 
or more than ten times better than any other instrument under con- 
struction or planned for use at submillimeter wavelengths. Because 
the submillimeter array would operate at what is called "the last 
frontier of ground-based astronomy," it promises rich scientific op- 
portunities, including: probes of regions of star formation, analyses 
of galactic structure, investigations of the cores of quasars and 
active galactic nuclei, and studies of objects in the solar system. 

Second, the ability to place optical instruments in space will al- 
low an angle-measuring instrument of unprecedented accuracy. 
Such an instrument, called an optical interferometer, appears feasi- 
ble using currently available technology. The various configura- 
tions now being investigated all offer enormous resolution ad- 
vances over ground-based telescopes, whose resolution is limited 
by fluctuations in Earth's atmosphere. For example, the 1,000-fold 
improvement in resolution over a ground-based telescope suggests 
that an optical interferometer operating in space would allow im- 
proved determination of astronomical distances, estimates of star 
masses, discovery of other planetary systems, and exquisitely accu- 
rate tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity. The development 
of such a system is currently supported by the construction of a 
ground-based optical interferometer and related laboratory work. 

Research on hydrogen masers and experiments using them for 
time and frequency coordination and testing theories of gravitation 

134 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

and relativity continued. Two masers were con\pleted and delivered 
to the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., where they 
are now designated as "Master Clocks 1 and 2." The stability and 
time-keeping accuracy of these clocks exceed any previously made; 
indeed, their accuracy, ± 0.5 X 10'^ seconds per month, is at least 
as good as that available from the entire U.S. Naval Observatory 
ensemble of some twenty-five cesium-beam clocks. 

Research on electrodynamic interactions between long orbiting 
wires and the ionosphere continued. In particular. Shuttle-borne 
electrodynamic tethers were studied to determine the tether's abil- 
ity to draw current from the ionosphere and to generate, by conse- 
quence, a substantial amount of electric power in space. 


The development of new instrumentation, coupled with advances 
in theoretical physics and with the improvement of computation 
techniques, have altered modern studies of solar and stellar physics 
in two striking ways. 

Stars are no longer seen as isolated spheres of gas quietly drift- 
ing through space. Their atmospheres are better described as caul- 
drons of bubbling, magnetic gas being buffeted and blown into 
space by waves and surges from the interior. Stars are now seen as 
"open" systems that condense from the interstellar gas and dust, 
then burn their nuclear fuel — often acquiring peculiar chemical 
compositions in the process — and ultimately return most of their 
material to space, either gradually, as in winds and breezes, or vio- 
lently in explosive novae and supernovae. 

At the same time, solar and stellar astronomers have come to 
realize that many of the activities formerly seen only on the Sun's 
surface, and in the Sun's outer atmosphere — the "chromosphere" 
and "corona" that were originally discovered during eclipses — can 
now be detected in the signals from other stars. This year, for ex- 
ample, observations by division scientists using the International 
Untraviolet Explorer (iue) Satellite led to the first detection of a 
stellar "flare" from a giant star. For many years, solar flares have 
been observed in the intense magnetic fields of sunspots, and flares 
had been known among the smaller, dwarf stars; however, this 
observation of stellar flares in a giant, evolved star, has added 
another link in the "solar-stellar connection." Other programs with 
the IUE include ultraviolet observations of faint exploding stars and 
the remnants of supernovae, as well as the monitoring of emissions 

Science / 135 

that reveal activity cycles similar to the twenty-two-year cycle of 
our Sun in several cool stars. In addition, collaborative ground- 
based studies with researchers at the Mt. Wilson Observatory have 
monitored calcium emission from the chromospheres of Sun-like 
stars. A survey of such emission in a variety of cool dwarfs has led 
to the conclusion that the magnesium and calcium emissions are 
dependent, not only on the star's mass, but on its rotational speed — 
for reasons that are not understood. 

Stellar observations this year were remarkable for the variety of 
instruments they called into play: from studies of chemical abun- 
dances in the oldest members of the galaxy — the globular cluster 
stars — with the ground-based telescopes of the Whipple Observa- 
tory and the Mt. Wilson Observatory, to the observations of a 
young supernovae remnant in a neighboring irregular galaxy with 
the Einstein Satellite. And a coordinated program of ground-based 
observations of the brightness and polarization of the light of the 
supergiant red star Betelgeuse (the brightest star in the Constella- 
tion Orion) was initiated to provide data for diagnosing this star's 
variations. Although they are subtle, these variations may be symp- 
toms of fundamental processes by which such stars return their 
matter to space as their cores evolve toward a super-condensed 
state. The preliminary results suggest that the heightened atmo- 
spheric activity in Betelgeuse may lag the optical brightening by 
one-tenth of the six-year period; and, if confirmed, this lag would 
be an important clue to the nature of the motions in the star's outer 

For decades, the high temperature of the Sun's corona has been 
recognized as a key feature of the Sun's atmosphere, requiring a 
vast amount of heat to be supplied by waves from the cooler layers 
beneath. Recently, the outward flow of the corona has been recog- 
nized as an equally challenging enigma. Clues are being sought in 
the nature of the magnetic fields of the Sun. 

Like Earth, the Sun has a magnetic field reaching out from its 
interior. Unlike Earth's field, the Sun's is widely variable (with a 
full cycle of reversal in twenty-two years) and it is swept aside or 
brought together here and there by the motions of the Sun's 
ionized gas. This turbulent activity is thought to be generated 
by the "boiling" motions of the deep layers, and it is accompanied 
by eddies and streamers, which move outward at supersonic 
speeds. The cause of these rapid motions is a mystery, and the 
mystery was deepened this year when, for the first time, they 
were observed well down inside the dark gaps in the corona 

136 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

known as "coronal holes/' (These observations were n\ade by sao 
scientists in collaboration with the High Altitude Observatory by 
means of an ultraviolet coronagraph that was carried aloft on a 
rocket.) The outflow of coronal material was traced to within 0.5 
solar radii of the surface, pointing to a source of acceleration 
whose identity will be the goal of future observations. 

Some of the energy required to maintain the hot corona is re- 
leased in the neighborhood of coronal "bright points," which ap- 
pear to be small active regions associated with locally intensified 
magnetic fields. These regions are being studied with data from 
Skylab as well as a program of simultaneous observations in opti- 
cal radation with the Solar Tower Telescope at Sacramento Peak 
Observatory and radio interferometry with the Very Large Array 
(vla). These observations are providing maps of unprecedented 
spatial detail as well as rapid time resolution and are expected 
to provide insights to the heat supply of the corona. 

Division scientists have constructed a simulation of the solar 
spectrum incorporating seventeen million atomic and molecular 
transitions, and this tool has been applied to another long-stand- 
ing enigma concerning solar temperature. However, this mystery 
concerns the coolest, rather than the hottest, region of the Sun. 
For nearly a century, it has been recognized that the temperatures 
of both the solar interior and the corona reach millions of degrees, 
even though the temperature of the surface layers remains a rela- 
tively cool 6,000 K. Clearly, at some intermediate level the tem- 
perature must reach a minimum, and the depth of this minimum 
is a clue to the energy balance of the Sun's outer layers. But the 
precise value of the minimum has been an elusive quantity and 
different observational techniques seemed to imply different values. 
The agreement was greatly improved this year when the newly 
synthesized spectrum was used as a model for interpreting the solar 
observations. For the first time, data from the ultraviolet, the 
visible, and the infrared agree, and this new solar profile is ready 
for interpretation by theoreticians. 

Progress in astrophysics has invariably been stimulated by the 
use of new observational instruments, and with this in mind, 
division scientists are developing several advanced detectors. This 
year, a new version of the speckle interferometer, technically 
called the Precision Analog Photon Address detector, and known 
as the "papa," was built, tested in the laboratory, and taken to 
remote sites for observing runs on the Steward Observatory 90- 
inch-diameter telescope, the Whipple Observatory mmt, and the 

Science I 137 

University of Hawaii 88-inch telescope. Interpreting the data from 
this device requires an intensive series of computations, and these 
early field tests produced six "firsts": images showing the rotation 
of the asteroid Vesta, and new companions to the stars T Tauri, 
Mu Cassiopeia, and Alpha, Delta, and Gamma Orionis. 

Engineering studies of large interferometers for various space 
platforms were also carried out, and they suggest that, perhaps 
more than any other major civilian science project, such inter- 
ferometry would depend on the servicing capability of a space 

Historical research in the division touched on the lives and the 
many contributions of women at the Harvard College Observatory 
during the years 1875-1925. Work also continued on the anno- 
tated census of Copernicus' De revolutionibus, and fewer than 
twenty (of about 580) copies remain unexamined. Finally, a study 
of Vincent van Gogh's night paintings showed that they have a 
strong element of astronomical reality. 


The Theoretical Astrophysical Division carried out research on a 
diverse range of astrophysical phenomena, with studies often ap- 
plied to the support and interpretation of observational data. 
Division members frequently collaborate with scientists in other 
institutions and with members of other divisions in their research 
as well as contribute significantly to educational programs. 

The research of the division is largely concentrated on studies of 
the extreme states of matter, radiation, magnetic fields and gravity, 
and their fundamental roles in determining the observed structure 
of objects in the universe. The mode of attack on such problems 
is a combination of pure analytical techniques and numerical 
modeling with computers. Particular applications have included: 
interstellar clouds, accretion disks, stellar winds, planetary forma- 
tion, star formation, globular clusters. X-ray sources, and infla- 
tionary cosmologies. 

One noteworthy example of research in the division concerned 
the postcollapse evolution of globular clusters. Globular clusters 
are beautiful astronomical objects, containing about a million stars 
in a roughly spherical distribution, relatively sparse in the outer 
layers, but becoming quite dense in the center. The special shape 

138 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


of such clusters is largely determined by gravitational encounters 
between the individual stars, especially in the central core. These 
encounters cause the cluster to become ever more centrally con- 
centrated; in fact, simplified analytical estimates predicted that the 
central clustering of stars must become infinitely dense at some 
time — a catastrophe known as "core collapse." Furthermore, from 
these studies it was clear that many of the globular clusters now 
seen should have already undergone core collapse. It was generally 
agreed that various physical effects, such as formation of binary 
stars, would prevent any real catastrophe, but, despite much 
analytical work, no one was able to state unambiguously just what 
a "postcollapse" globular cluster was supposed to look like. Nor 
could any existing computer program answer this question, since 
each was designed to treat only a portion of the relevant physics. 
However, a division member, using a clever matching of several 
independent computer programs, was able to overcome their indi- 
vidual limitations and to simulate numerically both the core col- 
lapse and the subsequent postcollapse phase. Preliminary results 
indicate that the theoretical structure of postcollapse globular 
clusters is consistent with the properties of observed globular 
clusters, thus removing a disturbing gap in our understanding of 
these objects. 

Another investigation concerned one of the most exciting recent 
theories in cosmology, the "new inflationary universe." Some 
fundamental theories of elementary particle physics have sug- 
gested that the universe underwent a phase of rapid expansion 
at a very early time in its history, indeed, only microseconds after 
the Big Bang itself, a time when particle energies were enormous. 
This expansion, or "inflationary" phase, explains several previ- 
ously inexplicable facts about our universe, such as its impressive 
uniformity. In principle, the properties of the new inflationary 
cosmology might also be used to predict the deviations from uni- 
formity in the early universe, and thus to determine the very 
fluctuations in density out of which galaxies and other large-scale 
structures formed. This would provide a critical test of such in- 
flationary theories as well as of the underlying elementary particle 
theories. To carry out such a program, one division member is 
using a simplified model of quantum field theory to predict the 
nature of the initial fluctuations. This eventually will be supple- 
mented by a detailed analysis of the subsequent development, by 
gravitational instability, of the fluctuations to the point where they 
become observable structures, such as galaxies or clusters of gal- 

Science I 139 

axies. In this project, one can see the surprising unity of theoreti- 
cal astrophysics in which an explanation of the largest structures 
in the universe is derived from properties of the smallest elemen- 
tary particles. 

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 

Basic scientific research aimed at understanding the processes oc- 
curring in the environment and their influence on biological sys- 
tems and organisms has been the principal activity of the Smith- 
sonian Environmental Research Center (serc) during the first year 
since its formation administratively on July 1, 1983. This research 
is long-term and emphasizes both laboratory and field-oriented 
studies in three major areas: Regulatory Biology, Environmental 
Biology, and Radiocarbon Dating. 

Serc has two principal facilities : a 50,000-square-foot laboratory 
at Rockville, Maryland, and 2,600 acres of land with a small lab- 
oratory and some support buildings at Edgewater, Maryland. The 
Edgewater property constitutes a unique estuarine research oppor- 
tunity, comprising nearly one-third of the watershed surrounding 
the Rhode River Estuary, a subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay 
located a few miles south of Annapolis, Maryland. 

These two facilities are separated geographically by forty-five 
miles. A major effort has been made during the year to inventory 
all space, equipment, support, and administrative services and 
research activities of serc. Following an intensive iterative process, 
the first phase of a Master Plan for the consolidation of facilities 
and research programs has been completed. The initial priority was 
to ascertain the feasibility of locating all of serc activities at Edge- 
water, and then to select a suitable site for the construction of 
permanent quarters. A site near the present complex of existing 
buildings has been selected for construction of a facility that will 
not only enhance laboratory-oriented research, but also will not 
impact unfavorably upon the long-term field sites under study 
or detract from the aesthetic qualities of the estuarine setting. 

The Center also maintains an educational program that includes 
graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, undergraduate work/learn 
students, and public educational activities. The public education 
aspects emphasize teacher- and docent-led tours and activities. 
Docents guide adult and family groups on a two-mile Discovery 

140 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Trail through outdoor research areas. A pamphlet keyed to sigr\s 
on the Discovery Trail makes the walk self-guiding for visitors 
who are not on a scheduled tour. A recently developed sound- 
track slide show describes the research at both Rockville and 

Forty-two regular scientific seminars were held at both Edge- 
water and Rockville in fiscal year 1984. This is an ongoing edu- 
cational activity of serc, serving to inform the scientific public 
about SERC research activities as well as to inform serc staff about 
the work of colleagues in universities and other governmental 

Serc staff members were frequently invited to present seminars 
and lectures to universities and laboratories and to participate in 
international and national symposia and scientific meetings. The 
staff also routinely served as reviewers for grant proposals to 
federal agencies and as reviewers of manuscripts submitted to 
peer-reviewed scientific journals. 

Research is done by staff scientists who represent a diverse 
number of disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, math- 
ematics, and engineering, in the framework of two divisions: 
Regulatory Biology and Environmental Biology. The principal 
product of SERC, its research publications, could not be achieved 
without the continuing collaboration between its scientific and 
support staffs. The scientific staff this year particularly wishes to 
acknowledge the assistance received from technicians, students, 
secretaries, and administrative staff under the sometimes difficult 
and unsettling conditions of a newly formed bureau. 


Regulatory Biology 

Regulatory Biology primarily emphasizes laboratory research to 
determine how environmental stimuli such as light, temperature, 
and various chemicals are perceived by plant cells and micro- 
organisms. Studies are made of the mechanisms and processes reg- 
ulated by these stimuli and the specific means by which they con- 
trol growth and differentiation. 

Plants sometimes have a control mechanism that enables them 
to detect the length of the day. This process, photoperiodism, or 
the control by light (photo-) of the seasonal reproduction (-period- 
ism) in plants, is affected by the spectral quality of sunlight. Some 
plants require daylengths greater than some critical minimum in 

Science f 141 

order to flower and are called long-day plants, while others re- 
quire daylengths shorter than some critical maximum and are 
called short-day plants. Nonphotoperiodic plants are called day- 
neutral and reproduce at some fixed time relative to when germi- 
nation occurred or to a change in temperature (thermoperiodic). 

Many economically important crops, such as cereals (with the 
sole exception of sorghum), belong to the long-day group. Experi- 
ments with barley have shown that the response to increasing 
daylengths is markedly stimulated by including light that is just 
beyond that which the human eye can detect (called far-red or 
near-infrared light). It is believed that the basis for the photo- 
periodic control in these plants is the coincidence of a light signal 
with an internal biological clock, which determines the sensitivity 
of the plant to the presence of far-red light. Thus, not only must 
light of the proper spectral quality be present, but it must be 
present at the right time in order to promote flowering. 

Once the proper light signal is perceived by a plant, a series of 
biochemical reactions is initiated in the leaf that ultimately results 
in the production of some translocatable signal that transforms the 
shoot apex into a reproductive structure, a flower. This light signal 
that strikes the leaf is absorbed by a pigment, phytochrome, that is 
present in plants that are capable of forming the green pigment 
chlorophyll used for photosynthesis. 

Preliminary experiments carried out several years ago at the 
Smithsonian by Dr. M. Ziv, a visiting scientist from the Hebrew 
University in Israel, suggested that in peanut seedlings, the elonga- 
tion of the female supporting structure (peg), which carries the 
developing peanut below ground, is controlled by light. In addition, 
development at the end of the peg of the ovule, embryo, and finally 
mature pod is controlled by light. She suggested the peanut peg 
might be an analogous model system to study signal transmission 
in comparison to flowering. 

This year the maturation of the peanut embryo has been demon- 
strated to be strictly controlled by phytochrome located in the ma- 
ternal, ovular tissue and not in the embryo itself. Thus, like the 
photoperiodic signal, something produced in one tissue in response 
to light must be translocated to another tissue to control develop- 
ment. The localization of this phytochrome in peanut ovules and 
embryos is being investigated by immunocytological staining to 
determine whether the interorgan distribution of phytochrome can 
explain the observed light regulation of this response. 

The chemical nature of the signal produced in the leaves that 

142 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

brings about flowering is unknown. It moves in the phloem trans- 
port system from leaves to the plant apex. Phloem sap was collected 
from Perilla (Asiatic mint) leaves exposed to increasing numbers of 
inductive short days. In Perilla it takes a minimum of seven short 
days to induce some flowering. Extracts of this phloem sap have 
been made. One peak in the neutral ethyl acetate fraction is pres- 
ent in phloem from flowering plants but is not present, or is in very 
low amounts, in vegetative phloem sap. This peak appears between 
three and six days after the beginning of inductive short days. This 
material is being accumulated by high-pressure liquid chromatog- 
raphy and will be tested for its effect on flowering when added to 
vegetative plants. 

Extraction experiments using duckweed (Lemna) have generated 
several peaks of activity from Lemna gibba G3 plants that have 
flower-inducing activity when tested on Lemna paucicostata 151. 
One of these active peaks was identified collaboratively with Pro- 
fessors Takimoto and Takahashi of Japan as nicotinic acid. The 
remaining peaks have not yet been identified. Experiments have 
begun to measure nicotinic acid in flowering and vegetative plants. 

When Lemna gibba G3 is grown under long days either on a 
complete E (modified Hoagland's) medium or on an ammonium- 
ion-free half-strength Hutner's medium to which ten micromoles 
of salicylic acid have been added, excellent flowering of 75-80 per- 
cent occurs. If plants are kept on these media for seven days and 
then are transferred, still under long days, to an ammonium-ion- 
free half-strength Hutner's medium without salicylic acid being 
present, the long day-induced flowering persists much more than 
the salicylic acid-induced flowering. (This transfer medium used 
from the beginning would bring about almost no flowering.) This 
result suggests that salicylic acid does not exert its effect by caus- 
ing the formation of the flowering stimulus in the same way long- 
day induction does. Salicylic acid is known to be quickly inactivated 
and sequestered after being taken into plants. It probably never 
reaches the meristems that are directly exposed to the medium. 
Therefore, we conclude that salicylic acid sets into motion some 
change that can mimic the effect of the flowering stimulus and can 
lead to flower formation. 

In the medium lacking salicylic acid, if the phosphate concentra- 
tion is increased ten to twentyfold, flowering of 40 to 60 percent 
occurs. Suboptimal concentrations of salicylic acid interact syner- 
gistically with phosphate to promote flowering. Salicylic acid prob- 
ably stimulates phosphate uptake or alters phosphate metabolism. 

Science I 143 

Experiments on the uptake of carbon-14 labelled salicylic acid 
continue. A peak at the origin on thin layer chromatography plates 
from the acidic ethyl acetate fraction becomes very prominent with 
uptake periods of longer than six hours. Earlier studies had over- 
looked this material. It is being assayed to determine if it is a 
bound form of salicylic acid and whether it has flower-inducing 

Last year evidence was reported from radioimmunological assays 
that plant extracts contain insulinlike materials. This year two 
different insulin bioassays also yielded good activity. However, this 
insulinlike material is different from any mammalian insulin that 
has been tested. In addition, somatostatin-like activity has been 
found in extracts of both duckweed and spinach. Somatostatin is 
an animal peptide hormone that regulates release of insulin and 
glucagon from the pancreas in man. 

The light-absorbing pigment, phytochrome, that perceives these 
stimuli is a protein, and it can be isolated and purified from dark- 
grown rye seedlings. It can exist in two relatively stable forms. On 
purified material the light activation process can be studied under 
controlled conditions. An area on the surface of the protein mole- 
cule changes shape after exposure to light. This area has been pro- 
posed to be the chemically active site involved in the first step of 
phytochrome-mediated responses. The binding of a number of de- 
fined chemical probes to this site has been examined this year. 
Both hydrophobic and ionic groups become more exposed to the 
exterior of the protein after exposure to light. However, the chemi- 
cal function of this site has not yet been identified. Phytochrome 
molecules isolated from both oat and pea seedlings contain a simi- 
lar site on the protein surface. 

It has long been known that light energy striking red or blue- 
green algal cells is absorbed by accessory pigments, phycobilipro- 
teins, transferred to photosystem II of photosynthesis and then 
distributed to photosystem I. Characterization has continued of the 
oxygen-evolving, phycobilisome-photosystem II particles that were 
isolated for the first time last year from the red alga Porphyridium 
cruentum. In both red and blue-green algae, the phycobilisomes 
exist on the external (stromal) surface of the photosynthetic thyla- 
koid lamellae. Grana stacks and chlorophyll a/b complexes do not 
exist in these organisms. Thus, the seemingly less complex thyla- 
koid structure in Porphyridium and the direct energy transfer path- 
way from phycobiliprotein to photosystem II provide a promising 

144 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

system for exploring the structural relationship of photosystem II 
with its accessory pigment, phycobilisome, antenna. 

The isolated particles have very high oxygen evolution rates and 
a greatly reduced chlorophyll content. The average ratio in the par- 
ticles is sixty chlorophyll molecules per phycobilisome as compared 
to about 1,200 chlorophyll molecules per phycobilisome in the un- 
fractionated thylakoid membranes. Photosystem I is greatly re- 
duced in these particles. Electron microscopic observations con- 
firmed that the particles are relatively homogeneous and that 
typical thylakoid membranes are absent. The electron microscopic 
fields showed phycobilisomes, often in clusters of two or three, 
that had small appendages seemingly at the base of the phycobili- 
somes. Thus, these particles from Porphyridium are different from 
the other photosystem Il-enriched particles in that they have one 
of the highest oxygen-evolving rates thus far observed, and unlike 
other preparations, they have functional coupling of the intact 
phycobilisome with the photosystem II thylakoid system. 

Phycobilisomes from the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans 
were studied for the wild type and several spontaneous mutants 
were selected for improved growth in far-red light. By electron 
microscopy, the thylakoid area of wild type and the 85Y mutant, 
as well as the phycobilisome size and morphology, were deter- 
mined. The size of phycobilisomes of wild type cells were larger 
than those of the 85Y mutant. The number of phycobilisomes per 
cell, calculated from the phycobiliprotein content and phycobili- 
some size, was about the same in wild type grown in white light 
and 85Y mutants grown in far-red light. However, the number of 
phycobilisomes per unit area of thylakoid increased by almost two- 
fold in cells grown in far-red light. 

A large portion of the chloroplast is composed of membranous 
sacs (thylakoids) in which the electron transport reactions of pho- 
tosynthesis take place. Some of the polypeptides of the thylakoids 
are made in the chloroplast on chloroplast ribosomes. These chloro- 
plast-synthesized polypeptides are translated from messenger ribo- 
nucleic acids (mRNAs) that are coded for by the chloroplast 
genome. Chloroplast ribosomes are attached to the thylakoids, but 
are also present in the chloroplast ground substance (stroma). 
Spinach is being used to investigate the possibility that the thyla- 
koid-bound ribosomes are specifically synthesizing polypeptides 
that are cotranslationally added to the thylakoids. 

Work is continuing on the site of biosynthesis and addition to 

Science / 145 

the thylakoids of the polypeptide that is the reaction center of 
photosystem I (apo CP I). It is an integral membrane polypeptide. 
mRNA for apo CP I was found to be largely associated with thyla- 
koids. Also, thylakoids with attached ribosomes synthesized apo 
CP I. The newly synthesized apo CP I remained with the thylakoids 
at termination of protein synthesis. Synthesis of apo CP I was 
determined by immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized radio- 
active apo CP I with specific antibody against apo CP I. However, 
only a small portion of specific immunoprecipitable radioactive pro- 
tein migrated on acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the position of 
authentic apo CP I. Therefore, confirmation of localization within 
the chloroplast of apo CP I mRNA, and of synthesis of apo CP I 
by thylakoids with bound ribosomes, is being sought. For this pur- 
pose a portion of the apo CP I gene (apo CP I probe) has been 
isolated from a cloned segment of chloroplast DNA containing the 
gene for apo CP I. The apo CP I probe will be used to determine 
the sub-chloroplast locahzation of apo CP I mRNA, and for isola- 
tion of apo CP I mRNA. 

Work on the site of synthesis, and on the addition of polypep- 
tides to thylakoids has been extended to a second integral thylakoid 
polypeptide, the polypeptide of the proteolipid component of thy- 
lakoid translocating ATPase (proteolipid). Proteolipid was isolated 
from thylakoids and antibody (anti-proteolipid) was prepared. It 
was found that thylakoids with bound ribosomes synthesized poly- 
peptide that was immunoprecipitated with anti-proteolipid. The re- 
sult indicates that at least some of the proteolipid is synthesized by 
thylakoid-bound ribosomes. 

In the fungus Neurospora crassa, blue light is required for the 
induction of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis. Phytoene, a colorless 
precursor of the carotenoid pigments, accumulates in dark-grown 
cultures. Hence, it has been postulated that enzymes after phytoene 
in the pathway are regulated by light. It has also been shown, how- 
ever, that enzymes before phytoene in the pathway are photo- 

The conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to phytoene 
in Neurospora crassa requires both a soluble and a particulate frac- 
tion. The soluble fraction catalyzes the formation of geranylgeranyl 
pyrophosphate (GGPP) from IPP. This activity is drastically re- 
duced in an albino-3 mutant. The particulate fraction catalyzes the 
conversion of GGPP to phytoene. In a wild-type strain of Neuro- 
spora, a blue-light treatment of the mycelia causes a tenfold in- 

146 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

crease in the particulate enzyme activity, while the soluble activity 
increases twofold. 

This year the photoregulation of GGPP synthesis has been stud- 
ied in more detail. The conversion of IPP to GGPP requires at least 
two enzymes, IPP isomerase and GGPP synthetase. To assay 
GGPP synthetase it is necessary to separate it from the isomerase. 
This has been accomplished using hydroxylapatite chromatog- 
raphy. Also by this procedure, GGPP synthetase has been sepa- 
rated from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthetase, an enzyme 
that catalyzes the formation of FPP which is used as a substrate 
for sterol synthesis. 

Using hydroxylapatite chromatography, it was found that an 
in vivo blue-light treatment causes an increase in GGPP synthetase 
activity without any apparent effect on FPP synthetase or IPP 
isomerase. Furthermore, GGPP synthetase activity is present at a 
much lower level in an albino-3 mutant than in the wild type, while 
the other two enzymes were present at wild type levels. 

The discomycete fungus Pyronema domesticum forms apothecia 
(reproductive structures) in white light in closed Petri dishes and 
in the absence of circulating air in an incubator. Ultraviolet-A 
radiation (320 to 420 nm) at an intensity of 104 microwatts per 
square centimeter was found this year to be the effective region 
of the white light that induces large numbers of apothecia in 
sealed flask cultures. Mycelial growth was inhibited at intensities 
that induce apothecia formation. Exposure to intense ultravioIet-A 
radiation (4030 microwatts per square centimeter) results in death 
of the mycelium. Apothecia was found to form also in the dark in 
stagnant air in the presence of activated charcoal. Apparently, 
volatile substances released by the fungus are inhibitory to apothe- 
cia formation. This inhibition is removed by adsorption to the 
activated charcoal but the chemical nature of the inhibitor is un- 

Mature sporangiophores (Stage IV) of the fungus Phycomyces 
blakesleeanus give weak and erratic gravitropic responses when 
placed in a horizontal position. However, it was found that if 
sporangiophores are exposed horizontally to gravity during 
younger developmental stages (Stages II and III) in which the cells 
do not elongate or give a gravitropic response, subsequent gravi- 
tropic responses observed in Stage IV have a shorter and more uni- 
form latency. This early exposure to altered gravitational orienta- 
tion causes the sporangiophore to develop a gravireceptor as it 
matures to Stage IV and resumes elongation. 

Science I 147 

Sporangiophores are allowed to develop this increased sensi- 
tivity by balancing a blue-light-induced phototropic response 
against the gravity-induced geotropism. An optical microscopic 
technique was developed to observe the spatial relationship be- 
tween the vacuole and protoplasm of a living sporangiophore once 
this photogeotropic equilibrium was established. The thickness of 
the cytoplasmic layer is thinner on the upper surface of the cell 
than on the lower surface. It is believed that this increased cyto- 
plasmic thickness is involved in developing increased geotropic 
sensitivity and causes increased growth on the lower side of the 
sporangiophore with a subsequent positive geotropic response. 

Environmental Biology 

The opening of the pores on leaves (stomates) that allow for the 
entry of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis has been thought to be 
regulated by blue light or red light that is effective for photo- 
synthesis. Newly obtained data indicate that the far-red portion of 
natural sunlight interacts with an internal rhythm of the leaves to 
control pore size. This far-red light has been found to be most 
effective when other qualities of light are simultaneously present. 
Thus, the amount of far-red light present is apparently the sig- 
nificant cue enabling plants to carry out maximum rates of photo- 
synthesis under natural conditions. 

Measurements of the carbon dioxide gas conductivity controlled 
by the stomata (pores) on primary leaves of bean seedlings dem- 
onstrated that phytochrome modulates light-induced stomatal 
opening. Removal of the far-red absorbing form by exposure to 
far-red light decreased the time required to reach maximal open- 
ing following a dark to light transition, as in sunrise. Removal of 
the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome also decreased the 
time required to reach maximal closure following a light to dark 
transition, as in sunset. Removal of the far-red absorbing form of 
phytochrome is brought about by greater quantities of far-red light 
in the sunlight spectrum relative to the red portion of the spec- 
trum. Sufficiently high far-red to red ratios of sunlight occur at 
sunrise and at sunset. 

The photosynthetic productivity of plants is regulated by the 
amount of carbon dioxide available. The absolute carbon dioxide 
concentration measured above the tropical forest on Barro Colo- 
rado Island in the Republic of Panama indicates that there is an 
annual increase of 1.5 parts per million, a value that correlates 

148 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

well with values found at other global stations. Measurements of 
carbon dioxide exchange and monitoring of amounts of photo- 
synthetically active radiation, temperature, and wind velocity have 
been carried out for one year on Barro Colorado Island, sponsored 
by an Environmental Science Program grant. These data will com- 
prise the formation of baseline data to ascertain the effects of 
changes in these parameters with other continuing ecological 
studies on the island. 

Initial carbon flux rates, using gas measurements and eddy cor- 
relation techniques, indicate a 20 percent greater productivity rate 
in the tropical forest than those measured by conventional leaf 
litterbox collection techniques of gathering leaves, fruits, and twigs 
that drop from trees or visual estimation techniques of ascertain- 
ing the extent and change of the forest leaf canopy. The param- 
eters measured were found to have a very high correlation coeffi- 
cient with the carbon flux rates measured for this initial year of 
operation. The measurements will continue to test the validity of 
these correlations of growth as influenced by carbon dioxide con- 
centrations available to the forest canopy. 

Plants occupying coastal wetlands have to overcome several 
stressful environmental factors, one of which is salt. The dominant 
plant species in this ecosystem, Spartina alterniflora (Common 
Cordgrass), has the ability to tolerate salt concentrations three to 
four times that of seawater. The typical response to such high salt 
levels over many seasons is for the plants to be diminished in 
height by an order of magnitude. 

In attempting to understand the physiological basis for this 
dwarfing response, the reaction of the photosynthetic apparatus of 
this plant to salinity and other factors has been examined. The 
working hypothesis is that adaptations to high salt concentrations, 
lack of oxygen, and perhaps other characteristics of this plant's 
habitat are at least partially an adaptation to water stress. 

When the roots of S. alterniflora were flooded with water that 
contained gradually increasing salt concentrations over a period 
of twenty-four hours, the response of the plant's photosynthetic 
apparatus was different from a rapid, large increase in salinity. 
When the step increase was large (i.e., from low salinity to sea- 
water salinity) there was an immediate response in the stomata, 
which limited the supply of CO2 to the intercellular spaces. When 
the step increases were small, and the plant was given time to 
adjust, the stomata played a very small role in limiting the supply 
of CO2. In the latter case, kinetic studies of light and CO2 showed 

Science I 149 

that the imposed stress affected the photosynthetic capacity (i.e., 
the maximum rate of CO2 assimilation) in high light conditions 
and CO2, but did not influence the rate of photosynthesis at low 
light intensities. 

Typically, increments in sahnity of salt marsh soils occur over 
periods of days, and are influenced by the frequency and intensity 
of storms and by the tides. Thus, the ability of salt marsh species 
to acclimate to changes in soil salinity within a twenty-four hour 
period may be a crucial physiological adaptation for surviving 
environmental stress. 

Measurements of the amounts of ultraviolet sunlight received at 
the earth's surface show that there are periodic increases and de- 
creases that are not caused by the activities of man or by volcanic 
activity. Current data from land-based instruments operated by 
SERC, indicate that these increases and decreases are due primarily 
to differences in the amounts of ultraviolet produced by the sun. 
Data obtained by National Air and Space Administration satellites 
of solar radiation above the atmosphere support this finding. 
Therefore, concerns about man's role through the addition of 
fluorocarbons that change the earth's atmosphere by altering the 
ozone concentrations, thus changing the amounts of ultraviolet 
radiation transmitted, must be evaluated in terms of this informa- 
tion. Instruments were installed late in fiscal year 1984 at Mauna 
Loa Observatory in Hawaii in collaboration with the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to measure ultraviolet at 
the 11,000-foot level. These measurements in the relatively clean 
atmosphere, remote from urban pollution, will provide a better 
indication of the changes in ultraviolet resulting from atmospheric 
changes specifically in the troposphere. 

Long-term measurements of the color quality and amounts of 
visible solar radiation over a fifteen-year time period have been 
completed and indicate a remarkable stability for any given geo- 
graphical location. This stability is true only for the visible portion 
of sunlight and since most of the visible sunlight changes so little, 
measurements are no longer needed in wide bands. These data pro- 
vide an extensive base line available to future researchers. Instru- 
ments designed and constructed by serc that measure in relatively 
narrow bands in the visible portion of the spectrum have proven 
to be very reliable, and their use will continue in measuring se- 
lected bands of sunlight of interest for specific biological responses 
such as photosynthesis or flowering. 

150 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Radiocarbon Dating 

The radiocarbon dating laboratory operates within the Regulatory 
Division, performing basic research in radiocarbon dating as well 
as providing service datings of archeologically interesting artifacts 
for the museums. 

Studies of the relative rise of sea levels in the Gulf of Maine 
over recent time periods has continued. A large discrepancy in the 
radiocarbon dates for shell-midden sites along the shore of Passa- 
maquaddy Bay in coastal Maine prompted an investigation of rela- 
tive sea level rise in the area as a result of crustal warping. Tide 
gauge records and documented photographic records indicate that 
while the relative sea level is rising a few centimeters per century 
in western New Brunswick, that rise amounts to nearly a meter 
per century in eastern coastal Maine. In cooperation with the Uni- 
versity of Maine, cores of salt marsh peats have been taken at 
numerous sites along coastal Maine, and are being dated to pro- 
vide a more extensive chronology of sea level rise. Initial evidence 
suggests that a similar rapid rise took place in this region between 
2,500 and 2,000 years ago. A geologic fault line separating the 
two areas indicates continued geological instability. 


Environmental Biology 

The principal objective of serc's environmental biology program is 
the study of environmental processes in estuarine and watershed 
systems. Observational and manipulative studies are designed to 
develop and test ecological concepts at the macroscopic process 
level (landscape, habitat, community, or population). Emphasis is 
placed upon studies of how biological communities are developed 
and maintained over time. The need for such research is increas- 
ingly critical in a world where chronic disturbance is causing 
major reductions in the productivity and diversity of environmen- 
tal systems. The primary site for this long-term, intensive research 
is the Smithsonian property on the Chesapeake Bay (tidal Rhode 
River and its watershed). The site includes a mixture of land uses 
typical of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, as well as freshwater and 
brackish tidal wetlands, and an estuarine tributary to the Chesa- 
peake Bay. This environmental diversity and the long-term control 
of the property make the site exceptionally suitable for a variety 
of studies of the complex processes linking terrestrial and estu- 

Science I ISl. 

arine systems. Comparative studies are also conducted at a wide 
range of secondary sites, to test the generality of research results 
from the primary site. 

Genetic and Morphological Diversification of Salamanders 

Although salamanders are often considered to be characteristic of 
the north temperature zone, more than half of the world's sala- 
mander species actually live in the New World tropics. In the most 
recent phase of a long-term comparative study, involving scientists 
from the Smithsonian Institution, the University of California 
(Berkeley), and the University of Chicago, patterns of genetic and 
morphological similarity were compared in salamanders of the 
genus Pseudoeurycea that inhabit the Transverse Volcanic Range 
of south-central Mexico. Previous evolutionary studies of this 
group had been hampered by superficial similarities in the appear- 
ance of even distantly related species, but the separation of en- 
zymes by starch-gel electrophoresis and the analysis of detailed 
morphological measurements has made it possible to sort out much 
of the complex genealogy of these salamanders. 

As a result of this research, a distinctive new species (Pseudo- 
eurycea longicauda), was discovered and described, and the rela- 
tionships of P. leprosa, P. robertsi, and P. altamontana were clari- 
fied. P. leprosa consists of a number of morphologically similar, 
but geographically isolated, populations that inhabit the highest 
volcanic peaks and ridges in south-central Mexico. Genetic com- 
parisons indicate that some presently isolated populations have 
been separated only since the Pleistocene era, while others have 
not exchanged genetic material since early Pliocene times. At the 
other extreme, P. robertsi and P. altamontana are sufficiently dif- 
ferent in appearance to have been placed in different species 
groups by previous workers, but electrophoretic comparison of 
enzyme variation in these two species suggests that they have 
diverged only within the last 1-2 million years. 

Ecology of Cranefly Orchid 

Long-term studies of the Cranefly Orchid (Tipularia discolor) in 
a deciduous forest at the center's research site in Maryland are 
revealing the complex nature of a plant species' adaptations to its 
environment. Because this plant produces one corm (an under- 
ground storage organ) per year, which persists for several years, 
and also has distinct reproductive and vegetative seasonability, it 

152 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

was chosen as the subject of a study on how plants allocate their 
resources in a natural population. Corms older than one year lose 
weight gradually during the year and most vegetative growth goes 
into current year corms. Leaves and sexual reproductive structures 
account, at peak weight, for approximately 20 percent of the total 
plant. The largest percentages of nutrients were found in corms 
two years older, and nutrient concentrations were also high in 
newly formed leaves and flowers. Analysis of the weight and nu- 
trient data suggests that translocation is important, but it does not 
account for all of the uptake in new growth. Plants must, there- 
fore, assimilate nutrients from the soil during periods of growth. 
The results suggest that large, belowground nutrient storage pools 
are maintained for purposes other than providing nutrients for 
pulses of growth. 

Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Birds 

Man's use of the landscape often results in habitat fragmentation, 
which has diverse ramifications for the animals dependent upon 
the affected habitat. One of the long-term studies at the center has 
addressed the question: To what extent has man's alteration of the 
eastern deciduous forest on the coastal plain impacted breeding 
bird populations? Point surveys were used to estimate the abun- 
dance and diversity of breeding forest birds in relation to the size, 
degree of isolation, floristics, physiognomy, and successional ma- 
turity of 270 upland forest patches in the coastal plain province 
of Maryland. Physiognomic and floristic characteristics of the tree, 
shrub, and herb layers of the forest were measured at each site. 
The local abundance of almost every bird species breeding in the 
interior of upland forests was found to be significantly influenced 
by forest area, isolation, structure, or floristics, or combinations 
of these factors. Highly migratory species tended to be most 
abundant in extensive stands of mature, floristically diverse forests 
that were only slightly isolated from sources of potential colonists. 
Densities of permanent residents and short-distance migrants 
tended to be less affected by these site characteristics, or had 
responses opposite in sign to those of long-distance migrants. 

The impacts of forest fragmentation on bird populations are 
complex and species-specific. Many bird species respond strongly 
to factors other than, or in addition to, forest patch area and iso- 
lation. Dissection of the landscape into small highly isolated 
patches of forest adversely affects some bird species, but struc- 

Science I 153 

tural and floristic characteristics of the forest are more important 
than patch size and isolation for many species, given the existing 
distribution of forest patches in the coastal plain of Maryland. 

Agricultural Herbicides in Runoff 

Today most farmers utilize preemergent herbicides (weed killers) 
as a part of row-crop management. These compounds avoid the 
necessity of mechanical weed control while the crop is developing 
after planting. Serc has conducted extensive research upon the 
fate of these chemicals in order to evaluate their potential for 
nontarget effects in receiving waters. Two commonly used herbi- 
cides in cornfields of the Rhode River Watershed are atrazine 
(2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino,l/3,5,-triazine) and ala- 
chlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-methoxymethyl acetanilide). Al- 
though alachlor was applied in larger quantities, atrazine was de- 
tected more frequently in runoff waters and had greater concen- 
trations than alachlor (0-40 vs. 0-6 parts per billion (ppb)). Atra- 
zine was more persistent and more mobile in watershed soils. Con- 
centrations in discharges were not closely related to agricultural 
land-use. Runoff waters from forested watersheds where herbi- 
cides were not directly applied were contaminated with herbicides 
as a result of atmospheric transport and spray drift. During the 
three-year study period, a maximum of ten ppb of atrazine, and 
up to 0.5 ppb alachlor were discharged in winter runoff waters 
from the eight experimental watersheds, indicating the importance 
of flow degradation and complex transport mechanisms. In addi- 
tion to reflecting the quantity of herbicides directly applied to land 
surface, residual herbicide levels in runoff waters must be influ- 
enced by other important factors such as topography and location 
of croplands in relationship to drainage channel. A major portion 
of atrazine was found to be in solution in runoff-water samples 
collected during storm events. Percolation in subsurface flow and 
dissolution in overland flow were believed to be important trans- 
port mechanisms. 

Displacement of Alkaline Ions by Acid Rain 

In recent years, environmental scientists in several locations have 
gradually perceived the importance of chemicals that enter vari- 
ous ecosystems in precipitation. To a considerable extent this con- 
cern has resulted from the documentation of steadily increasing 
acidity in rainfall. This increased acidity in precipitation is pri- 

154 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

marily due to increasing concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen 
oxides in the atmosphere. In such places as Sweden, the White 
Mountains of New Hampshire, the Smoky Mountains of North 
Carolina, the Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee, the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of 
New Mexico, research reports have documented and summarized 
both ion inputs in precipitation and ionic losses in land discharge. 
Differences between ionic inputs and outputs can then be ascribed 
to the interactions of vegetation and soils with chemical com- 
ponents in the precipitation. Most of these published studies were 
conducted in mountainous regions with low human populations and 
limited land management. None were in the Atlantic Coastal Plain 
of the United States. An understanding of natural (i.e., unman- 
aged) systems is theoretically important, but of limited value when 
extrapolations must be made to complex, multiple-land-use sys- 
tems. Understanding nutrient dynamics on a multiple-land-use 
basis is critically important for wise management of the land. The 
most abundant land uses on the Rhode River Watershed, as else- 
where on the Atlantic Coastal Plain are forest, cropland, and 
pastureland. Since no calcareous minerals are found in watershed 
soils, the latter are poorly buffered against acid rain inputs. 

Ionic inputs in precipitation and farm chemicals were measured, 
as were ionic outputs in land runoff from the principal land-use 
categories. Patterns of ionic composition were also traced along 
pathways of surface runoff during storms and soil water percola- 
tion between storms. The results from this research confirm other 
studies that have found a trend of increasing acidity in rainfall, as 
well as important regional differences in its effects. It is clear that 
at the Rhode River site, increased hydrogen ion inputs are dis- 
placing the essential plant nutrients of Mg++, Ca++, and K+. 
Although displacement rates are apparently low, available nutrient 
pools in forested areas could be depleted in a few decades, causing 
ecologically significant effects. Ion losses appeared to be propor- 
tional to the magnitude of disturbance associated with the three 
land uses studied. Thus, total cation and anion outputs were low- 
est at the forest site, similar but somewhat higher for the pasture- 
land, and significantly greater in the cropland discharge than in 
either of the other two. Concentrations in the receiving streams 
closely approximated the discharge-weighted concentrations of 
surface and groundwater, indicating that analysis of these different 
flow pathways through a watershed is an important key to under- 
standing the origins of the final output concentrations. 

Science I 155 

The functional importance of streamside forest in reducing ni- 
trate concentrations in discharge from an agricultural watershed 
was clearly shown, raising interesting questions as to the general- 
ity of this result. Other questions raised by this study are the 
importance of Fe, Mn, and Al ions in intra-watershed patterns of 
ion change, and the problem of what measures should be taken to 
best compensate for K + , Mg++, and Ca++ losses. 

Tidal Exchange of Nutrients by Marshes 

The ecological role of marshes in regulating nutrients, sediments, 
and microorganisms in adjacent tidal marshes has attracted the 
interest of many environmental scientists in recent years. In an 
effort to help clarify this role, serc scientists measured and com- 
pared exchanges by two types of brackish tidal marshes that differ 
in surface elevation and, therefore, frequency of flooding. Both 
types of marsh tended to import particulate matter and export 
dissolved matter, although they differed in the fluxes of certain 
nutrients. Compared with tidal exchanges, bulk precipitation was 
a major source of ammonia and nitrate and a minor source of 
other nutrients. There was a net retention of nutrients by the por- 
tion of the Rhode River that included both marshes and mudflat. 
However, the marshes accounted for only 10 percent of the phos- 
phorus retention and 1 percent of the nitrogen retention, while 
they released organic carbon amounting to 20 percent of the re- 
tention. This suggests that the mudflat, which was interacting with 
the marshes by tidal exchange, acted as a major sink for nutrients. 
The primary role of the marshes seems to be transformation of 
particulate nutrients to dissolved form, rather than net retention 
or release of nutrients. The exchange of bacteria and algae via tidal 

water movements was also studied. A small net import of bacterial 
and algal cells into both types of marsh was measured, but only an 
insignificant portion of the total nutrient transport was due to the 
nutrient content of these cells. 

Bacterial Movement in Marsh Sediments 

Environmental scientists have been attempting to determine mech- 
anisms and pathways of nutrient movement in tidal marshes. One 
hypothesis is that significant movement occurs as microbial cells 
suspended in the brackish water percolate through marsh sedi- 
ments. Concentrations and sizes of bacteria in sediments were 

156 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

determined. Their concentrations in percolating water were found 
to be less than 1 percent of the number adhering to sediment par- 
ticles. The concentrations of bacteria in water flooding the marshes 
was also higher than in waters leaving the marshes in ebbing tides. 
Thus, movement of bacterial cells doesn't seem to be a major mech- 
anism of nutrient movement in marsh sediments. 

Smithsonian Office of Educational Research 

Effective October 1, 1984, the Smithsonian Office of Educational 
Research (soer) was estabUshed to investigate and improve learn- 
ing as it occurs outside the formal educational system. Recognizing 
that schools alone are not equipped to address all the educational 
needs of America today, the soer is engaged in promoting educa- 
tional endeavors at all levels and in diverse settings in the belief 
that lifelong learning habits can only be established with the sup- 
port and participation of a broad spectrum of society. 

People can, and do, learn in a wide variety of situations, although 
some are more conducive to the transfer and acquisition of infor- 
mation than others. The soer represents a unique opportunity for 
studying how people learn outside of traditional educational 
venues, i.e., schools, and was created in response to the need to 
investigate informal learning as it occurs in settings such as mu- 
seums, zoos, and natural areas. It is notable that in the United 
States, hundreds of millions of people annually visit museums. Far 
exceeding in attendance all spectator sports combined, museum 
visitation represents one of the most popular out-of-the-home rec- 
reational activities in America, and yet an understanding of how 
museums function as educational institutions is not yet fully devel- 

As an environment that facilitates rather than directs learning, 
a museum can profoundly influence paths of educational pursuits, 
arouse interest, inspire appreciation, promote scientific and cultural 
literacy, and offer an avenue for lifelong learning opportunities. 
While few professionals would deny this assertion, supporting evi- 
dence, based upon empirical research, is woefully lacking. 

Staffed with research psychologists and education specialists, the 
soer has initiated studies to examine how people learn in a wide 
variety of social and physical contexts and is particularly interested 

Science I 157 

in the role of the family in learning. The Smithsonian Family Learn- 
ing Project (SFLP), which has developed science activities for fami- 
lies to do together at home, has received enthusiastic responses 
from tens of thousands of families as well as unsolicited national 
publicity. Sflp activities will be widely available for the first time 
in the form of a poster-sized wall calendar this fiscal year, and a 
series of sflp booklets are soon to be published. 

Funded by the National Science Foundation and using a spe- 
cially developed research method, a study on "The Role of the 
Family in the Promotion of Science Literacy" is nearing comple- 
tion, following observation research conducted at the National 
Museum of Natural History. This fiscal year, the National Science 
Foundation funded a Community-based Science Project that will 
attempt to integrate expertise afforded by a variety of community 
representatives, including teachers, scientists, technicians, parents, 
and children into a concerted effort directed toward enhancing all 
participants' awareness and appreciation of science as it relates to 
society and technology today. 

Another project, being conducted at the National Zoological 
Park, is concerned with the development and testing of orientations 
for families visiting the Small Mammal House. The materials will 
be tested for their effectiveness in enhancing the educational value 
of family visits to a zoological exhibit. Other family-related re- 
search efforts include studies at the National Museum of Natural 
History in Washington, D.C., and the National Museum of Natural 
History in New Delhi, India. 

Results of SOER studies concerning the dynamics of behavior and 
learning among museum visitors and families have been and will 
continue to be useful to professionals in education, exhibit design, 
and family services nationwide. Findings are disseminated through 
publications, seminars, and workshops for both professional and 
lay audiences. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


The comparative method plays an essential role in biological under- 
standing, and the tropics, with their unparalleled diversity of plants 
and animals, offer by far the most fruitful opportunity for compari- 

158 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

son. Moreover, tropical conditions are near the norm for most of 
the earth over most of the last few hundred million years, while 
conditions typical of modern "temperate" zones have been far more 
restricted or ephemeral. Research in the tropics, where the preci- 
sion of adaptation and the intricacy of interdependence reach their 
height, will accordingly play an essential role in any attempt to 
understand life in its full and proper context. 

It is therefore an urgent duty to become sufficiently acquainted 
with the denizens, plant and animal, of tropical habitats, to be able 
to bring them to life for a wider public. Only if rain forests and 
coral reefs come alive in people's minds and imaginations can we 
hope that tropical habitats will not be wiped out, unheeded and 
unrecognized, as part of the macabre sacrifice of the "less devel- 
oped" world to the "developed." We have yet to complete Adam's 
task of naming the animals and plants; even a name, as Parmenides 
saw so long ago, helps bring something to life in men's minds, and 
is a necessary first step toward understanding. There is so much 
more to do. 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (stri) is well placed 
to help achieve the required understanding. Its primary advantages 

(1) Administration of, and access to, the Barro Colorado Nature 
Monument, a 5,400-hectare reserve of tropical forest, some of it 
primary, surrounding the central part of the Panama Canal. This 
reserve offers an unparalleled array of background information and 
previous research on which to build. 

(2) A position athwart a narrow isthmus between two very dif- 
ferent oceans, offering abundant opportunities for comparative 

(3) Extensive resources to support research — financial assistance 
for students, suitable laboratories and equipment, a research vessel, 
and an unusually good library. 

(4) A staff with worldwide experience in tropical research, and 
a group of students, postdoctoral fellows, and recurrent visitors 
committed to intensive tropical research. 

The quality of the student contribution, and the importance of 
adequate support for students, cannot be overemphasized. In 1984 
Phyllis Coley, now of the University of Utah, won the Ecological 
Society of America's Mercer Award for her thesis research on 
Barro Colorado Island, published in Ecological Monographs. This 
award is given to that young ecologist with the best ecological re- 
search published in the United States or Canada during the past 

Science I 159 

two years, and is the "highest form of recognition for pubUshed 
ecological research." In 1981 Nigel Franks, of the University of 
Leeds, won Britain's Thomas Henry Huxley award for thesis re- 
search on Barro Colorado. 


Helping others to recognize plants and animals, past and present, 
is a significant part of stri's research. Robert Dressier is continuing 
his studies of orchid taxonomy. Dolores Pipemo is continuing her 
work with phytoliths, silica inclusions in plants that persist in the 
soil when the plant decays, and whose shapes reveal the order or 
family, and sometimes the species, of the plant that formed them. 
Daniel Suman is studying carbonized particles from more than 
forty common species of grasses and twenty species of trees to see 
whether these species can be recognized from the fragments they 
release into the air when the plants are burned. David Roubik, 
Enrique Moreno, and Robert Schmalzel are preparing a "pollen 
flora" of Barro Colorado Island, which will allow students of bees 
to learn what species of plants bees are taking pollen from, students 
of flowering rhythms to learn the seasons when different species 
of plants are opening their flowers (by periodically sampling the 
pollen bees bring back to their hives), and paleobotanists to recon- 
struct the past history of vegetation from the layers of pollen de- 
posited at the bottom of a lake or bog. Nancy Garwood, in collab- 
oration with staff members of the British Museum (Natural 
History), has begun a seedling flora of Barro Colorado Island and 
adjoining parts of Panama, which will enable students of forest 
regeneration to identify seedlings of dicotyledenous trees, shrubs, 
and lianas. Joseph Wright and Hugh Churchill are preparing a 
flora and avifauna of the Contreras Islands, just off Coiba, which 
is the largest island off the Pacific Coast of Central America. 

The Origin and Nature of Biological Diversity 

A more prominent theme in stri's research is to understand the 
origin and document the nature of biological diversity, and to learn 
how it is maintained. 

William Eberhard has just completed a book on the evolution of 
genitalia. He finds that in almost any animal with internal fertiliza- 
tion, genitalia evolve steadily and rapidly, reflecting the advantage 
of any innovation that excites fuller reproductive response from 

160 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

the female, even if there is no need for the species to develop sex- 
ual habits sufficiently distinctive to avoid mating with members of 
related species. 

Genitalia accordingly provide a very convenient and effective 
means for distinguishing between species. More generally, William 
Eberhard's work supports the view of Charles Darwin that specia- 
tion reflects "accidental" divergence of isolated populations, reflect- 
ing their different response to sexual selection, rather than direct 
selection to prevent different populations from hybridizing. 

Mary Jane West-Eberhard has been studying tropical insect so- 
cieties, with an eye toward understanding some puzzles concerning 
the apparent suddenness with which species appear in the fossil 
record. Living in groups leads to social competition, which is often 
intense enough to dictate alternative specializations. Animals lack- 
ing the size and experience needed to "win the competition" for 
mates or food often have behavior patterns that allow them to cir- 
cumvent the competition. When, for some reason, one specializa- 
tion becomes disadvantageous throughout the population, might 
the newly unbalanced selection for the other lead to a sudden "evo- 
lutionary jump?" 

Robert Warner, of the University of California at Santa Barbara, 
has been studying blue-headed wrasses, fish that live on coral reefs 
of the San Bias Islands, off the Caribbean coast of Panama. Most of 
these fish are born female, and turn into bright-colored territorial 
males when large enough to compete effectively for females. Some, 
however, are born as female-colored "drab" males, which secure 
matings by stealth, rather than through open competition, illustrat- 
ing the "alternative specializations" just mentioned. They, too, turn 
into bright-colored territorial males when old enough to do so. 
Warner has been concerned with how "tradition" affects where on 
a reef the blue-head males set up their spawning territories. He 
finds that exchanging all territorial blue-heads between a pair of 
reefs does not affect where the territories are formed, and exchang- 
ing all fish of both sexes requires the spawning territories to be 
chosen anew. They are formed, as before, at the downcurrent end 
of the reef, so that fertilized eggs will quickly be swept away from 
the reef and its predators, but the territories are obviously different, 
suggesting that tradition does matter. 

Eric Fischer, of the University of Washington, has been studying 
the social behavior of a coral reef fish, Serranus baldwinii, in the 
San Bias Islands. Young adults are hermaphroditic, carrying male 
and female sex organs, both functional, but when they grow larger 

Science I 161 

they turn purely male, assume brighter colors, and maintain harems 
of hermaphrodites. 

He has also been studying Serranus tortugarum, a fish that main- 
tains functional organs of both sexes all its life. These fish spawn 
in pairs, the members of a pair exchanging sex roles in successive 
spawning bouts, as if trading eggs for each other to fertilize. They 
often pair with the same mate for days on end. However, in con- 
trast to the hamlets, Hypoplectrus, which Fischer studied earlier, 
these fish also dart in to fertilize eggs released by other mating 
pairs, and if they arrive too late to fertilize those eggs, they some- 
times try to eat them instead. 

Ken Clifton, of the University of California at Santa Barbara, 
has been studying the social behavior of the striped parrotfish, a 
small parrotfish common in the San Bias Islands. A large female 
has one or more smaller females in its territory. She apparently per- 
mits this because they help defend the territory against conspecifics, 
rather than for any help more eyes might give in watching for 
predators. This contrasts with insectivorous birds of the tropical 
forest understory, some of which feed in flocks of several species 
to take advantage of each other's vigilance. 

Arcadio Rodaniche has been studying the reef squid Sepioteuthis 
in the Indo-Pacific, to compare their social behavior with the Sepio- 
teuthis he studied with Martin Moynihan in the Caribbean. These 
squid have ten times more behavioral displays than most birds or 
mammals. This extensive repertoire is made possible by their daz- 
zling ability to change both hue and color pattern very rapidly. He 
has also been studying the social behavior of two harlequin octopi. 
Octopus cherchiae and Octopus sp., in the laboratory. These octopi 
are striped all over: their color pattern is more intricate, and more 
permanent, than those of most cephalopods, and their capacity to 
change color is restricted to adjusting the darkness of their pattern. 
Their social displays are accordingly of unusual interest. He also 
found that Octopus cherchiae reproduces more than once in its 
life, one of the very few cephalopods to do so. 

Ira Rubinoff, Jorge Motta, and Jeffrey Graham have been em- 
ploying ultrasonic transmitters to track Pacific sea snakes to learn 
how long and how deep they dive. They have been observed to dive 
as long as four hours, and as deep as twenty-six meters. In Panama 
Bay it appears that sea snakes dive to shallower depths during the 
dry season, when upwelling often moves the 20 °C isotherm closer 
to the surface. It is not known why they dive, although they are 

162 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

obviously well adapted to do so: they do not feed while they dive, 
and they do not dive to escape predators. 

Eldridge Adams, a predoctoral fellow, has been studying man- 
grove ants at Galeta, stri's mainland Caribbean field station. First 
he sampled 100 trees, ten meters apart, then 500 trees partitioned 
over several forests, for their ant communities. He found that trees 
with the rather aggressive small ant Azteca tended to lack Crema- 
togaster and vice versa. Zacryptocerus, on the other hand, tends to 
occur with Azteca, following them to food: Zacryptocerus appar- 
ently has a form and odor that the Azteca cannot sense. Adams has 
also been studying interactions between Azteca colonies and be- 
tween Azteca and Crematogaster, employing manipulative experi- 
ments where appropriate. Interactions between ant colonies are 
easily studied in mangrove forest, because the ants interact above 
ground where they can be seen. 

Jacqueline Belwood, another stri predoctoral fellow, has been 
studying various facets of the ecology and behavior of insecti- 
vorous bats, particularly bats that glean insects from foliage. She 
has followed seasonal changes in the diets of various foliage-glean- 
ing bats that take their prey back to their roosts before eating them: 
she judges their diets from the wings the bats drop to the forest 
floor while feeding. 

She has also discovered that one bat, Tonatia sylvicola, is at- 
tracted to calling male katydids but, instead of eating the calling 
male, it eats the females the male attracts. Moreover, she has dis- 
covered a bat, Myotis nigricans; whose call starts so slowly that a 
"fast Fourier transform" program cannot pick up its onset (al- 
though the program has no difficulty with the call when played 
backward). She inferred that moths could not hear its onset either, 
and verified that the bat lives entirely on moths. 

She has also studied the various ways katydids attract mates 
without being eaten: they may call rarely, or call from places the 
bats cannot get to, or attract mates by vibrating their perches in a 
manner that their conspecifics sense but the bats cannot. 

With James Fullard, of the University of Toronto, Jacqueline 
Belwood has been preparing a catalogue of recordings of the echo- 
location calls of the various bats on Barro Colorado Island, and 
they have now recorded thirty-two of the fifty-three species of bats 
on the island. This is the most complete "echolocation profile" yet 
given for a tropical bat community, and comparison of a bat's echo- 
location call with where, what, and how it hunts promises greatly 

Science / 163 

improved understanding of the function of different echolocation 

Ola Fincke, a stri postdoctoral fellow, has been studying the 
ecology and reproductive behavior of three species of giant damsel- 
fly, one Megaloprepus and two Mecistogaster. They all lay their 
eggs in water-filled tree holes, where their nymphs live on mos- 
quito wrigglers and small tadpoles. Large adult males of the genus 
Megaloprepus establish reproductive territories around tree holes 
in light gaps, allowing females to lay eggs in "their" holes in return 
for a mating. Many more females visit tree holes in light gaps than 
those in deep shade. Males cease defending tree holes in the dry 
season, even if the holes are artificially replenished with water, but 
they are always capable of mating. Mecistogaster adults, on the 
other hand, appear to meet and mate by chance, and Mecistogaster 
ornatus undergo reproductive diapause in the dry season. 

Stephen Mulkey has been studying three species of small forest 
bamboo, following the demography of selected populations in the 
forest and testing their responses to light level and nutrient avail- 
ability in the growing house. He found that the light-demanding 
species is most tolerant of drought, and the shade-tolerant species 
least so, while, on the average, the third species is less tolerant of 
drought than the light-demander. This study is an unusually care- 
ful test of Robert MacArthur's notion that the "jack of all trades is 
master of none," and indeed, the third species grows markedly less 
well in shade than the shade-lover and is somewhat less tolerant of 
drought than the light-demander. The third species is also more 
flexible developmentally, putting out very different leaves in sun 
and shade. 

David Roubik has been studying the pollen diet of honeybees, 
both feral African and European, at various sites in Panama, as 
part of his study of the impact of invading feral African honeybees 
on native bee communities. 

He also visited eleven countries in Asia during a three-month 
trip, looking at stingless bees (meliponines) and honeybees. He 
found that there are more species of stingless bees in southeast 
Asia than in the dry forest of Guanacaste, Costa Rica, even though 
the Asian stingless bees coexist with two species of honeybee. 
Some Asian stingless bees forage aggressively, driving other spe- 
cies of bee, and in one case, even conspecifics, away from flowers, 
and some "steal" pollen without fertilizing flowers. He also ob- 
served the species of giant honeybee in Nepal, the only species of 
honeybee restricted to the north temperate zone. 

164 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Seasonal Rhythms of Tropical Communities 

It is important not only to realize the diversity of adaptation in 
tropical plants and animals, but to see how they fit together in the 
life of the community as a whole. On Barro Colorado, hfe in the 
forest is dominated by a seasonal alternation of drought and heavy 
rainfall, which imposes a seasonal rhythm on plant growth and 
reproduction and entails a seasonal alternation of feast and famine 
for the animals. Seasonal rhythms are less obvious in marine com- 
munities, but are not absent there. 

Peter Becker, working with Philip Rundel of ucla, has been look- 
ing at seasonal rhythms of leaf production, studying the relation 
between leaf production and water potential in plants illustrating 
three major rhythms of leaf production: 

(a) those that start putting out new leaves in February, and fin- 
ish flushing about the time the rains come in April, 

(b) those that flush new leaves just after the rains come, and 

(c) those that are putting out a few new leaves through the year. 
He finds, as one would expect, that plants have lower water 

potentials (reflecting greater water stress) in the dry season, both 
at dawn and at midday, than in the rainy season. More surprising- 
ly, the predawn water potentials of plants in the old forest of the 
central plateau of Barro Colorado Island are three to four times 
lower than those of plants on slopes of Lutz Ravine, near the lab- 
oratory clearing (— 12 compared to — 3 bars). Apparently liberal 
watering during the dry season of four species of understory 
shrubs and saplings in Lutz Ravine did not increase their growth 

Eugene Schupp has been studying factors affecting the timing 
and vigor of flowering and fruiting in the common understory 
treelet Faramea occidentalis. Schupp finds that Faramea which pro- 
duce lots of seed produce a higher proportion of good seed: an indi- 
vidual with 1,000 fruits will have 300 sound ones, while an indi- 
vidual with 8,000 will have 5,200 sound fruits. A large fruit crop 
apparently "swamps" the insects that parasitize the seeds. More- 
over, Faramea which produce few flowers and fruits one year gen- 
erally produce many the next. 

Iguana show a very sharp seasonal rhythm. Females come to 
places with bare earth to lay eggs near the end of January and be- 
ginning of February, and hatchlings emerge at the beginning of the 
rains, when new leaves are most abundant. Stanley Rand and his 
associates have completed a fifth season of catching and marking 

Science / 165 

female iguanas that have come to lay eggs on "Slothia" and other 
islets surrounding Barro Colorado: some animals have nested on 
Slothia for five successive years. This year's hatching was the most 
abundant and successful of the last four. 

Natasha, the four-meter-long crocodile that used to nest on 
Slothia and harass the iguanas digging near her nest site, died in 
November 1983, and in 1984, a smaller female crocodile took over 
the laboratory cove. 

Enrique Font radiotracked eight iguanas for six months, and 
found that they have very restricted home ranges. The six males 
never ventured more than a few score meters from where they 
were first marked. One adult female traveled more than a kilo- 
meter, the other, over 500 meters, to nest. They returned to their 
original ranges after several weeks, and stayed there. 

Katherine Troyer finds that "middle-aged" iguanas lay more 
eggs than either very young or very old ones. She and George Zug 
have clipped the toes of several hundred iguanas, from which clip- 
pings they can assess the ages of the iguanas. 

In Chiriqui, Robert Schmalzel has been studying the rhythms of 
flowering in plant communities along an altitudinal gradient from 
sea level to 3,000 meters, periodically sampling the pollen honey- 
bees bring back to their hives at a suitable variety of sites. Together 
with David Roubik's work in central Panama, this is the first at- 
tempt to delineate the role of honeybees in tropical plant commu- 
nities. Generally, he finds that bees do have quite an impact on 
their communities. Stingless bees eat many kinds of pollen so 
efficiently that a broad spectrum of flower types are restricted 
either to the highlands, where stingless bees do not reach, or to 
opening at night, when these bees do not fly. Coping with over- 
greedy bees plays a previously unsuspected role in flower evolution. 

Donald Windsor, Jeff Burgett, Ricardo Thompson, and John 
Cubit have been calculating the frequency and the seasonal distri- 
bution of those calm spells during low tides that expose the reef 
flat at Galeta to the sun, with such devastating consequences for its 
populations. They have found that wind and waves, as well as the 
tidal level, affect the prospect of an exposure. Exposures are not 
predictable, but are most likely to happen during a calm spell at 
the end of the dry season or the early part of rainy season. 

Jeff Burgett has been studying seasonal rhythms of plant cover 
on the reef flat at Galeta, some of which reflect the seasonal distri- 
bution of the exposures just mentioned. He finds that the alga 
Laurencia dominates the reef flat for eight months of the year, but 

166 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

.*<v. ■'"i."-''-' •'''*;.j^- . -' fjujp. ' 

An overheating of the surface waters of the eastern Pacific during EI 
Nino of 1983 resulted in die-off of the coral reefs in the Gulf of Chiriqui. 
The white areas indicate Pocillopora spp. that have lost their tissues. In 
1984 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute biologists cored the reefs to 
determine whether a similar die-off had occurred in the past 300 years. 
(Photograph by Peter W. Glynn) 

Adela Gomez, who served the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute for 
thirty-nine years, is honored on her retirement. Shown here, from left to 
right, are Martin Moynihan, former STRI director; Olga Linares, anthro- 
pologist; Mrs. Gomez; and Ira Rubinoff, director of STRI. 

Ifti iil^ i 

that when the reef flat is exposed to the sun, the Laurencia die 
back. They persist as resistant crusts, and a fuzzy mat of aufwuchs 
develops in its place, providing a feast for a variety of small crabs. 
The aufwuchs do not retard the regrowth of Laurencia in any way. 

The Perils of Recruitment 

One of the greatest problems for many tropical organisms is sur- 
mounting the perils of youth. The life of pelagic larvae of marine 
organisms, and the types of problems they face, are very poorly 
known indeed, nor do we have any idea how events in the plank- 
ton shape the distribution and abundances of the visible adult 
organisms that make up a marine community. Our knowledge of 
tropical tree seedlings is not much better. The major theories of 
tropical tree diversity hinge on conflicting sets of assumptions 
about the most important factors affecting seed and seedling sur- 
vival and seedling growth, yet our ignorance of the problems these 
seedlings actually face is such that we cannot decide the relative 
merits of the theories concerned. 

John Christy has been studying the reproductive cycles in four 
species of crabs of rocky intertidal shores on the Pacific side. 
When do they release their larvae? What roles does timing of 
release play in helping the larvae to avoid predators? 

Species with small, transparent larvae release them at high tide, 
no matter what time of day the tide may occur: since the larvae 
are "invisible," the one thing that matters is to flush them out to 
sea on an ebbing tide. Large transparent larvae are released only 
on nocturnal high tides, when at least some predators are absent. 
During the day, sardine (anchoveta) packs come inshore and feed 
greedily on crab larvae, but the sardines disappear at dusk, when 
their predators emerge. Species with more opaque larvae release 
them only on those high tides that begin ebbing near dusk. Estua- 
rine species do likewise. It was once thought that by doing so, the 
estuarine species released their larvae upon the strongest tides, 
ensuring the greatest chance that they would be flushed past the 
inshore predators and out to sea, but the advantages of releasing 
larvae when they could enjoy several hours of invisibility and of 
protection from predators might also affect the timing. 

Robert Richmond has been studying coral reproduction and re- 
cruitment in the Eastern Pacific. He finds that Pocillopora dami- 
cornis, the common branched coral of the Eastern Pacific, do not 
reproduce sexually in Panama: instead, they reproduce by frag- 
mentation, apparently because larvae and very small corals are 

168 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

invariably eaten. Fish apparently prey far more heavily on corals 
in the Eastern Pacific than in the Indo-Pacific, where Pocillopora 
reproduce sexually. The very few coral larvae that do appear on 
settling plates in the eastern Pacific may have drifted in from the 

David Hamill has been carrying out an experimental study of 
the factors affecting survival and growth of the seedlings of the 
four most clumped, and the four most evenly dispersed, species of 
canopy trees on the fifty-hectare Hubbell-Foster plot on Barro 
Colorado Island. For each species, he planted twenty plots of seed- 
lings by large trees of that same species, ten in light gaps, ten 
under Trichilia tuberculata (the commonest tree on the plot), and 
one each under ten different species of rare trees, the same ten 
for each kind of seedling. Early results suggest that the most 
clumped species depend most on light gaps, and cannot survive 
as seedlings outside those gaps, while the most evenly distributed 
species are the most shade-tolerant. 

As part of his study of Virola surinamensis, Henry Howe, of the 
University of Iowa, has measured the survival rate of seeds and 
seedlings placed at different distances from the parent tree. A 
seedling twenty-five meters from the parent, well beyond its 
crown, has twenty-two times the chance of surviving to twelve 
weeks, and a seedling forty-five meters from the parent, forty-four 
times the chance of surviving that long, as a seedling five meters 
from the parent. He infers that dispersal by toucans, which carry 
seeds further than smaller birds, is beneficial to Virola, and tou- 
cans are indeed the primary consumers of Virola fruit and dis- 
persers of Virola seeds. Eugene Schupp finds that dispersing a 
Faramea seed five meters from its parent doubles its chance of 

Joseph Wright has been collecting seeds to learn what insects 
emerge from them. Nearly half the seventy species of plants 
checked so far never have insects in their seeds, perhaps because 
the seeds are too small, or too few per plant, or on too rare a 
plant, to support such insect pests. 

He has also continued his study of the relation between the 
timing of fruit production by the palm Scheelea and the degree to 
which bruchid beetles damage their seeds. He has put out seeds at 
different places, and at different times of year. No bruchids come 
to seeds put out far away from palms, or when no palms are fruit- 
ing. Bruchid attack rate immediately steps up to a high level when 
Scheelea start dropping fruit, and remains high past the peak of 

Science I 169 

Scheelea fruit fall, but palms which drop their fruit late in the 
season escape bruchid damage. 

Geographical Comparison 

Not only must we set an organism's adaptation in the context of 
other plants and animals with which it interacts, we must put our 
understanding of the community in the context of comparable 
communities elsewhere, and of the same community at different 

Alan Smith visited Kenya in the fall of 1983 to continue his 
study of the demography of alpine tree Senecio, as part of a long- 
term comparative study of the morphology and demography of 
rosette plants in Venezuela, Kenya, and New Guinea. 

Marina Wong has been studying the seasonal rhythm of insect 
and fruit abundance, and of the number of birds caught in mist- 
nets, in the understory of old forest on Barro Colorado Island and 
of somewhat younger forest on the adjacent mainland. She is 
comparing these rhythms with those found in peninsular Malaysia. 
There is more fruit in Panama, with more birds to eat them. More- 
over, judging the season of breeding by when birds call, when 
their fat is depleted, and when "brood patches" appear, she finds 
that breeding of the insectivorous birds in Panama's understory is 
synchronous within species, but that the breeding seasons of dif- 
ferent species are staggered all through the rainy season. In penin- 
sular Malaysia (and Sarawak), where dry and wet seasons are 
much less distinct, breeding of nearly all understory birds is con- 
centrated at the beginning of monsoon rains, coincident with the 
peak of leaf flush and insect abundance. She also finds that con- 
specific plants fruit more synchronously, and more abundantly, 
here than in Malaysia, and that there is a more clear-cut succes- 
sion of different species coming into fruit as the rainy season 
progresses than in Malaysia. 

Long-Term Research 

A temporal context for research at stri is provided by our Environ- 
mental Sciences Program, directed by Donald Windsor. This long- 
term study monitors fluctuations in selected aspects of climate and 
the physical environment, and the responses, in growth, reproduc- 
tive activity, and abundance of representative biological popula- 
tions, at both the reef flat of Galeta and Barro Colorado Island. 
In connection with this program, Henk Wolda has completed ten 

170 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

years of records of nightly catches of insects at two light traps, 
one in the canopy and one near the ground. By now Dr. Wolda 
has ten years of data on homoptera and nine on forest cock- 
roaches. He finds that tropical insect populations fluctuate as much 
as their counterparts in the temperate zone. He has extended his 
study to other sites, and is gradually acquiring collaborators capa- 
ble of identifying additional groups of insects. 

There are other long-term studies at stri. Over the last few 
years, Stephen Hubbell, Robin Foster, and their associates have 
mapped every woody free-standing plant over 1 cm dbh in a fifty- 
hectare plot of old forest on the central plateau of Barro Colorado 
Island. This year, Hubbell and Foster have rechecked the identi- 
fications and locations of plants on their plot, preparing for a 
second round of mapping and measurement to determine mortality 
and growth rates. To assess height growth, Kenneth Lertzman 
remeasured the height of canopy foliage over a series of points 
five meters apart covering the plot, where Andrea Alexander and 
others had measured it a few years earlier. 

The popularity of such maps is spreading. Stephen Hubbell is 
scheduled to assist Peter Ashton and members of the Forest Re- 
search Institute at Kepong, Malaysia, in setting up a comparable 
map in a Malaysian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. Meanwhile, 
Joseph Wright and Henry Howe mapped a hectare of the Mojave 
Desert — 7,000 plants over ten centimeters high — to judge the de- 
gree of clumping within a species and the degree of association 
between species, and to take the first step toward a study of the 
demography of desert plants. 

The Hubbell-Foster plot has attracted a variety of other projects. 
Perhaps the most unusual is that of Lyn Loveless, who has been 
assessing the genetic diversity of different species of trees on the 
plot in conjunction with James Hamrick of the University of 
Kansas. What proportion of loci in the different species are poly- 
morphic? How many alleles are there per polymorphic locus? 
What proportion of an individual's loci are heterozygous? How 
much do gene frequencies within a species differ from clump to 
clump, or from place to place? How does the type of pollinator 
affect genetic diversity or local differentiation? So far. Loveless 
and Hamrick have found the average proportion of heterozygous 
loci in their tropical trees to be at least 0.11, about the same 
as in Drosophila melanogaster and 50 percent higher than in man- 
kind. These trees are less diverse genetically than temperate coni- 
fers, but about as diverse as temperate dicots. They have also found 

Science / 171 

that populations of the tree Alseis blackiana several kilometers 
apart differ rather subtly in allele frequencies, while clumps of 
Rinorea that far apart differ greatly. Rinorea has as patchy a dis- 
tribution as any common species on the island. 

Neal Smith has continued his long-term study of the migratory 
day-flying moth Urania. He visited Guatemala, Belize, and Los 
Tuxtlas, Mexico, and found that in all these countries Urania 
caterpillars eat leaves of the tree Omphalea oleifera, in contrast to 
Panama, where their food plant is the vine Omphalea diandra. 
He saw Urania arriving at Los Tuxtlas, the northern end of their 
range, where Omphalea and the rain forest stop — they were com- 
ing in from the south and east — and the leaves of the Omphalea 
trees were much shredded. A month later, the Urania were gone, 
and the Omphalea were flushing new leaves unhindered. 

After many years of sampling bird use of forest habitat in 
Parque Nacional Soberania, James Karr expanded his studies to 
include several of the major food resources of birds. Recent sam- 
pling coincided with the 1983 ("El Nino") drought and the "nor- 
mal" 1984 dry season. Flowering and fruiting phenologies of 
understory plants differed from year to year. There was more leaf 
litter but fewer leaf litter and foliage arthropods were found in 
1983 than in 1984. Birds showed different patterns of breeding 
but not molting phenology between the years. Clearly, the climatic 
extremes of 1983 had direct impact on a wide diversity of or- 

John Cubit and Donald Windsor have been estimating long- 
term changes in sea level, and assessing their effects on the biota, 
from aerial photographs and other records. The mean sea level on 
the Caribbean side has increased fifteen centimeters in the past 
century. It may well rise another 200 centimeters in the next, 
thanks to heating of the oceans and consequent expansion of the 
water contained therein, and to the melting of icecaps. 

Dolores Piperno has cored several sites in the old forest of 
Barro Colorado Island, in the Hubbell-Foster plot, and started an 
archeological trench at the most promising site. Three of her five 
cores struck pottery, beginning twenty centimeters below the sur- 
face. The silica inclusions (phytoliths) that remain in the soil after 
the plant matter in which they were formed decays show little 
sign that the vegetation was intensively disturbed: there are few 
traces of milpa vegetation, and almost no evidence that any of the 
forest was burned. The top fifteen centimeters of soil, which con- 
tains no pottery, also contains no evidence that farms were cleared 

172 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

from the forest during the last several hundred years, suggesting 
that some of the forest on Barro Colorado Island may be older than 
previously thought. The trench shows good stratigraphic record, 
with plenty of artifacts, stones, and ceramics, to document a 
human presence, although populations appear never to have been 
dense. Radiocarbon samples are being submitted to determine the 
age and duration of the prehistoric occupations. Extension of this 
work will indeed enable us to set the forest community of Barro 
Colorado Island in its proper historical context. 

Biological Catastrophes 

As we acquire more experience of our habitats, we are better able 
to recognize and appreciate the catastrophes to which they are 
sometimes subject. 

Harris Lessios, John Cubit, and Ross Robertson have been 
studying the progress of a devastating plague in Diadema antil- 
larum, the long-spined sea urchin of the Caribbean, and its conse- 
quences for reef communities. This plague was first noticed at 
Galeta, our mainland Caribbean field station, where only about 
three per ten thousand survived. The plague next struck the San 
Bias, where it killed 99 percent of the urchins in two weeks, 
mortality varying somewhat from place to place. Through ques- 
tionnaires, Lessios and his collaborators have tracked the plague's 
progress around the Caribbean, where, for the first nine months 
at least, it was clearly following the surface currents. Some algae 
have appeared since the die-off, apparently thanks to the absence 
of Diadema. The plague did not affect other species of sea urchins. 

An overheating of the surface waters of the eastern Pacific dur- 
ing the El Nino of 1983 afflicted the coral Pocillopora with heavy 
mortality. Peter Glynn, R. Dunbar, G. Wellington and R. Rich- 
mond have been following its effects. Ramparts of the many- 
branched Pocillopora often surround more massive corals, and the 
commensal crabs and shrimps that live in these Pocillopora make 
life so miserable for the coral-eating starfish Acanthaster that 
these starfish can neither eat, nor cross, colonies of Pocillopora. 
Now that El Nino has killed the Pocillopora, causing their com- 
mensals to starve, Acanthaster are wreaking havoc on the newly 
accessible massive corals. Some of these coral colonies had grown 
evenly and without interruption for over a century before this 
El Nifio, suggesting that the last El Nifio of comparable effect 
struck more than a century ago. To follow up this clue, Peter 
Glynn and his associates have been drilling massive corals, check- 

Science / 173 

ing fluctuations in carbon-isotope ratios for evidence of previous 
warm-water episodes. 

Neal Smith has been following the fates of the thousands of 
Peruvian boobies that came to the Bay of Panama from the nor- 
mally very productive waters off the Peruvian desert, and the 
15,000 blue-footed boobies that came from somewhat less pro- 
ductive waters near the Galapagos, to escape the famine carried 
their by the El Nino. Some of the blue-footed boobies bred, but 
eventually all the immigrants disappeared. Most of them probably 
starved to death. 

The Role of Man in Tropical Habitats 

Finally, we are concerned with the relation between tropical man 
and his habitat, both as it is, and as we hope it might become. 

Olga Linares visited the archives of French West Africa in Paris, 
to study the history of the Diola rice trade in Senegal from the 
sixteenth century onward. The Diola were actively trading in rice 
when the Portuguese were in Senegal, but the French elected to 
import rice from their south Asian colonies rather than improve 
local transport sufficiently to make Diola rice competitive with the 
foreign imports. This is an unusually clear example of how colonial 
policies have shaped present-day patterns of production and ex- 
change in tropical countries. 

Daniel Suman is analyzing charcoal particles chemically isolated 
from two cores from a floodplain in Code, a core from the bottom 
of the Bay of Panama and a core from the bottom of the Laguna 
(Lake) San Carlos in El Valle. With the aid of his collection of 
carbonized fragments from plants of known identity, he will infer 
the changes in the types of vegetation that have been burned dur- 
ing the last 10,000 years, in order to assess the impact of mankind 
on the vegetation of Central Panama. 

The W. Alton Jones Foundation gave stri a large grant two 
years ago to support research in a mainland tract adjacent to Barro 
Colorado Island on how to grow food in the forest without de- 
stroying the forest unnecessarily. Gilberto Ocana has been experi- 
menting with "mixed crops," growing crops of several species and 
growth forms, whether exotic or traditional, mixed together in 
regular array, on forest plots, some with a selection of the under- 
story trees left standing, some completely cleared. Nicholas 
Smythe has built the installation where he will breed pacas, and 
he has fenced off a peninsula of young to medium second growth, 
where he will see what schedule and manner of supplemental food 

174 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

will most decrease infant mortality and most increase the output 
of pacas big enough to eat. Dagmar Werner has tried a more direct 
way of averting infant mortality in iguanas: she incubates the 
eggs and raises the young in cages at Summit Garden before intro- 
ducing them to the forest. Hatching success has been very high, 
and mortality among the young iguanas almost negligible. She 
intends to use some of the iguanas she has raised to repopulate 
areas where they have been hunted out, and to release others in 
forest tracts where they can be cropped. She is conducting experi- 
ments to see how well iguanas raised in captivity can survive in 
the wild. 

Ira Rubinoff and Elena Lombardo have been representing stri 
at meetings of the Preparatory Committee for the Study of Alter- 
natives to the Panama Canal. Shuffling between Panama, Wash- 
ington, D.C., and Tokyo, this committee is charged with designing 
a study to examine alternatives or improvements to the Panama 
Canal. Some of these options have potential for profound anthro- 
pogenic effects on the tropical environment, and our objective is 
to insure that a comprehensive biological inventory as well as an 
ecological impact assessment is conducted. 

Retirements and New Appointments 

It has not been an easy year for stri. In March, Adela Gomez 
retired. During the last thirty-odd years her good sense, and her 
diplomatic ability, have been essential to stri's function and some- 
times to its very survival. In May, Michael Robinson left the 
Institute to assume the directorship of the National Zoo. His sure 
scientific judgment and his sense of fairness made his administra- 
tive role at stri particularly beneficial, and his scientific research 
added much to the sense of intellectual excitement here. They will 
both be greatly missed. 

Bernadette French resigned from the library staff in December 
1983 to continue her education. This September, Carol Jopling will 
retire as head librarian at stri. She has presided over the introduc- 
tion of new techniques of cataloguing and bibliographic searching. 
She supervised the move to a new and larger building, and because 
of her, these changes were much easier for users of the library 
than they might otherwise have been. 

Not all has been loss, however. James Karr, formerly of the 
University of Illinois, has joined stri as deputy director. Jeremy 
Jackson, of Johns Hopkins University, and Nancy Knowlton, of 
Yale University, have accepted positions on the staff as marine 

Science / 175 

biologists, and their presence will greatly strengthen our marine 

In August 1983 Jorge Ventocilla, a biologist and graduate of 
the University of Panama, took charge of stri's Office of Con- 
servation and Environmental Education (ogee). Under his direction 
the ocEE, in conjunction with the Department of National Parks 
and Wildlife of renare, produced a color poster on the endan- 
gered fauna of Panama. This poster has been distributed to nu- 
merous educational centers and public and private offices through- 
out Panama; it has had an acknowledged importance in promoting 
the protection of endangered species. Along with his work in the 
ogee, Ventocilla presently acts as a coordinator for the planning 
group of the San Bias Kuna Indians' conservation project. 

Academic Training 

A milestone this year was the first field course in tropical biology 
organized jointly by stri and the University of Panama. It took 
place from March 9 through April 10, and was coordinated by 
Yael D. Lubin, a stri research associate, and Rosemary Segistan 
and Victor Hugo Tejera, professors at the University of Panama. 
The University of Panama and stri signed an agreement in 
1980 to jointly support the advancement of knowledge in tropical 
biology, and the course represented a tangible example of this col- 
laboration during a year dedicated to scientific research at the 
university. Thirteen students and thirty-one lecturers and instruc- 
tors participated. The students were introduced to field research 
methodology at four different sites, chosen to represent diverse 
tropical habitats: tropical rain forests, Atlantic and Pacific man- 
groves, and premontane forests. It proved to be an effective way 
to make scientific resources at stri available to students in our 
host country. 

During the month of February, Robert Read, a visiting scholar 
from San Jose State University, offered two ten-hour seminars: 
Tropical Meteorology and Applied Oceanography. These were at- 
tended by staff and students at stri and the University of Panama, 
and personnel from the Meteorological Branches of Panama's In- 
stitute of Hydraulic Resources and Electrification and the Depart- 
ment of Natural Renewable Resources. 

Robert Dressier left in July to teach an advanced course on 
orchid taxonomy at the University of Costa Rica. 

More than sixty young men and women at different academic 
levels took part in advanced training and research activities at 

176 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

STRi this past year. They represented nations in the less-developed 
and developed world — a sample of future tropical researchers. 

Finally, this year stri began the first phase of a master plan. 
The architectural and engineering firm of Bernard Johnson of 
Houston, in association with Lopez y Moreno of the Republic of 
Panama, were selected to prepare the plan. This process should 
lead to orderly expansion, modernization, and broadening in the 
spectrum of service that stri can provide for its staff, students, 
and visiting scientists. 

The initiation of the master planning process confirms the com- 
mitment of the Smithsonian to develop its role as the nation's 
principal advanced study center for basic tropical biological re- 

Science / 177 

This rare Tetela (Zaire) mask, one of two such documented examples in public 
museum collections, was acquired by the National Museum of African Art with 
the support of the James Smithson Society. (Photograph by Ken Heinen) 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

This year the primary focus of the Anacostia Neighborhood Mu- 
seum (anm) was on plans to build and furnish a new annex and 
public space. Groundbreaking for this new facility, which will 
adjoin the museum's Research and Exhibits Lab, is projected for 
early 1985. The annex will facihtate enrichment of the museum's 
exhibits and explanatory programs, and will allow for the presen- 
tation of more diverse and active programs for the public. 

For the past seventeen years, anm has been housed in several 
leased buildings. From the former Carver Theater (named for the 
pioneer agricultural scientist George Washington Carver), at 2405 
Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, SE, the museum's director and 
administrative staff moved to more suitable quarters at the Re- 
search and Exhibits Lab. Until the new annex is completed, anm's 
exhibitions and education department will continue to serve the 
public in this interim leased building. 

A third copy of Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation 
was produced by the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum for the 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Services (sites). Scripted and 
researched by the National Air and Space Museum, this popular 
exhibition — enhanced by selected artifacts and memorabilia — was 
seen at anm from April 1 to August 26, 1984. In addition, anm 
completed research and scripting for the revised edition of Black 
Women: Achievements Against the Odds, an exhibition widely 


n n n 111 


Anacostia Museum 


K Mr «^.— jK. 

Formerly a theater, skating rink, dance hall, and church, the Carver building in 
recent years has been used to bring historical exhibitions and educational 
activities to the residents of Anacostia. Now the Anacostia Museum — soon to 
move from its present Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue site to Fort Stanton 
Park — optimistically looks to the future. 

^ ^* 



traveled by sites for nearly a decade; continued to work on The 
Renaissance, a major exhibition scheduled to open in the fall of 
1985; and began an important research project still in its pre- 
liminary phase — "We Are Climbing" : The Development of the 
Black Church, 1787-1900. 

In the vanguard of the movement to develop quality exhibitions 
that employ historical documents, artifacts, memorabilia, and vin- 
tage photographs germane to Afro-Americana and ethnohistory, 
ANM broadened its contacts with archival repositories and museum 
professionals and offered the public unique opportunities to experi- 
ence well researched, designed, and fabricated exhibits, as well as 
thoughtfully conceived outreach activities. 

Other priorities have been the planning for anm's future growth 
at the Poplar Point site along the Anacostia River (Eastern Branch 
of the Potomac), and the continued development of research pro- 
grams that support museum and traveling exhibition programs. 

Archives of American Art 

Nineteen eighty-four marked the thirtieth anniversary of the 
Archives of American Art, and as though in celebration of that 
fact, some of the best acquisitions ever were received during the 
year. The Jackson Pollock papers, a subject of protracted negotia- 
tions conducted over the past decade, were donated to the Archives 
by Pollock's widow, Lee Krasner, shortly before she died. The 
papers, which consist of statements, notes, and other writings by 
Pollock, personal and business correspondence, and a large quan- 
tity of photographs and published material, represent the chief 
source of documentary information on the artist. In a separate 
acquisition, the papers of the Portland, Oregon, painter, Louis 
Bunce, several important Pollock letters written in 1946, add a 
fascinating supplement to Pollock's own records. 

Another significant figure of twentieth-century modernism was 
Mark Tobey, whose records are owned by the Seattle Art Museum. 
Organized and microfilmed by the Archives, these, too, were sup- 
plemented by the donation of a substantial group of Tobey letters. 
A third major artist of the same period, Mark Rothko, is repre- 
sented by a small but revealing set of notes from the 1930s and 
1940s, including preliminary drafts of the 1943 polemical letter to 

History and Art I 181 

the New York Times in which Rothko and Adolph Gottlieb state 
their artistic credo. Diaries, correspondence, and other records of 
an earher modernist, Arthur Dove, were also acquired in fiscal 
year 1984. 

Collections of papers from the nineteenth century are rarer than 
those of our own time, but this year the Archives borrowed and 
microfilmed several of extraordinary value. Among these is the 
largest single group of Winslow Homer records — some 600 items 
of correspondence, sketches, photographs, and a scrapbook — and a 
splendid group of nineteen letters from Thomas Cole, written be- 
tween 1826 and 1832 to the Hartford art patron Daniel Wads- 
worth. Papers of three other leading early-nineteenth-century art 
collectors, Robert Gilmor, Luman Reed, and James Robb, were also 
filmed. The records of Samuel F. B. Morse, who achieved prom- 
inence as an artist before he entered on his second career, exist in 
vast quantity at the Library of Congress. The Archives, however, 
has recently received seven Morse letters written to his Breese 
relatives between 1816 and 1846. They include several references 
to his painting, and one of them has a charming illustration of 
Morse asleep in his chair. A few other Breese family letters are a 
part of the group, the most interesting one, dated Philadelphia, 
April 19, 1783, describing the effect of the news of peace, which 
"like a Torrent, has overwhelmed all other news." 

Sketches and sketchbooks from the later nineteenth century in- 
clude those of Ellen Day Hale and the black American painter 
Edward Bannister. A long series of letters from Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens to Frederick MacMonnies, two notable American sculp- 
tors, cover the years 1884 to 1904, and in a later series, Gutzon 
Borglum discusses his work on Mount Rushmore in detail. One 
of the larger collections received this year is the Violet Oakley 
papers, which document the long and productive career of a Phila- 
delphia painter and stained-glass designer. 

Art critics and art historians play their own role in art history 
and their files often have substantial research value. Those of the 
critic Clarence Joseph Bulliet and of the historian Edgar P. Rich- 
ardson are prime examples. Bulliet was Chicago's leading art critic 
in the 1920s and 1930s and was an influential figure throughout 
the Midwest. The papers, which include voluminous correspon- 
dence together with his articles, drafts of his writings, and photo- 
graphs, are a major source of information on the Chicago art 
world over a quarter of a century. 

In a particularly fitting acquisition for this thirtieth anniversary 

182 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

This photograph of Jackson Pollock (left) with his brother, Charles, about 1930, 
was among the Jackson Pollock papers donated to the Archives of American 
Art by the late artist's widow, Lee Krasner, shortly before she died. 

year, the Archives received the Edgar P. Richardson papers. An 
eminent historian of American art. Dr. Richardson estabhshed the 
Archives of American Art in 1954 and guided it through its first 
decade of growth. His records embrace the entire range of Ameri- 
can art history and thoroughly document his long career as 
scholar, museum director, adviser to collectors, founding father, 
and forceful presence in the museum community. 

The Archives initiated several important collecting projects in 
1984. A grant from the Henry Luce Foundation supported a pre- 
liminary survey of American art records in Philadelphia and Rhode 
Island, each with a view to microfilming selected groups of the 
papers uncovered. A similar project in New Mexico concentrated 
on personal and institutional collections in Santa Fe and Taos. In 
a move beyond the national boundary, the Archives received per- 
mission from the University Court of Glasgow University to film 
its extensive group of J. A.M. Whistler papers. 

A more permanent collecting venture was established this year 
with the long anticipated opening of an office in Los Angeles. 
This sixth regional center, housed in the new Virginia Steele Scott 
Gallery of American Art of the Huntington Library and Art Gal- 
lery, and supported by local contributions, will serve as a base for 
both collecting and research in Southern California. 

The Archives' oral history program has been more than usually 
productive. Two intensive projects, one documenting the art com- 
munity of the Pacific Northwest and the other comprising an ex- 
tended series of personal recollections of Mark Rothko, were con- 
cluded this year. Continuing experiments with the video tape 
medium brought visual interviews with David Hockney on the 
West Coast and Gladys Nilsson and Jim Nutt in Chicago. An 
earlier series of video tapes on three Chicago artists, made in 
1983 with support from the Smithson Society, won a silver medal 
award this year from the International Film and TV Festival of 
New York. Among the more useful oral history interviews con- 
ducted in fiscal year 1984 were ones with Aaron Bohrod, a Chi- 
cago painter whose work has been well known for nearly fifty 
years, with the contemporary painter Tom Wesselman, and curator 
and art historian Robert Beverly Hale. In a new departure, the 
Archives also interviewed an authentic visionary and folk artist, 
the Reverend Howard Finster, whose swift rise to fame culmi- 
nated in the presentation of his work at the Venice Biennale and 
an appearance on the Johnny Carson show. 

The volume of research conducted at the Archives of American 

184 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Art in fiscal year 1984 rose by 10 percent over 1983, with 3,320 
visits from graduate students, scholars, and independent art his- 
torians. A similar 10 percent increase to 1,600 rolls of film oc- 
curred in the interlibrary loan of Archives microfilm to researchers 
at universities and museums throughout the country. 

Publications with acknowledgements to the Archives appeared 
in great quantity in 1984. These included books on Mary Cassatt, 
Thomas Eakins, David Smith, and Louise Nevelson; on modernist 
painting in New Mexico; on the political basis of abstract expres- 
sionism; and on federal art patronage after World War II. Most 
publications based on Archives materials are exhibition catalogues 
and articles in scholarly journals. The Archives own publication 
program brought forth The Card Catalogue of the Oral History 
Collections of the Archives of American Art. 

Several changes in design and content will be introduced in the 
forthcoming issue of the Archives of American Art Journal. Its 
appeal will be enhanced with a new look and new features, includ- 
ing a book review department and a Letters to the Editor section. 
As befits the quarterly publication of an archival institution enjoy- 
ing an embarrassment of riches, the Journal will present an in- 
creased number of particularly revealing and significant unpub- 
lished documents, with introductory notes by expert authorities. 
These will reflect the Archives' important holdings in American 
cultural and social history as well as in the history of art. 

Many programs of the Archives depend upon private funding 
and the commitment of private citizens throughout the nation. 
The Archives pays special tribute to those members and trustees 
who by dint of considerable effort and hard work raised in the 
past year some $400,000 in general operating funds. Particular 
appreciation goes to Mrs. Dwight M. Kendall of Los Angeles; 
Mrs. Nancy B. Negley of San Antonio, Texas; and Mrs. Charles 
Kessler of Huntington Woods, Michigan, each of whom raised in 
excess of $70,000. Mrs. Kessler recently stepped down from the 
chairmanship of the Detroit Committee for the Midwest Regional 
Center, a position she held for nearly four years. The committee, 
being the first such support group for the Archives, is one of the 
most active in the country and has consistently raised major funds 
for more than twenty-five years. 

Further appreciation goes to A. Alfred Taubman of Troy, Michi- 
gan; Mrs. Francis de Marneffe of Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mrs. 
John Rosekrans of San Francisco; Mrs. Dana M. Raymond, Mrs. 
Robert F. Shapiro, and Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, all of New York City. 

History and Art I 185 

Each of them was responsible for either raising or attracting to 
the Archives more than $25,000. Mrs. Spaeth, who has been an 
active friend of the Archives since 1959, was named honorary 
chairman of the board at the annual meeting of the trustees in 

Also during fiscal year 1984, the Archives acknowledged major 
grants from the Henry Luce Foundation, Warner Communications, 
Inc., the Brown Foundation, the Lehman Foundation, and The 
Times Mirror Foundation. These funds, along with others, have 
helped to support various collecting endeavors across the country 
as well as several scholarly programs including a Senior Fellow- 
ship and the Archives' Journal. 

Center for Asian Art 

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 

A sense of transition was much evident in the Freer Gallery of 
Art in 1984. The beginning of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery with 
the arrival of assistant director Milo C.| Beach, Islamic art scholar 
and former chairman of the department of art at Williams Col- 
lege, marked the transition to the Center for Asian Art, which 
encompasses the Sackler Gallery. With the laying of the physical 
foundation of the Sackler Gallery, the reality of its new building, 
scheduled to open in 1987, appears as a turning point in the his- 
tory of the Freer Gallery. 

Further tangible evidence of the development of the Sackler 
Gallery was the arrival of the first objects of the Sackler Collec- 
tion, generously donated by Dr. Sackler to form the basis of the 
new museum. Temporary space was prepared at the Museum 
Support Center to hold the almost one thousand objects until their 
relocation to the new building. Two groups of Sackler objects were 
next scheduled to arrive after their exhibition at the Edinburgh 
International Festival in Scotland. The entire collection was ex- 
pected to reach Washington by the end of the calendar year. 

The Freer was not without its own whirlwind of activity. Plans 
for renovating the Freer building after the opening of the Sackler 
Gallery began in a substantial manner. The ultimate goals of the 
renovation are to provide the Freer with more collection storage 

186 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

This painting by the fifteenth-century Japanese artist 
Sesshin shows the deity of the Kitano Shrine (the 
deified courtier Sugawara no Michizane, A.D. 845- 
903) in the guise of a Chinese scholar holding a plum 
branch, recalling the legend that the deity traveled 
to China to receive the teachings of a Zen Buddhist 
master. The painting was a gift of the Mary Living- 
ston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Foundation. 

space, more exhibition space, more space for conservation facili- 
ties, and more teaching space. 

Possibly the largest exhibition of work by James McNeill 
Whistler in this country since the 1905 memorial show opened 
at the Freer Gallery in May 1984, closing in December. For this 
show marking the 150th anniversary of Whistler's birth, visitors 
arrived at more than double the normal rate to see the rare display 
of oil paintings, watercolors, pastels, and pencil and ink drawings. 
These works erased preconceptions of the artist as limited to por- 
traits and nocturnes as the breadth of his interests and skills was 
seen. In this exhibition a number of display techniques were used 
for the first time at the Freer Gallery. 

AT&T was the corporate sponsor for the Whistler exhibition 
and, in particular, the exhibition catalogue, James McNeill 
Whistler at the Freer Gallery of Art. Written by David Park Curry 
and copubHshed with W. W. Norton & Company, the 304-page 
catalogue was richly illustrated with over 700 photographs, in- 
cluding over 200 in color, made possible by AT&T's generous 
grant. Besides clearly establishing the significant relationship be- 
tween Freer and Whistler, the catalogue also describes the various 
art historical connections of the works in the exhibition and will 
be the primary statement on the Freer's Whistler collection for 
some time. A free color brochure, a free lecture, a scholarly sym- 
posium with the National Gallery of Art, and two posters accom- 
panied the show, along with special notecards with Whistler etch- 
ings. The exhibition and catalogue were well received in national 
as well as local media. 

A photographic exhibition in the lower hall described the Freer- 
Whistler relationship. This small show followed the photographic 
exhibition on Charles Lang Freer and the Freer Gallery for the 
sixtieth anniversary celebration. 

To complement the Whistler show, a number of Chinese and 
Japanese art objects in various media were selected to represent 
possible pieces that either Whistler had seen or Freer had seen 
while acquiring Whistler works. In addition, there were other 
Chinese and Japanese exhibitions this year. Japanese Drawings 
featured works by Katsushika Hokusai and Kawanabe Gyosai as 
well as a large portion from the Grut Collection, acquired in 1975 
and never before exhibited. Japanese Fans, which showed painted 
fans of high artistic quality produced by some of Japan's most 
famous painters, was a reprise of the popular show of 1980. 
Korean Influences on Japanese Ceramics exhibited fifty objects to 

188 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

examine the Japanese appreciation of Punch'ong ware, Korean 
ceramics that entered Japan in the sixteenth century. Korean tech- 
niques of applying sHp to dark-bodied wares became major ele- 
ments in the styles of ceramics centers founded by Korean potters 
in Japan and spread in various forms elsewhere in that country. 

Chinese Paintings exhibited a selection of thirty paintings span- 
ning the Sung dynasty (960-1279) through the Ch'ing dynasty 
(1644-1912). This exhibition included two recently accessioned 
works by Tao-chi, a seventeenth-century painter with a wide repu- 
tation in the West. This show was followed by Masterpieces of 
Chinese Painting, exhibiting thirty important works from the Sung 
through the Ch'ing dynasties to complement the Treasures from 
the Shanghai Museum exhibition at the National Museum of 
Natural History. 

In the Near Eastern field. Islamic Manuscript Illumination ex- 
hibited nineteen folios produced in Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan, and 
Uzbekistan between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. The show 
provided a perspective on the decoration of religious and secular 
manuscripts. Pre-Islamic Metalwork from the Near East exhibited 
twenty-four objects in silver, gold, and bronze, made in Iran and 
Egypt, from the 4th century B.C. to the 6th century A.D., includ- 
ing Sasanian Iran (224-651) and nine gold objects from Egypt. 

The thirty-first annual lecture series focused on "Studies in 
Connoissership 1923-1983" as a continuation of the Freer's six- 
tieth anniversary theme. These lectures included: "Early American 
Collectors of Japanese Art," by Julia Meech-Pekarik, which was 
jointly sponsored with the Embassy of Japan; the Rutherford J. 
Gettens Memorial Lecture, "Red, Yellow and Blue: The Story of 
Three Asian Pigments," delivered by Elisabeth West FitzHugh; 
and "New Light on the Falling Rocket: Whistler at Cremorne 
Gardens," by David Park Curry. 

The inaugural lecture for the John A. Pope Memorial Lecture 
Series was "Transitional Blue-and-White: Some Reflections on 
Style," by Margaret Medley, curator of the David Foundation, 

The Freer's docent program proved so successful in terms of the 
increased number of visitors on tours and of the warm responses 
to the tours that a second docent class of ten received training to 
expand the effort. Another free leaflet on one aspect of the mu- 
seum's collection— the Peacock Room and the Princess from the 
Land of Porcelain — was made available to visitors. 

Among the visitors to the museum this year were the Humani- 

History and Art I 189 



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Twelve-year-old Lucy D. Stickney of Charlestown, Massachusetts, embroidered 
this sampler (silk and paint on plain weave linen) in 1830. It was in the exhibi- 
tion Embroidered Samplers at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, February 21-May 27, 
1984. (Bequest of Mrs. Henry E. Coe) 

ties Education Study Team from the People's Republic of China, a 
delegation from the Shanghai Museum, and the retiring Secretary- 
General of NATO. 

Professor Tadashi Kobayashi, of Gakushuin University, Tokyo, 
was the fourth Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund Fellow. He spent 
the summer studying the Freer's collection of Japanese genre paint- 
ings and Ukiyo-e paintings; a series of catalogues on this collec- 
tion was planned. 

A group of twenty-nine ancient Chinese ceramic objects, includ- 
ing three pieces from the Shang dynasty (ca. 1523-1028 B.C.) that 
have survived more than 3,000 years in perfect condition, was 
acquired through gift and purchase. The vessels fill out the Freer's 
collection of Chinese ceramics so that it now includes the full 
range of ceramic wares from the pre-Christian era. The rarest 
object is a burnished, wheel-turned footed jar of black clay made 
in Honan Province during the Shang dynasty; it was given in 
memory of Helen Dalling Ling, who gathered the collection 

Other major donations include an eighteenth-century Mughal 
Indian dagger by Dr. Stephen R. Turner and selected library ref- 
erence works by the Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation. Donations 
from the Mary Livingston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Founda- 
tion and from the Clark Endowment Fund enabled the Freer Gal- 
lery to acquire important objects for the Japanese collections. 

Subtle but substantial changes took place at the doors to the 
Freer this year. New wooden doors with Honduran mahogany 
and thermal glass in a design echoing the bronze courtyard doors 
now greet visitors at the north entrance. Visitors are also now 
able to enter the building through the south entrance on a regu- 
lar basis. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

This year the Cooper-Hewitt continued to broaden its appeal to 
the public with innovative exhibitions and programs that typify 
the diversity of its interests. The museum has received numerous 
awards for its exhibitions, publications, and programs, but the 
award from the American Institute of Architects is among the 
most meaningful. The citation applauds the Cooper-Hewitt's "com- 
mitment to public awareness of the importance of design that is 

History and Art I 191 

exemplified by the quality of its collections, its far-reaching educa- 
tional programs, and its willingness to explore the boundaries of 
modern thought while serving as an unmatched repository of his- 
torical materials and perspectives," and concludes that "no museum 
has done more to bring to the public's consciousness the role of 
architecture in the life of the nation." 


One of the more celebrated exhibitions in the past year was Art of 
the European Goldsmith, which began its national tour at the 
Cooper-Hewitt. Lent by the world-famed Schroder Collection in 
England, the exhibition concentrated on European masterworks in 
silver and gold from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. 
The exhibition entitled The Amsterdam School: Dutch Expression- 
ist Architecture 1915-1930 was the first analysis of this important 
topic prepared for English-speaking audiences. Because of its first- 
time showing in this country, the Amsterdam School attracted 
wide attention among the architectural profession as well as the 
public, and served as an important documentation of this style 
and period. 

The major architectural exhibition of the summer was Manhat- 
tan Skyline: Skyscrapers Between the Wars. The period between 
World War I and World War II was witness to a building boom 
in which the skyscraper played a dominant role, especially in New 
York. This exhibition examined many factors that contributed to 
the appeal of New York's soaring structures. Four other larger 
exhibitions mounted in 1984 demonstrated the museum's ability 
to explore less conventional areas of design. American Enterprise: 
Nineteenth-Century Patent Models was a large selection of color- 
ful and unusual examples of patent models embodying both the 
history of American patent law and Yankee ingenuity. The mu- 
seum staff was responsible for organizing this exhibition, which 
included over three-hundred and fifty models. Embroidered Sam- 
plers was a display of the finest embroidered samplers from the 
Cooper-Hewitt's own massive collection. Design in the Service of 
Tea, the major fall exhibition, included major international loans. 
A large survey of tea-related objects from ancient countries to con- 
temporary Western forms was provocatively explored in a refresh- 
ing manner. And Circles of the World: Traditional Arts of the 
Plains Indians presented visitors with a rich array of native Ameri- 
can design achievements in crafts objects drawn from the incom- 
parable collections of the Denver Art Museum. 

192 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The smaller exhibitions in the last year included one devoted to 
drawings demonstrating the aesthetic theory evolved by the archi- 
tectural sculptor John De Cesare, which relates musical and visual 
forms; a selection from the museum's extensive holdings of prints 
by the Tiepolo family; a presentation of a recently acquired collec- 
tion of European Damask textiles; an exhibition devoted to intri- 
cately carved Netsuke figures from Japan; and, from the Minnea- 
polis Institute of Arts' Doneghy Collection, an exhibition entitled 
Finished in Beauty, which presented utilitarian and ornamental 
silverwork by Indians of the American Southwest. 

Every exhibition within the past year attracted local, national, 
and international press comments. New York Magazine described 
The Amsterdam School as an "eye opening look at the work of a 
lyrically creative group of architects, who for a while virtually 
dominated pubHc building in Holland." The New York Times said 
about Manhattan Skyline: "a handsome exhibition . . . which 
reviews the skyscrapers of the 1920's and 1930's with thorough- 
ness, accuracy and visual delight." 


A major catalogue for the Amsterdam School was copublished 
by Cooper-Hewitt and MIT Press. With the aid of a generous 
grant from the New York law firm of Simpson, Thacher and 
Bartlett, an important and award-winning publication accompany- 
ing the Patent Model exhibition was produced by the museum and 
continues to be a popular seller. A Stitch Guide and a collection 
handbook on Samplers were published to accompany the exhibi- 
tion, illustrating specimens from various European, American, and 
other cultures. Another volume in the Cooper-Hewitt's Smith- 
sonian Illustrated Library of Antiques was completed on the 
subject of Miniatures, and distribution of the series continues 
through the Book-of-the-Month Club. 

In keeping with the breadth of such wide-ranging interests, the 
museum also published The Phenomenon of Change. Edited by 
Lisa Taylor, director. Change includes sixty-five essays by dis- 
tinguished scholars, politicians, architects, scientists, philosophers, 
and religious leaders. A less expensive tabloid format (popular 
with university students) and a soft-cover book were simultane- 
ously published. The book is available to bookstores through 
Rizzoli International. 

History and Art I 193 


May 1984 brought the first graduation of a class in the master's 
degree program on European decorative arts, a joint undertaking 
of the Cooper-Hewitt and Parsons School of Design. Sir Francis 
Watson, British scholar and a former director of London's Wallace 
Collection, spoke in a ceremony held at the museum. Sir Francis, 
as a 1983-1984 Regents' Fellow, was himself credited by director 
Lisa Taylor as having been an invaluable source of inspiration to 
the students and staff alike. George Nelson, one of America's 
preeminent industrial designers, was also named a Regents' Fel- 
low in 1984 and spoke at a special lecture series on the phenom- 
enon of a synthetic planet. 

An international group of scholars arrived at the museum for 
two symposiums. One, organized by the Decorative Arts Depart- 
ment, concentrated its discussions and lectures on virtuoso metal- 
work in conjunction with the Schroder Collection exhibition. The 
other assembled experts in the field of textiles to discuss the Euro- 
pean and American samplers that were on view at the museum 
at that time. 

The range of programs at the Cooper-Hewitt is so broad as to 
include study of life in space to the examination of Chinese pavil- 
ions and their decorative arts. Many individuals — members and 
nonmembers alike — register for courses at the museum every 
quarter, drawn by lectures dealing with temporary exhibitions, the 
history of landscape, industrial and interior design, architectural 
criticism and history, and a variety of workshops and tours. 

The internship program at the museum successfully continued 
this year with twelve undergraduate and graduate students assist- 
ing in all curatorial and administrative departments. Four of this 
year's interns were selected as Sidney and Celia Siegel Fellows. 
With additional grants from the New York State Council on the 
Arts, the museum continued to serve as a conservation advisory 
center for smaller institutions throughout the state, and was able 
to offer a paid internship in textile conservation. The Ford Founda- 
tion generally sponsored the fellowship of a doctoral candidate 
who researched, organized, and was responsible for the widely 
acclaimed Manhattan Skyline exhibition. 


The active pace of Cooper-Hewitt's exhibition schedule required a 
substantial number of loans borrowed from private lenders and 

194 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

domestic and international museums. Because of the museum's lack 
of space to exhibit its permanent collections, and because of the 
quantity of objects it holds, loans to other museums continued at 
an increasing rate. The first phase of a continuous inventory was 
completed on schedule. Each of the three major departments now 
possesses its own inventory technician to build more complete 
location guides and new records for objects added to the collec- 
tions in future years. 

Additional grants from the New York State Council on the Arts 
aided with exhibition costs for the Amsterdam exhibition and pro- 
duction costs for the Cooper-Hewitt Stitch Guide and The Pheno- 
menon of Change, and allowed the museum to have for the first 
time its own in-house photographer. The latter position has been 
most helpful in documenting new objects entering the collection 
and replacing faded photographs and slides. In an important initia- 
tive, members of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum Council and the 
Board of Regents continued preparations in fiscal year 1984 for a 
capital campaign that will provide the museum with important 
improvements to its present facility in the near future. 

More than 500 objects were accessioned by the museum in fiscal 
year 1984. All of the major departments received substantial addi- 
tions to their collections. The decorative arts department acces- 
sioned the initial part of a gift from Marcia and William Goodman 
consisting of important pieces of American art pottery. The tex- 
tiles department purchased a set of linen damask napkins with 
the Alice Beer Memorial Fund, and owing to the generosity of the 
artists and manufacturers, most of the fabrics in the Contemporary 
Continuous Pattern exhibition have been added to the collection. 
An exceptional illustrated book by Humphrey Repton on the 
Brighton Pavilion, published in 1808, was added to the prints and 
drawings department as a gift from Mrs. Christian Aall. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (hmsg), one of the 
most important museums of contemporary art in this country, 
maintains an active exhibition schedule and acquisitions program. 
In support of these are related programs of lectures, films, con- 
certs, and educational activities involving audiences of all ages. 

History and Art I 195 

Technical and support units include offices of conservation, regis- 
tration, and photography and a reference library. 

Since its opening in October 1974, the museum has organized 
a great many important exhibitions, usually of material borrowed 
from other institutions and from private collectors. There are also 
exhibitions drawn from the museum's permanent collection. Many 
exhibitions organized by the hmsg are circulated to other mu- 
seums, and there are frequent loans of individual works of art to 
other museums. 

The first major exhibition for 1984 was Dreams and Night- 
mares: Utopian Visions in Modern Art, December 8, 1983-Febru- 
ary 12, 1984. Included were 136 works by sixty-two American and 
European artists of the twentieth century. This 1984-theme exhi- 
bition surveyed artists' hopes — and fears — for the twentieth cen- 
tury, beginning with the optimistic visions of Futurism, Expres- 
sionism, the Russian Avant-Garde, Purism, Bauhaus, De Stijl, and 
America's Utopian developments, and ending with pessimistic 
images of alienation and holocaust. Artists represented included 
Piet Mondrian, Fernand Leger, Hugh Ferriss, Paolo Soleri, George 
Grosz, George Tooker, and Robert Morris. This was the first of 
a series of Smithsonian events celebrating the Orwellian year of 
1984. Valerie Fletcher, the curator who organized the exhibition, 
gave a public lecture on December 11, 1983. 

The next major exhibition was Drawings: 1974-1984, March 
15-May 13, 1984. It was the first of a two-part celebration of the 
tenth anniversary of the museum's opening to the public. Inter- 
national developments in the last ten years were the focus of this 
exhibition of 148 works on paper. Thirty artists were represented, 
including Avigdor Arikha, Balthus, Christo, Chuck Close, Willem 
de Kooning, Jim Dine, Jean Dubuffet, David Hockney, Jasper 
Johns, R. B. Kitaj, Claes Oldenburg, and Larry Rivers. The Smith- 
sonian Resident Associate Program sponsored a lecture by Christo 
on May 13, 1984, in which the artist described his work. This 
lecture was introduced by Frank B. Gettings, curator of the 

German Expressionist Sculpture appeared from April 3 to 
June 17, 1984. This was the only East Coast showing of a major 
exhibition organized by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
the first ever to examine German Expressionist sculpture, a little- 
known but vital development in early twentieth-century art. In- 
cluded were 125 bronze, wood, stone, plaster, and porcelain sculp- 
tures, and twenty-five related works on paper. 

196 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Artistic Collaboration in the Twentieth Century, June 9-August 
19, 1984, consisted of 108 works created by some seventy teams 
of artists between 1913 and 1984. Edouard Roditi lectured on 
June 13, 1984, on "Memories of the Surrealists." After closing at 
the Hirshhorn Museum, this exhibition travels to Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, and Louisville, Kentucky. 

Finally, a major exhibition, the second part of the tenth- 
anniversary celebration. Content: A Contemporary Focus, 1974- 
1984, opened on October 4, 1984. Included were 185 paintings, 
sculptures, drawings, constructions, photographs, mixed-media in- 
stallations, and presentations of film and video art by 147 artists, 
working in a full range of contemporary styles. The exhibition's 
theme — the reintroduction of content as a central concern in recent 
art — reveals an underlying continuity in the diverse art forms of 
the last ten years. 

The Resident Associate Program presented "Four on the Scene" 
on October 4, 1984, in connection with the Content exhibition. 
Introduced by curators Phyllis Rosenzweig and Howard Fox were 
artists Vito Acconci, Sandro Chia, Jenny Holzer, and David Salle, 
who discussed their recent works. 

Smaller exhibitions, most of them organized by the museum's 
staff and drawn from the permanent collection, included: Direct 
Carving in Modern Sculpture, October 6-November 27, 1983; 
Aspects of Color, October 15, 1983-March 6, 1984; Art from 
Italy: Selections from the Museum's Collection, February I-Aprij 
4, 1984; and European Modernism: Selections from the Museum's 
Collection, September 13, 1984-January 13, 1985. 

As the nature of the hmsg's permanent collection has become 
more widely known, requests for loans from the collection have 
increased. In fiscal year 1984, 254 objects were lent to sixty-three 
institutions. Among these works were eleven paintings and draw- 
ings to the Alexandria Museum of Visual Art, Alexandria, Louisi- 
ana; eight paintings to the Millwood Art Gallery, C. W. Post Col- 
lege, Greenvale, New York; seven paintings to the Tampa Mu- 
seum, Tampa, Florida; six paintings to the Mansfield Art Center, 
Mansfield, Ohio; and four sculptures by Henry Moore to the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

A sampling of loans to foreign exhibitors includes ten paintings 
to the Akademie der Kunst, Berlin, West Germany, for a Willem 
de Kooning retrospective; five large sculptures for an inaugural 
exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, Shiga, Japan; two paint- 
ings by Max Beckmann to the Museen der Stadt, Cologne, West 

History and Art I 197 

Germany; and a painting and a drawing by Ben Shahn to the 
Ministry of Culture, Madrid, Spain. 

The Museum has also lent two large groups of art works for 
special exhibition: sixty-six sculptures to the Oklahoma Museum 
of Art, Oklahoma City; and thirty-four paintings, drawings, and 
documentary photographs to the Columbus Museum of Art, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. Finally, the museum lent twenty paintings and 
sculptures to the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service for Treasures from the Smithsonian in Edinburgh, Scot- 

Acquisitions are vital to any museum, but especially to a mu- 
seum of contemporary art. This year the hmsg purchased thirteen 
works of art, including twelve purchased with appropriated funds 
and a drawing acquired with private funds. The purchases with 
appropriated funds included Avigdor Arikha's The Square in June 
(1983) and James Wolfe's Shembo (1983). Also, important addi- 
tions were made to the museum's outstanding nineteenth-century 
sculpture collection, including Mother and Child (c. 1874) by 
Aime-Jules Dalou and Fruchard (c. 1832-35) by Honore Daumier. 

To increase visitor appreciation and understanding of modern 
art, a variety of educational material has been produced, includ- 
ing explanatory wall labels and brochures. The latter range from 
a single page to illustrated minicatalogs and are distributed free 
of charge to the public. A fifteen-minute slide presentation, en- 
titled "Elements of Art: Color," was installed from October 1983 
until March 1984 in a small theater in the third-floor galleries of 
the museum. This was the second program in the "Elements of 
Art" series. Many of the works of art featured in the slide presen- 
tation were displayed in the adjacent gallery for visitors' viewing. 

The museum also presents a film series, with lunchtime docu- 
mentaries on art and artists, evening films by independent film- 
makers, and Saturday films for young people. Whenever possible, 
the film series reflects the current exhibitions. Other events in the 
auditorium are concerts by the ZOth-Century Consort and lectures 
by artists, critics, and curators. 

Joseph Henry Papers 

The manuscript of the fifth volume of the letterpress edition of 
the Joseph Henry Papers, documenting the years 1841-43, was 

198 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

delivered to the Smithsonian Institution Press. In addition, con- 
siderable progress was made on the sixth volume, the last dealing 
with Henry's years at Princeton. 

Preliminary efforts were made in the process of automating the 
editorial procedures of the Henry Papers. This process, which will 
not be completed until sometime in 1985, will streamline the 
preparation of letterpress manuscripts and make information re- 
trieval much easier and faster. 

The project continued its sponsorship of the Nineteenth Century 
Seminar, once again hosting presentations that ranged over a broad 
spectrum of historical topics, including the history of art, science 
and technology, and American cultural history. 

Nathan Reingold, editor of the Henry Papers, organized a sym- 
posium as part of the Smithsonian presence at the Edinburgh 
Festival. Entitled "The Anglo-American World of Science and 
Technology, 1750-1850," the symposium was in honor of the 
Smithson Bequest. Reingold was also one of the speakers. Earlier, 
he gave a presentation entitled "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Meets 
the Atom Bomb" at a Paris conference on the popularization of 

Also very active professionally was Paul Theerman, who pre- 
sented a paper on Maxwell at the annual meeting of the History 
of Science Society, and another, at Sweet Briar College, on New- 
ton's nineteenth-century reputation. 

National Museum of African Art 

Fiscal year 1984 at the National Museum of African Art (NMAfA) 
was devoted primarily to the consolidation and strengthening of 
its resources. It was also a year for testing new ideas. Increased 
professionalism, in-depth scholarship, and heightened creativity 
became the touchstones for measuring the old and the new. Exhi- 
bitions, collection development and use, research and educational 
opportunities were and must continue to be subjected to scrutiny 
as the museum prepares for its move to the Center for African, 
Asian, and Near Eastern Cultures. The goal is to advance knowl- 
edge and pubhc understanding of African art traditions and 

The temporary special exhibition schedule opened with African 
Islam. It was the first time this topic had been explored by a 

Histor}/ and Art I 199 

major American museum. Prepared by curator Dr. Rene Bravmann, 
professor of art history. University of Washington, Seattle, the 
exhibition examined the social and historical dynaniics, as well as 
the aesthetic response of Africans, to the appearance of Islam 
south of the Mediterranean littoral. More than 100 examples of 
art, dating from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, were gen- 
erously lent by U.S. museums and private collectors. The objects 
included textiles, sculpture, amulets, jewelry, Korans, and writing 
boards. The catalogue, written by Dr. Bravmann and copublished 
by the Smithsonian Institution Press and Ethnographica Ltd., 
serves as an introduction to this seriously neglected area of Afri- 
can art studies. 

Through its temporary exhibitions and related public programs, 
the museum continued to explore the diversity and aesthetic excel- 
lence of African art traditions. Included among these were 
Ethiopia: The Christian Art of an African Nation, circulated by 
the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service; African 
Mankala, organized by curator Roslyn Walker; and Patterns and 
Forms, selections from the permanent collection, organized by 
curator Lydia Puccinelli. In addition, four small exhibitions, focus- 
ing on objects in the museum's permanent collection, were curated 
by individual staff members (G. Jennings and E. Lifschitz, Educa- 
tion Department; R. Sieber, associate director for Collections and 
Research; S. Williams, director). Public response to this exhibition 
series was enthusiastic. Thus, the museum plans to continue the 
experimental exhibition program that provides in-depth investiga- 
tion of a single work of African art with extensive explanatory 
labels, photo panels, and accompanying brochures prepared by the 
staff. It offers a unique opportunity to increase collection accessi- 
bility in spite of space limitations in the existing facility. 

Institutions to which the museum lent a total of forty-four 
objects for exhibitions included Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, 
Michigan; Foundation for Cross Cultural Understanding, Wash- 
ington, D.C.; University of Maryland Art Gallery, College Park; 
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; Birmingham Museum 
of Art, Alabama; Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachu- 
setts; Museum of Cultural History, University of California, Los 
Angeles; and North Carolina Central University Museum, 

Through its acquisition program, the museum's permanent col- 
lection was significantly enriched by 137 accessions, including as 
gifts a collection of twenty-six figurative metal objects from the 

200 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Roslyn Walker (left), curator of African Mankala, was one of the participants 
in the Festival of African Games in the courtyard of the National Museum of 
African Art, June 23, 1984. (Photograph by Mark Avino) 

western region of the Sudan, a collection of sixty-two examples 
of Ndebele (southern Africa) beadwork, an unusually fine Kota 
(Gabon) reliquary guardian figure, an early collection of textiles 
and metal ornaments from Zaire, a Yoruba (Nigeria) fan, and an 
embroidered robe (Chad). 

One of the major collection accessions was a rare Tetela (Zaire) 
mask collected in 1924 by an American missionary who lived in 
the former Belgian Congo. Its acquisition by purchase was made 
possible by the James Smithson Society. This mask, one of two 
such documented examples in public museum collections, exempli- 
fies a lost Tetela aesthetic, and is important historically and cul- 
turally. Other important acquisitions by purchase during the year 
included: a pair of Fulani (Mali) gold earrings (for which funds 
were donated in part by the Friends of the National Museum of 
African Art and Robert and Nancy Nooter); a Sono (Guinea) 
brass staff finial; a Yoruba (Nigeria) wooden divination board; 
and three additions to the Zairian textile holdings. 

The Department of Education and Research continued to serve 
a large audience, ranging from elementary and secondary school 
groups to senior citizens and individual visitors. Their enjoyment 
and education were greatly enhanced by the museum's fifty-seven 
docents, who volunteer their time and effectively share their 
knowledge about each exhibition. Many of the Education Depart- 
ment's public programs, special workshops, and teaching guides 
are conceived each year to increase understanding of special exhi- 
bitions. During 1984 a particularly thorough guide for secondary 
school teachers was developed and published to accompany the 
African Islam exhibition. In addition, a number of distinguished 
art historians and anthropologists were invited to lecture on a 
variety of important topics, many of which were directly related 
to the Special Exhibition Program. Among the universities repre- 
sented were the University of Washington, Seattle; Howard Uni- 
versity, Washington, D.C.; University of Iowa; University of 
Ibadan, Nigeria; Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria; and the Cen- 
ter for Byzantine Studies, Dumbarton Oaks /Harvard University. 
Four interns (George Washington University, University of Iowa, 
San Jose State University, Howard University) were placed for 
museum training in the museum's Registration, Curatorial, Educa- 
tion and Research, and Public Information departments, respec- 

As a part of its research activities, the museum was honored 
to have in residence as a Regents Fellow Dr. Ekpo Eyo, director of 

202 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

the Nigerian National Museums and Federal Department of An- 
tiquities, Lagos. During his residency. Dr. Eyo worked on his 
forthcoming volume devoted to the art of Owo, a Yoruba town 
and the site of an important excavation he conducted in 1969, 
which revealed a corpus of extraordinary works of art tentatively 
dated to the fifteenth century. 

The Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archive is one of the museum's 
strongest research components. Through grants received from the 
Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates and the 
Friends of the National Museum of African Art, five documentary 
films were acquired for the archive. Produced in 1982 by the 
National Ministry of Information of the Ivory Coast in consulta- 
tion with African and Western anthropologists, these films pro- 
vide a sound contextual basis for understanding several of the 
most important Ivory Coast visual traditions. 

In association with the Smithsonian's Office of Fellowships and 
Grants, a residency fellowship program in the humanities was 
awarded by the Rockefeller Foundation to the National Museum 
of African Art. For the first time in its history, NMAfA will be able 
to make its collection and research facilities the focus of advanced 
scholarly research. Postdoctoral scholars in African art history 
and anthropology (emphasizing material culture) may carry out 
their research in the collections or on topics that could initiate 
scholarly symposia, exhibitions, or other major museum activities. 
The program will be administered by the Smithsonian's Office of 
Fellowships and Grants and will begin in the fall of 1985. Ap- 
pointments will extend for one year. 

During 1984 the museum's Union Catalogue Project advanced 
steadily. Placing the permanent African collection holdings on 
computer, coordinated by the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, provides an invaluable resource for research work within the 
museum, throughout the Smithsonian, and elsewhere. The Union 
catalogue has addressed the need for terminology standardization 
and is using a vocabulary uniquely suited to African art research. 
The Getty Art and Architectural Thesaurus Program became inter- 
ested in the NMAfA Union catalogue in 1984, viewing it as being 
ideally suited to incorporate aat terminology. This cooperative 
effort is progressing under the guidance of Roy Sieber, NMAfA 
associate director for Collections and Research. Dr. Sieber and 
Janet Stanley, NMAfA librarian, are consultants to the Getty Pro- 

On December 20, 1983, the twentieth anniversary celebration of 

History and Art I 203 

the Organization of African Unity was held at the museum. 
Guests included ambassadors of many African nations, Secretary 
Ripley, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Chester 
Crocker, and the Smithsonian Assistant Secretary for History and 
Art, John Reinhardt. 

In addition, the museum received foreign visitors from Bel- 
gium, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Cameroon, 
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Federal Republic of Ger- 
many (West Germany), German Democratic Republic (East Ger- 
many), Ghana, Great Britain, Holland, Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, 
New Zealand, South Africa, Switzerland, and Tanzania. 

National Museum of American Art 

The public exhibition galleries of the National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art were transformed during the past year, as staff designers, 
work crews, and curators completed the first total refurbishment 
and reinstallation of the collection since 1968, when the Old Patent 
Office Building was dedicated as a museum. The project began 
with the curatorial review of the entire permanent collection to 
select objects for a flexibly chronological installation tracing the 
development of 250 years of American art. In the process, many 
artworks were cleaned and conserved; frames and pedestals were 
replaced or restored. Newly constructed walls permit more art- 
works to be shown than ever before; improved natural and artificial 
lighting, widened doorways, and vibrant new color schemes en- 
liven the appearance of the interior spaces. The new installation 
opened to the public on June 11; that evening the Museum co- 
hosted with other Smithsonian museums a reception for the thou- 
sands of museum professionals from across the country who had 
come to Washington for the annual meeting of the American 
Association of Museums. 

On June 11, also, the gift of 169 paintings, sculptures, and draw- 
ings from the Sara Robey Foundation Collection — the most signifi- 
cant gift to the museum in modern times — was announced. The 
collection includes masterworks of twentieth-century art, by such 
artists as Charles Burchfield, Paul Cadmus, Stuart Davis, Edward 
Hopper, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Gaston Lachaise, Jacob Lawrence, and 
Theodore Roszak, among many others. An exhibition of the collec- 
tion is planned for spring of 1987. 

204 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Thomas Sully's 1812-13 oil 
on canvas, Daniel MaMotte 
— a superb example of the 
artist's early work — was a 
gift to the National Mu- 
seum of American Art from 
Mr. and Mrs. Ferdinand 
LaMotte III. 

Man Ray's 1932 Self- 
Portrait is one of twenty- 
three works given to the 
National Museum of 
American Art by the artist's 
widow, Juliet Man Ray. 
Referring to the death 
masks of historical figures 
and surrounded by the 
ephemera of yesterday's 
news, it becomes a witty 
interpretation of the artist's 
"entombment" in his work. 

More than a thousand artworks were accessioned this year, 
expanding considerably the museum's already rich and diverse 
holdings. Outstanding gifts include a Thomas Sully portrait of 
1812-1813, from Mr. and Mrs. Daniel LaMotte III; twenty-three 
artworks by Man Ray, from Juliet Man Ray; Callers, 1916, by 
Walter Ufer, gift of Mr. and Mrs. R. Crosby Kemper; and a wood 
construction by Robert Indiana, a gift of the artist. The museum 
purchased paintings by Asher B. Durand, Hugh Bolton-Jones, 
Robert Indiana, and Ed Moses; sculpture by Richard Stankiewicz; 
miniatures by Edward Malbone and John Trumbull; graphic art by 
Helen Frankenthaler, Frederick Waugh, and William Wiley; photo- 
graphs by Harry Callahan and Ray Metzker; craft objects by 
Robert Ebendorf and Margaret Craver, to name only a few. 

Before the galleries were closed for reinstallation last fall, the 
museum presented Sawtooths and Other Ranges of Imagination: 
Contemporary Art from Idaho. The exhibition and catalogue, pre- 
pared by Barbara Shissler Nosanow, assistant director for Museum 
Programs, continued the museum's commitment to showing art 
from various regions of the United States. Curator Janet Altic 
Flint rediscovered the Provincetown Printers, a group dedicated to 
innovative use of the wood-block printing process during the early 
decades of the twentieth century, in an exhibition and catalogue 
that enjoyed great popular appeal. 

Other special exhibitions opened in late spring and summer, 
1984, to complement the new installations. Portraits and subject 
pictures by the native painter Erastus Salisbury Field appeared in 
an exhibition organized by the Springfield (Massachusetts) Art 
Museum, jointly sponsored in Washington by the National Mu- 
seum of American Art and the National Portrait Gallery. Exposed 
and Developed: Photography Sponsored by the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts introduced the museum's collection of contempo- 
rary American photography. The exhibition and catalogue, pre- 
pared by curator Merry Amanda Foresta, and the related sym- 
posium explored issues in recent photography. Robert Indiana's 
constructions from the early 1960s were featured in Wood Works, 
an exhibition and catalogue prepared by curator Virginia M. 
Mecklenburg. Robert Indiana attended the opening and spoke on 
the development of his art. Attitudes toward modernism during 
the Truman years were the subject of Advancing American Art: 
Politics and Aesthetics in the State Department Exhibition, 1946- 
1948, circulated by the Montgomery (Alabama) Museum of Art. 
The Prints of Howard Norton Cook, assembled by Janet Altic 

206 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Flint, presented selections from the large holdings of his works in 
the museum. A selection of the finest drawings and prints from 
the graphic arts collection was on view from June through 

The National Art Gallery of Wellington, New Zealand, gracious- 
ly lent for three years one of John Singleton Copley's finest colonial 
portraits — Mrs. Humphrey Devereux. Painted in 1770 and exhib- 
ited that year in England, the painting has been shown only once 
before in America, in 1965. In honor of the painting's return to its 
country of origin. New Zealand Ambassador Sir Lancelot Adams- 
Schneider joined Ambassador Christopher H. Phillips, chair of 
the New Zealand-United States Art Foundation, in a brief cere- 
mony at the museum on June 12. 

The Renwick Gallery presented The Flexible Medium, an in- 
stallation of fabric and fiber art from the museum's permanent 
collection of craft objects. Other exhibitions at the Renwick Gal- 
lery highlighted fans from the eighteenth through the twentieth 
century, functional objects designed by Russel Wright, art nouveau 
metalwork and furniture by Edward Colonna, art glass by Harvey 
K. Littleton, and contemporary Australian ceramics. 

The six soirees at Barney Studio House this season included a 
talk by composer Virgil Thomson. Next year's offerings will ex- 
plore Alice Pike Barney's contacts with England. An exhibition 
has been organized by curator Jean Lewton of Pastel Portraits from 
Studio House, to open in December 1984, with portraits of 
Barney's exotic acquaintances from high society and art circles. 

In addition to a broad spectrum of public events presented dur- 
ing the year, the Division of Museum Programs developed educa- 
tional materials on "The Family in American Art" for use in pub- 
lic school systems, aided by a grant from Chesebrough-Pond's, 
Inc. Performers Ruby Dee and Ossie Davis appeared at the Ken- 
nedy Center in a benefit for the museum's extensive festival of 
Afro-American culture. Changing Traditions, which opens on 
January 15, 1985. 

Research resources at the museum continued to provide unparal- 
leled opportunities to scholars of American art, including both 
resident fellows — fifteen postdoctoral and doctoral candidates from 
eleven universities — and eight postgraduate interns from across the 
country. Plans have been laid for an Inventory of American Sculp- 
ture, comparable to the museum's much-heralded Inventory of 
American Painting to 1914. The museum continued to take a 

History and Art I 207 

pioneering role in the computerization of collections and research 
materials under the guidance of Eleanor Fink and James L. Yarnell. 
The current fiscal year saw the decentralization of internal oper- 
ating and program budgets, with allocations to the three museum 
divisions allowing for greater flexibility and advance planning for 
projects. The Division of Museum Resources, headed by assistant 
director Charles J. Robertson, coordinated the new budgeting plan. 
Staff restructuring, begun in the previous year, proceeded with the 
creation of the position of Chief Curator and Assistant Director 
for the Curatorial Division; Dr. Elizabeth Broun was hired to fill 
this position. Harry Lowe, deputy director and former acting direc- 
tor of the museum, retired in January 1984, and was offered mov- 
ing tributes by members of the staff for his long and dedicated 
service to the Smithsonian. 

National Museum of American History 

The National Museum of American History (nmah) remade itself 
inside and out this fiscal year, creating a more enjoyable museum 
for the public, new performance and exhibits spaces, and several 
new exhibitions. Its ten-year plan for a reinstallation of the main 
exhibition galleries on the first and second floors proceeded with 
the beginning of design and production for the upcoming exhibi- 
tion After the Revolution: Everyday Life in America, 1780-1800, 
and its departments and divisions continued their scholarly con- 
tributions to American history. 

The major remodeling projects began on March 1, 1984, with 
the opening of the new Museum Shop and Bookstore. The strik- 
ing design features a broad, marble, glass-walled staircase that 
descends to the large, airy shop below. Renovations in nmah con- 
tinued with the opening of the new Palm Court off the first floor 
Pendulum Hall on May 4. A re-creation of a turn-of-the-century 
palm court, this new area gives visitors a comfortable place to rest, 
relax, perhaps enjoy a soda or sundae in the adjacent ice cream 
parlor, and listen to music from a newly acquired Mason and 
Hamlin baby grand reproducing piano. Two exhibits formerly on 
display elsewhere in the museum, the Stohlman's Confectionary 
Shop of the 1890s and a 1902 Horn and Hardart Automat, line 
the walls of the Palm Court. 

208 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

On the museum's west grounds, the thirty-five-ton Calder sta- 
bile. The Gwenfritz, was moved from its location in the amphi- 
theater to a more visible spot at the corner of Constitution Avenue 
and Fourteenth Street. In its place the museum erected the Jack- 
sonville Bandstand, a structure built in 1879 on the grounds of 
the Jacksonville State Hospital in Jacksonville, Illinois. A gift of 
the state of Illinois, the bandstand was dismantled by museum 
staff at its site in May 1983 and rebuilt as originally surveyed. 
The structure affords a new performance space for the museum, 
and since its dedication on July 4th has already been the site of 
eight concerts, with outstanding performances by musical en- 
sembles such as the Bass Wingates Brass Band from Great Britain, 
the Ceremonial Brass Quintet of the U.S. Army Band, and the 
U.S. Marine Corps Band. The relocation of the Calder Stabile and 
the installation of the Jacksonville Bandstand were both made 
possible by a generous gift from the Morris and Gwendolyn Ca- 
f ritz Foundation. 

The museum's ten-year reinstallation program for the major ex- 
hibitions on its first two floors proceeded with design and pro- 
duction phases of After the Revolution: Everyday Life in America 
1780-1800, to open in the fall of 1985. The script for the second 
exhibition in the reinstallation program. Engines of Change: The 
Industrial Revolution in America, has been completed and ap- 
proved; the exhibition will open in the fall of 1986. Research 
and conservation are under way for Materials in America, a third 
major reinstallation, which will open later in this decade and ex- 
plore the basic materials that are the building blocks of our 

Several other important and popular exhibitions opened at the 
museum this year. Nancy Knight of the Division of Medical Sci- 
ences and Deborah Warner, curator with the Division of Physical 
Sciences, organized Pain and Its Relief, a look at mankind's at- 
temps to understand, combat, and overcome pain. The exhibition, 
which opened on October 14, 1983, was made possible by a grant 
from the American Society of Anesthesiologists. October 25, 1983, 
marked the opening of The Naming of America, an exhibition 
featuring the only surviving copy of German cartographer Martin 
Waldseemiiller's World Map of 1507 — the map on which the name 
"America" was probably first applied to the New World. The 
exhibition was the joint effort of Silvio Bedini of the Dibner Li- 
brary, Anne Golovin of the Division of Domestic Life, and Eliza- 
beth Harris and Helena Wright of the Division of Graphic Arts. 

History and Art I 209 

The World Map of 1507 had never before left Germany; the 
Erbgraf Maximillian Willibald zu Waldburg-Wolfegg graciously 
consented to loan the map to the museum for this exhibition. 
Inventing Standard Time, which celebrated the centennial of the 
establishment of standard time in the United States and Canada, 
opened on November 17, 1983. Organized by Carlene Stephens, 
newly appointed curator in the Division of Mechanisms, the exhi- 
bition told the story of how in the late nineteenth century the 
United States gradually came to institute a standard system of time 
zones to replace a confusing welter of local times. The Christmas 
season again brought the Trees of Christmas exhibition to the 
museum. Produced by the Department of Horticulture, the display 
featured twelve trees bedecked with handcrafted ornaments to 
illustrate various crafts, traditions, and storybook themes. 

From June 27 to August 19, 1984, the museum hosted South- 
eastern Potteries, a temporary exhibition produced by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites). Objects 
ranged from unglazed earthenware strawberry jars to highly fin- 
ished decorative vases, and reflected continuing traditions of 
nearly two centuries of pottery making as well as the evolution of 
new approaches to the craft. Another sites exhibition. Yesterday's 
Tomorrows: Past Visions of America's Future, opened in the mu- 
seum's new temporary exhibition hall on August 9. Yesterday's 
Tomorrows displayed more than 300 models, magazines, toys, 
drawings, photographs, and other artifacts, and examined com- 
munities, homes, transportation, and weapons and warfare of the 
future, among other subjects. The last exhibition to open this fiscal 
year was Eleanor Roosevelt: First Person Singular, a centennial 
tribute to one of America's most remarkable women. Organized by 
Howard Morrison of the Department of Public Programs, with 
the help of the Division of Political History, the exhibition used 
more than one hundred photographs, documents, and objects to 
look at the private life and the public accomplishments of Eleanor 
Roosevelt. The first of the 1984-85 Doubleday Lecture Series 
programs marked the opening of the exhibit. Entitled "A Cen- 
tenary Tribute to Eleanor Roosevelt," it featured radio commenta- 
tor Susan Stamberg and actress Jean Stapleton examining the life 
of the "First Lady of the World." 

In addition to these many larger temporary exhibitions, the 
museum continued its very popular series of "Cases of the 
Month," small, one- or two-case exhibitions on a variety of 
themes, divided roughly between the two curatorial departments 

210 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

of the museum, the Department of Social and Cultural History and 
the Department of the History of Science and Technology. 

The museum produced fifteen of these small exhibitions this 
year, among them Geometric Models, which displayed a variety 
of elegant and often intricate models used for education, entertain- 
ment, and research; Early Vitamin Technology, a brief history 
of the growth of the use of vitamins and the technologies that 
made their production possible; Microelectronics as History, a 
look at the early advances in transistors and computer components 
that underlie today's microelectronics revolution; Germans in 
America: Three Hundred Years of Innovation and Tradition, which 
presented some of the wide variety of inventions, scientific ad- 
vances, products, and cultural traditions that Germans and 
German- Americans have contributed to American culture; Lura 
Woodside Watkins: Cultural Historian 1887-1982, which focused 
on the life and work of a pioneer cultural historian by highlight- 
ing aspects of her collecting, publications, archeological investi- 
gations, and close relationship with the National Museum of 
American History; and The Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American 
Collection, a case displaying a few of the objects collected by 
Dr. Alixa Naff and given to the Smithsonian Institution this year 
to begin an expanded effort at collecting and preserving the his- 
tory of Arab-Americans in this country. 

Two other divisions of the museum organized small exhibitions 
of their own this past year: the Archives Center produced Valen- 
tine's Day Images in Commercial Advertising, a display that used 
images from the center's Warshaw Collection of Business Ameri- 
cana to reveal how Valentine's Day images have appeared in 
American advertising over the past century; and Conservation: 
Problems and Solutions, organized jointly by the Division of Con- 
servation and the Department of Social and Cultural History to 
show visitors how to protect valuable objects from environmental 
extremes, pests, and mishaps. 

In addition to creating its own exhibitions, the museum also 
contributed to several shows elsewhere, most notably the patent 
model exhibition at the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt Museum in 
New York City and the Treasures from the Smithsonian exhibition 
held as part of the Edinburgh Festival. Bernice Johnson Reagon of 
the Program in Black American Culture and James Weaver and 
Kenneth Slowik of the Department of Public Programs performed 
at the Scottish festival. In the spring of 1984 the museum hosted 
two symposia in aspects of American culture for fellows and mas- 

History and Art I 211 

ter teachers honored by the German Marshall Fund. Michael 
Beschloss of the Eisenhower Institute produced Harry Truman: A 
Self-Portrait in Film, a ghmpse of the life of Harry Truman from 
his Missouri boyhood to the presidency, combining Truman's own 
words with the sights and sounds of the era. 

In addition to organizing exhibitions such as The Naming of 
America, Pain and Its Relief, and the many "Cases of the Month/' 
the two major curatorial departments of the museum moved for- 
ward with the scholarly work of investigating American history, 
publishing articles in their fields, acquiring important new ob- 
jects, and sponsoring and attending symposia, conferences, and 

The Department of the History of Science and Technology 
hosted specialized meetings on pharmacy and ophthalmology, and 
sessions of the Society for the History of Technology convention. 
Curators and historians from the department spoke at confer- 
ences across the United States and abroad. Barbara Melosh of the 
Division of Medical Sciences presented "The Iconography of 
Gender: Manhood and Womanhood in New Deal Art" at the 
Smith College-Smithsonian Conference on the Convention of 
Gender; Pete Daniel of the Division of Extractive Industries gave 
a lecture entitled "The New Deal, Southern Agriculture, and Eco- 
nomic Change" at the Chancellor's Symposium on Southern His- 
tory at the University of Mississippi; Harold Langley of the Divi- 
sion of Armed Forces History spoke on "Churchill and Roosevelt; 
The Anglo-American Relationship" to the White House Fellows at 
the British Embassy; Steven Lubar, historian with the department, 
traveled to England to deliver talks on the Engines of Change 
exhibition at the Science Museum in London and at Ironbridge 
Gorge Museum in Telford; Robert Vogel of the Division of Me- 
chanical and Civil Engineering spoke on industrial archeology in 
Baltimore before the Society for Industrial Archeology; Arthur 
Molella, chairman of the Department of the History of Science 
and Technology, spoke to the Medical University of South Caro- 
lina on "Science and Technology Exhibits at the Smithsonian: 
Myth or History?"; Audrey B. Davis of the Division of Medical 
Sciences presented "Women and the Medical Enterprise" at the 
American Association for the History of Medicine in San Francisco; 
and Deborah H. Warner of the Division of Physical Sciences pre- 
sented "Rowland's Gratings, Contemporary Technology" at the 
Rowland Centennial at the Johns Hopkins University. The depart- 
ment also continued to sponsor Technology and Culture, the 

212 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

quarterly journal of the Society for the History of Technology. A 
consolidation within the department combined the Divisions of 
Naval History and Military History into a single Division of 
Armed Forces History. 

Acquisitions of the department ranged from the massive to the 
minuscule, and included an RS 1 Diesel locomotive, an early ex- 
ample of the first generation of American diesel locomotives, now 
on loan to the Strasburg Railway Museum in Pennsylvania; an 
ACTA scanner, the world's first computerized whole body scanner, 
commonly known as the cat scanner; a Whitworth engine lathe 
of about 1865; a nineteenth-century mule-powered cotton gin; two 
colored engraved prints of American Army uniforms of the Revo- 
lutionary War era published in Germany in 1784; nineteenth- 
century American surveying instruments; and a Bakelizer used to 
mix the first batch of the first completely synthetic plastic. With 
a $75,000 Regent's grant, the Division of Mechanisms purchased 
two Renaissance automata, a lady lute player and a reclining dog. 

The staff of the Department of Social and Cultural History was 
no less active or productive. The Division of Graphic Arts hosted 
the biennial conference of the American Typecasters Fellowship, 
which attracted participants from five countries, and at which 
Stan Nelson and Elizabeth Harris of the division gave papers; the 
Division of Musical Instruments helped present the national meet- 
ings of the American Federation of Violin and Bow Makers in 
April; the Division of Costume and Smith College of Northamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, jointly sponsored the conference on Conven- 
tions of Gender, held at Smith in February. 

Curators, specialists, and historians in the department continued 
their scholarship by presenting papers both in the United States 
and abroad. Gary Kulik, chairman of the Department of Social and 
Cultural History, delivered papers at Moses Brown School, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island; the University of Paris; and the Amerika 
Institute, University of Munich; Elizabeth Harris of the Division 
of Graphic Arts gave a one-week course on exhibiting rare books 
at Columbia University Rare Book School; Margaret Klapthor, 
curator emeritus of the Division of Political History, lectured on 
dresses of the First Ladies of the White House at the Philadelphia 
College of Science and Textiles and participated in the First Ladies 
Symposium held at the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, 
Michigan; Barbara Clark Smith of the Division of Domestic Life 
presented a paper on ways of viewing the exhibition After the 
Revolution: Everyday Life in America 1780-1800 at the annual 

History and Art I 213 

convention of the Organization of American Historians in April 
1984; Path Davis Ruffins and William Pretzer, both of the Life 
in America project, gave papers at the same conference entitled, 
respectively, "History in Three Dimensions: The Exhibition as a 
Medium for Teaching" and "Looking to Learn: Form and Content 
in a Museum Exhibit." 

Departmental acquisitions included a Philadelphia printing press 
of about 1840; a nineteenth-century pin-type writing box for the 
blind; the more than one hundred objects and four hundred docu- 
ments of the Paris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection; 
a series of more than one hundred outstanding tintypes; political 
campaign materials from the 1984 New Hampshire primary and 
the Democratic and Republican National Conventions; original 
art and posters from World War 11 bond campaigns; a dress of Mrs. 
James Monroe; a dress worn by Ginger Rogers in the movie Top 
Hat; J.R.'s hat from the television series "Dallas"; the red dress 
worn by Dustin Hoffman in the movie Tootsie; a 1930 Steinway 
grand piano fitted with Duo- Art mechanism; a Chickering-Ampico 
grand piano; and a violin made by Guadagnini in 1752. Staff 
changes at the department included the retirement of curator 
Margaret Klapthor in December 1983 after many years in the 
Division of Political History, and the appointments of Susan 
Myers as vice-chair of the department and Barbara Coffee as col- 
lections manager. 

A reorganization at nmah produced a newly constituted Depart- 
ment of Public Programs under assistant director Josiah Hatch. 
The new department comprises divisions of education, publica- 
tions, the Program in Black American Culture, performances, pro- 
duction, and the Office of Public Affairs. 

The department presented a diverse season of concerts and pub- 
lic programs that contributed new perspectives on current exhibi- 
tions and topics related to the national collections. In December 
the Holiday Celebration, which focused on ethnic diversity in the 
United States, presented music, crafts, and foods of many ethnic 
groups. The presentations and performances, held daily from 
December 26 to 31, included everything from puppet shows and 
woodcarving to gospel music and madrigals. Regularly scheduled 
free informal concerts, lectures, films, and demonstrations were 
vital aspects of the biweekly weekend series Saturday Arter 
Noon, while Saturday Live and Mostly Music, coproduced with 
the Division of Musical Instruments, offered weekly concerts and 
demonstrations of the instruments in the museum's collections. 

214 / Smithsonian Year 1984 



This is one of the twelve sheets of Waldseemuller's World Map — the first map on which the 
newly discovered continent was named "America." The only surviving copy of this monu- 
mental work went on exhibit for the first time, at the National Museum of American History, 
through the courtesy of its owner. Count Waldburg. 

A table made at the Val-Kill 
Furniture Shop was one of more 
than 100 objects, documents, and 
photographs presenting aspects of 
Eleanor Roosevelt's life at Hyde 
Park, Val-Kill, the White House, 
and the United Nations in the 
exhibition Eleanor Roosevelt: 
First Person Singular, at the 
National Museum of American 
History. The exhibition commem- 
orated the centennial of Eleanor 
Roosevelt's birth. (Photograph 
courtesy of the White House) 

The Program in Black American Culture presented colloquiums 
and concerts honoring Martin Luther King, Jr., and gospel com- 
posers Lucie Campbell and the Reverend C. A. Tindley. The Tind- 
ley tribute was presented in Philadelphia in April. During Black 
History Month, February 1983, the Program in Black American 
Culture also sponsored a concert and colloquium entitled "Black 
American Choral Song: The Evolution of the Spiritual." Four 
evening concert series were offered during the year: The Smithson 
String Quartet and the Smithsonian Chamber Players, the muse- 
um's resident ensembles, performed music from the baroque and 
romantic repertoires, while Treasures from the Collection and 
Piano in America featured guest artists and rare instruments from 
the museum's collection in programs devoted to major European 
and American composers. Information on concerts and public pro- 
grams was distributed through the quarterly calendar "Events," 
which reached more than 10,000 individuals and organizations, 
including schools, libraries, and recreation and senior citizens 

The Education Office of the Department of Public Programs 
continued to bring the museum's exhibitions and collections alive 
for the public. With 200 docents, the Education Office conducted 
programs for more than seventy thousand museum visitors in this 
fiscal year. The staff developed new programs, including the Elec- 
tricity Demonstration Center, funded by the Edison Electric Insti- 
tute; the Pain Clinic Discovery Corner, a part of the Pain and Its 
Relief exhibition; and a tour for sixth, seventh, and eighth graders 
on eighteenth-century life. Visitor surveys, an evaluation system 
for docent presentations, and new self -guides to the Transporta- 
tion Hall and the Nation of Nations exhibition were other accom- 
plishments of the office. 

The National Numismatic Collection received a new executive 
director in fiscal year 1984, Elvira Clain-Stefanelli. Cora Lee Gillil- 
land was appointed associate curator. The year saw the rearrange- 
ment of collections after inventory, a review of the entire activity 
of the collection by the Office of Audits, and the continuation of 
the microphotography project, with more than 52,000 frames com- 
pleted during the year. The entire numismatic exhibition, more 
than 6,700 objects, was dismantled, cleaned, and photographed. 
In January museum specialist Raymond Hebert delivered a lecture 
entitled "Rome in India" at the Inaugural Seminar of the Indian 
Institute in Numismatic Studies at Nashik, India. In July Cora Lee 
Gillilland participated in the First International Medallic Work- 

216 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

shop at Pennsylvania State University. The collection acquired 
1,714 objects this year, including early colonial paper money, a 
large number of dies used in restriking Byzantine and Roman 
coins, more than one hundred coins and medals produced by the 
U.S. Mint, including gold and silver commemorative coins for the 
1984 Olympic Games. 

James E. Bruns, formerly of the U.S. Postal Service, joined the 
staff of the National Philatelic Collection as a curator. The collec- 
tion hosted the annual convention of the Confederate Stamp 
Alliance and produced a new five-panel exhibition depicting the 
postal operations of the Confederate States of America in con- 
junction with the convention. Philatelic acquisitions included a 
printing press used by the Confederate States of America to print 
stamps and currency, a pane of 1861 stamps from this press, a 
rural free delivery wagon used in the 1890s, a 1765 Benjamin 
Franklin postal rate chart, and one of the earliest known type- 
written letters to be sent through the mail. 

The registrar of ten years, Virginia Beets, retired in November 

1983 and was replaced by Martha Morris in January 1984. This 
fiscal year the registrar's office assumed management of collections 
inventory functions, security photography. Silver Hill storage op- 
erations, and the automated central catalogue, a product of last 
year's massive inventory project. The catalogue will help in main- 
taining, refining, and augmenting computer records for scholarly 
research and collections management. The office also coordinated 
major outgoing loans for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the Edin- 
burgh Festival, and other exhibitions. To help museum staff ac- 
custom themselves to new collections management computer sys- 
tems and the new automated central catalogue, the office also con- 
ducted internal seminars on collections management. Fiscal year 

1984 began with an effort to preserve and update the inventory, 
and continuing efforts throughout the year were aimed at match- 
ing past registration and catalogue records with those produced 
during the inventory to create the most accurate possible master 
file, and integrating the new inventory into the everyday life of 
the museum. 

The Afro-American Communities Project, which studies ante- 
bellum life among free blacks, acquired the records of the Allen 
Temple, also known as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in Cincinnati, which date from the 1830s. The project has also 
begun to collect wills and inventories of property to research the 
question of occupation and status of the antebellum urban black 

History and Art I 217 

community. So far the project has collected seventy-five inven- 
tories from Boston and fifty wills from Cincinnati; the collection of 
documents from Philadelphia is under way. The director of the 
project, James O. Horton, presented five scholarly papers during 
the year, including "Beacon from the Hill: The Black Church and 
the Black Community," at the Second National Conference on 
Blacks in Boston held at Boston College, and "Links to Bondage: 
Northern Free Blacks and the Problem of Slavery," at the annual 
meeting of the Organization of American Historians held in Los 

The Archives Center, established in fiscal year 1983, collaborates 
with other museum units in acquiring, organizing, and preparing 
archival and documentary materials for research use. Evidently its 
reputation is spreading, because in fiscal year 1984 the center saw 
wide use and served visitors ranging from attorneys and collectors 
to a French volcanologist. Major projects of the year included the 
"Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign oral history project. Sup- 
ported by a grant from the Pepsi-Cola Company, the project in- 
cludes interviews with executives at Pepsi-Cola and advertising 
agencies and will collect relevant documents to complete a major 
in-depth study of this extremely successful advertising campaign. 
The center added fifty-two collections during the fiscal year, to 
bring its total of collections to 117. Notable acquisitions include 
documents and photographs from the Faris and Yamna Naff Arab- 
American Collection, the Walter Wilkinson collection of commer- 
cial art materials, and the scripts for the television show M*A*S*H. 
Spencer Crew, Robert Harding, and John Fleckner of the center 
attended the annual meeting of the Society of American Archiv- 
ists, where Fleckner, the museum's archivist, gave a paper entitled 
"The Administration of Archives: A Common Practice?" He also 
spoke on Third World archives at a Smith College conference on 
resources for the study of women's history and on native Ameri- 
can archives in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Amer- 
ican Library Association. Spencer Crew, historian at the center, 
gave a paper on black institutions at the Camden County Histori- 
cal Society in New Jersey. 

Surveys by the Division of Conservation of objects in divisional 
collections turned up more than 875 objects in need of immediate 
attention from a conservator or technician. A total of more than 
1,250 objects were treated or given safer storage. The efforts of 
the Division of Conservation included special attention to photo- 
graphic collections, including rehousing of the Eadweard Muy- 

218 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

bridge glass plate positive collection. Conservators and technicians 
helped train museum staff in conservation. Deborah Hess Norris 
and Peter Krause gave a well attended lecture and workshop on 
conserving photographic materials, organized by conservator 
Dianne van der Reyden of the division and attended by nmah 
staff and staff from other Smithsonian museums and area institu- 
tions. Paper lab and objects lab staff conducted short training ses- 
sions for exhibits production and curatorial staff on topics such 
as safe storage housing for paper, use of ultrasonic Mylar welder, 
and safe cleaning techniques. The division spent many hours 
examining and treating objects for exhibitions and loans. The staff 
answered 300 requests on conservation from the public and con- 
ducted tours of its facilities for more than six hundred people. 
Scott Odell, head conservator, was a panelist and speaker for the 
"Pest Control" session for the Conservation Lecture Series of the 
Office of Museum Programs, and Nikki Horton, conservator, de- 
livered papers entitled "Supports and Mounts for Leather Ob- 
jects," at the Recent Developments in Leather Conservation meet- 
ing; "Accession Numbering" at a meeting of the Association of 
Museum Specialists, Technicians, and Aides; and "Museum Pest 
Control" at the Conservation Lecture Series of the Office of Mu- 
seum Programs. 

National Portrait Gallery 

The exhibition year at the National Portrait Gallery (npg) was 
highlighted by the monumental Masterpieces from Versailles: 
Three Centuries of French Portraiture, made possible through the 
cooperation of the French government, the sponsorship of Guerlain, 
Inc., and by a unique opportunity afforded by the restoration of 
Versailles. The Versailles exhibition signalled the recognition by 
the National Portrait Gallery of its affinity with sister institutions 
abroad and its success suggested a series of international portrait 
exhibitions in the future. 

Among other noteworthy exhibitions in a busy year were the 
groundbreaking Robert Cornelius: Portraits from the Dawn of 
Photography, which offered an unprecedented scientific (as well as 
aesthetic) study of the earliest daguerreotypes produced in the 

History and Art I 219 

United States; O Write My Name, the presentation of Carl Van 
Vechten's splendid photographic gallery of Black Americans, pro- 
duced by the Eakins Press; and Adventurous Pursuits: Americans 
and the China Trade 1784-1844, which marked the bicentennial of 
the inauguration of American commerce with the Orient. Featured 
as well were a collection of Time cover portraits of the Presidency, 
a small exhibition reviewing the life and work of the writer Booth 
Tarkington, and a lively display of caricatures of musicians, under- 
scoring a new thrust in npg collecting. The Portrait Gallery 
strengthened its ties to other museums through the presentation of 
Artists by Themselves, an exhibition mounted by the National 
Academy of Design from its own collection; Arnold Genthe: The 
Celebrity Portraits, organized by the Library of Congress; and 
Erastus Salisbury Field, a celebration of a major folk artist assem- 
bled by the Springfield Museum of Fine Arts and presented jointly 
with the National Museum of American Art. 

Noteworthy among the publications produced to accompany 
these exhibitions was Adventurous Pursuits: Americans and the 
China Trade 1784-1844, by Margaret C. S. Christman, which won 
awards from the American Association of Museums and the Art 
Directors Club of Metropolitan Washington. The National Portrait 
Gallery's quarterly Calendar of Events also won an award from 
the AAM. Other publications included The Selected Papers of 
Charles Willson Peale and His Family, vol. 1: Charles Willson 
Peale: Artist in Revolutionary America, 1735-1791, edited by 
Lillian B. Miller and the Peale Papers staff at npg, the first of a 
planned eight-volume series published by Yale University Press; 
and American Portrait Prints: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual 
American Print Conference, which contains lectures presented at 
the National Portrait Gallery in May 1979, published by the Uni- 
versity Press of Virginia, supported by a grant from the Barra 

The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation provided a 
matching grant ($650,000) to purchase the npg's most significant 
acquisition in a year of exceptional acquisitions: the portrait of 
Mary Cassatt painted by Edgar Degas; the remainder of the pur- 
chase was made through the Regents' Major Acquisition Fund, 
Other major purchases included a rare portrait of the poet Joel 
Baarlow by Robert Fulton, who, like Samuel F. B. Morse, was an 
artist as well as inventor and scientist; a painting of the noted 
critic Sadakichi Hartmann by the Michigan artist John S. Coppin; 
a striking portrait of composer Virgil Thomson by the noted 

220 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

This was the scene on a typical day during the exhibition Masterpieces 
from Versailles: Three Centuries of French Portraiture at the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

A portrait of composer Virgil 
Thomson by Alice Neel was one 
of the National Portrait Gallery's 
major purchases this year. 


painter Alice Neel; a rare 1860 lithograph of Abraham Lincolr\ by 
Joseph E. Baker; a collection of rare portrait prints of Confederate 
political and military figures; a photograph of the American pub- 
lisher James Thomas Fields by the noted British photographer Julia 
Margaret Cameron; Paul Strand's portrait photo of Georgia 
O'Keeffe; a scarce and splendid Man Ray photograph of Peggy 
Guggenheim; photographs of Sherwood Anderson, George Wash- 
ington Carver, W. C. Handy, and Frances Benjamin Johnson, as 
well as a portfolio of informal portrait photographs by the late 
Garry Winogrand. 

Gifts to the Portrait Gallery included portraits of the inventor 
and businessman King C. Gillette; naturalist William T. Hornaday; 
civil rights activist Rosa Parks; economists Thorstein Veblen and 
Milton Friedman; and a substantial group of caricatures by Aline 
Fruhauf of noted Americans in the fields of music, the arts, and 

Innovation, outreach, and partnerships in public programming 
have been the outsanding characteristics of npg Education Depart- 
ment activities in 1984, a year in which the department served 
more than 40,000 individuals. In support of the exhibition Master- 
pieces from Versailles, npg docents mastered a large body of new 
material to serve both an adult public and, thanks to the support 
of the Washington Post, a school audience numbering 2,500. The 
Portraits in Motion series continued to show capacity for growth: 
three new sub-series. Portraits in Motion Showcase, Portraits in 
American Song, and Portraits in Motion Studio Theater, found 
responsive audiences for figures as diverse as Calamity Jane and 
Clarence Darrow, Zelda Fitzgerald, and Ernie Pyle, and music 
ranging from that of Irving Berlin to art songs to ragtime to folk 

It was a year of unprecedented collaboration for the department: 
the Portraits in Motion Showcase was offered in association with 
the Resident Associate Program; "The Provincetown Plays" were 
one of three performance cosponsorships undertaken with the 
National Museum of American Art (nmaa), one of which also had 
the participation of the National Museum of American History. 
Cooperation was especially in evidence in the public programming 
for the joint npg-nmaa exhibition Erastus Salisbury Field, 1805- 
1900. A broad range of activities were presented by the two 
museums: "Connecticut Valley Lives" included two Portraits in 
Motion programs, "A Charles Ives Fourth of July" and "White 
Ashes"; a one-woman drama about Mrs. Stowe; special lectures 

222 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

were presented in the Great Hall; and there was an array of 
Lunchtime Lectures, films, and tours. 

Npg has also provided more services to its audiences who are 
unable to visit by adding to the repertoire of adult and, especially, 
senior adult outreach programs "A Cole Porter Jubilee." Similarly, 
the number of school programs, most of which combine outreach 
and in-gallery phases, has been expanded as well. Finally, the 
department continued to play a prominent role in the museum 
education community, particularly through its involvement in 
Roundtable Reports: The Journal of Museum Education, its partici- 
pation in the publication of Museum Education Anthology: Per- 
spectives on Informal Learning, and active engagement in profes- 
sional groups, meetings, panels, and workshops. 

The Gallery's "self-portrait" evenings, which resumed last year, 
continued with public interviews of the journalist William L. 
Shirer, who spoke of his career as witness to history and his first- 
hand experience of Gandhi and of Hitler; and of Edward L. 
Bernays, who recalled the origins of the profession of public rela- 
tions, which he launched. These interviews by npg's chief historian. 
Marc Pachter, were videotaped. An earlier "self-portrait" evening, 
with the threatrical director and producer George Abbott, has been 
edited into a finished television program with the support of funds 
provided by the Educational Outreach Fund, administered by the 
Assistant Secretary for Public Service. This will serve as a pilot 
for a projected series of telecasts. 

Office of American Studies 

The Office of American Studies (oamers) continued its program in 
graduate education throughout the year. The 1983 fall semester 
seminar in "Material Aspects of American Civilization" had as its 
theme "Material Culture of the Future — 1984 and Beyond," and 
was taught by the director of the program and Professor Bernard 
Mergen of the George Washington University. 

Other seminars during the academic year 1983-1984 included 
"The Decorative Arts an America," taught by Barbara G. Carson, 
and "The Gilded Age: 1865-1900," taught by Lillian B. Miller. 
Individual graduate students continued to pursue specialized re- 
search under the supervision of the director of the Office of Ameri- 
can Studies. 

History and Art I 223 

This group of objects from the exhibition Treasures from the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, representing the great diversity within the Smithsonian as well as in the 
American way of Ufe, drew much attention in Edinburgh. Jimmy Durante's hat, 
sheet music for "The White Cliffs of Dover," featuring a photo of Bing Crosby, 
a baseball autographed by Babe Ruth, a bat used by Walter "Buck" Leonard, 
and a Tiffany lamp (left to right) provided a contrasting mixture of objects. 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 


Conservation Analytical Laboratory 

The event which, more than any other, shaped fiscal year 1984 for 
the Conservation Analytical Laboratory (cal) was the move to new 
quarters at the Museum Support Center, marking the beginning of 
a period of changes and transition. 

The new laboratories had to be adapted to meet the requirements 
of the specialized staff, while at the same time cal had started a 
large-scale recruitment program for new staff members. These ac- 
tivities were completed successfully under the coordination of act- 
ing director Alan W. Postlethwaite, who stayed on as deputy di- 
rector when Lambertus van Zelst joined cal as director at the end 
of this fiscal year. 

Late last year senior furniture conservator Walter Angst retired 
and objects conservators Nikki Horton and Kory Berrett resigned 
to accept appointments elsewhere. This year three new senior con- 
servators joined cal: furniture conservator Marc Williams, objects 
conservator Carol Grissom, and textile conservator Mary Ballard. 
Furniture conservator Don Williams and paper conservator Dianne 
van der Reyden are joining cal this fall; recruitment is under way 
for two more objects conservators. Early this year Ronald Bishop 
became manager of the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Col- 
lections and Records (sarcar). Edward V. Sayre was appointed 
senior research scientist. 



A number of treatments took place before the move. Walter Angst 
completed work on an early American cane-seated bentwood chair, 
and examined and cleaned the Smithsonian Mace. He also com- 
pleted a treatise on the Mace and its history, which will be pub- 
lished with the aid of a grant from the James Smithson Society. 
Kory Berrett finished work on a number of bronze objects and 
repaired the glass dissociator tube of the first hydrogen maser, 
smashed into thirty-three pieces. Ron Cunningham finished treat- 
ment of two oil paintings and continued with work on three others. 
Mary Lou Garbin completed work on an early English-style Ameri- 
can saddle. This led her to a study of the literature, which has 
resulted in her presentation of a bibliography on leather conserva- 
tion treatment during a workshop on this subject. The bibliography 
will be part of the published proceedings. 

After the move to the Museum Support Center, the conservators 
organized their laboratories and awaited final installation of equip- 
ment and furniture. During this period they cooperated with con- 
servators in other Smithsonian laboratories and spent time at the 
various museums in an effort to establish conservation needs and 

Carol Grissom spent three days a week at the Anthropology 
Conservation Laboratory of National Museum of Natural History, 
substituting for their absent conservation coordinator. She reviewed 
objects requested for loan by more than fifteen institutions, speci- 
fied packing, shipping, and display conditions, and wrote about 200 
condition reports. She also performed treatments on seventeen 
objects for the exhibition The Tibetan Yak in Arts and Craft at the 
Renwick Gallery, and on two bronzes from the Sackler Collection 
for the Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution exhibition. 

Ron Cunningham assisted the Freer Gallery of Art at its Tech- 
nical Laboratory with a minor treatment of an oil painting on 
canvas by James McNeill Whistler, and with extensive conservation 
work on sixteen wooden staircase panels painted by the same artist. 

Tim Vitale worked at the Division of Conservation at the Na- 
tional Museum of American History to help complete the treat- 
ments of two architectural elevations, one architectural drawing, 
and a color lithograph, in preparation for the exhibition commem- 
orating the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. 

At the Renwick Gallery, Marc Williams examined and proposed 
treatments for a boulle cabinet and for two sideboards on loan 

226 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Some of the 127 crates used to transport the Treasures from the Smithsonian 
Institution exhibition to Edinburgh await unpacking in the main gallery of the 
Royal Scottish Museum. In the foreground, the lunar buggy and buckboard 
wagon are draped in plastic. 

from the Metropolitan Museum of Art; he also examined a pair 
of Chinese sofas at the National Museum of American Art. Treat- 
ment of these objects will take place during the next year. 

Also during this period, the statue of Joseph Henry in front of 
the Castle was cleaned and waxed by a contract conservator, as 
part of a program to protect it from environmental hazards. 

As the CAL laboratories were completed, objects started to come 
in again for conservation treatment. Tim Vitale treated two prints 
and two drawings for the National Portrait Gallery. Ron Cunning- 
ham treated a canvas wall panel from the studio of Christian 
Herter for the Smithsonian Castle Collection, two murals and a 
painted wooden tavern sign. Marc Williams treated several objects 
for the National Air and Space Museum, among them the pro- 
peller of the Wright Brothers' Flyer. With the exception of the 
textile conservation laboratory, which is presently being installed 
under the supervision of Mary Ballard, gal conservation labora- 
tories at the Support Center are now all operational. 

Cal assisted the museums in pest control, keeping the fumiga- 
tion chamber at the American History Building operational. Nine- 
teen loads for seven bureaus were fumigated. Evaluation of poten- 
tial fumigation activities, with a critical review by cal conservation 
scientists of various fumigants, continues. 

Cal continued to provide calibrated temperature- and humidity- 
monitoring instruments and review service to bureaus that request 
this. At present, eighty-two hygrothermographs are located in 
twelve bureaus. 

During this year gal's conservators presented a number of con- 
tributions at professional meetings. Tim Vitale edited the prelim- 
inary papers of the Paper Conservation Catalogue, presented at the 
annual meeting of the American Institute for Conservation (aig), 
for which he contributed a chapter on "Drying and Flattening." 
He also gave a presentation in "Operating Parameters and Use of 
Large and Small Suction Tables" at the meeting of the Conserva- 
tion Committee of the International Council of Museums (igom) 
held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 1984. Mary Ballard 
presented a paper on "Risk Assessment and the Use of Fumigants" 
at the Sixth International Biodeterioration Conference in Washing- 
ton, D.C., on "Ethylene Oxide Fumigation: Risk Assessment and 
Results" for the Society of American Archivists, and another on 
"Mothproofing Museum Textiles" at the igom Conservation Com- 
mittee meeting. 

228 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


The essential simple technical facilities of the conservation science 
group were operational again within a few weeks after the move. 
More complicated equipment and facilities needed somewhat more 
time to set up; the only service not yet operational at this writing 
is X-radiography, for which additional shielding, needed for ade- 
quate radiation protection, is being installed. 

With the installation of a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, 
in addition to the installed gas chromatograph (the latter given to 
CAL by the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of 
Natural History, together with an amino acid analyzer and other 
apparatus), and the already present infrared spectrometer, gal now 
has assembled a quite powerful facility for the analysis of organic 
materials, such as resins, adhesives, paint media, archeological 
food residues, etc. 

During the past year a large number of requests for analyses 
and technical assistance were carried out. Thirty identifications of 
such materials as pigments, corrosion products, varnishes, and 
corrosion inhibitors were completed. One of these investigations, 
a study of the changes that take place with time in a varnish often 
used to protect outdoor bronze sculpture against environmental 
hazards, resulted in a presentation by David Erhardt at the icom 
Conservation Committee meeting. 

Fifteen test studies were done on modern materials used around 
museum objects for various purposes. Examples included the an- 
alysis of air in museum buildings for the concentration of amines, 
which are introduced via the air conditioning system (they are 
added to the steam as corrosion inhibitors for the pipes, but they 
may have undesirable effects on objects) and the evaluation of the 
treatment of concrete floors to improve their properties with regard 
to objects storage. Environmental studies addressed control prob- 
lems in both micro and macro climates. The design of a cooled exhi- 
bition case in which to display General George Washington's com- 
mission as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, under 
controlled relative humidity, was the subject of a presentation by 
Tim Padfield at the icom Conservation Committee meeting. The 
movements of salts and water in the walls of buildings, especially 
during the winter when the interiors are humidified, are the subject 
of a study for which special monitors are being designed, which 
will be placed inside walls. Buildings to be monitored in this way 
will include the Museum Support Center and the Renwick Gallery. 

Museum Programs I 229 

Two interns, John Frieman and Deborah Delauney, have worked 
with Tim Padfield on this project. 

David von Endt helped organize and lectured at the aic work- 
shop, "Protein Chemistry for Conservation"; he also contributed 
four chapters to the course book that he co-edited. At the Septem- 
ber meeting of the International Institute for Conservation (iic) he 
presented a poster on the identification of a plant mucilage used as 
an adhesive by North American Indians. At the Sixth International 
Biodeterioration Conference he gave a presentation on the "Bio- 
deterioration of Proteinaceous Materials in Museums." Tim Pad- 
field lectured in February on "Indoor Air Pollution" at the Center 
for Building Technology workshop on "Air Quality Criteria for 
the Storage of Paperbased Archival Records." 


Activities in the archaeometry program during the past year in- 
cluded cooperative programs involving staff, fellows, and research 
associates in a wide scope of subjects such as archeology of the 
Arctic, Mediterranean, Meso American, and Near Eastern areas; 
and technical studies of American and European paintings. A wide 
variety of analytical techniques were used in these projects, includ- 
ing neutron activation analysis, plasma optical emission spec- 
troscopy, lead isotope analysis, petrography, neutron activated 
autoradiography, and X-radiography. 

The lead isotope analysis program for provenience studies of 
archeological artifacts developed into a joint program with the 
National Bureau of Standards (nbs) and the Corning Museum of 
Glass. This program was originally started when lead isotope 
analysis was chosen as a tool in the Freer Gallery of Art's technical 
study of bronzes from the Sackler Collection, but now has grown 
into a full-scale cooperative program that supports the analysis of 
samples for a number of archeological studies. Approximately 200 
samples from thirteen separate projects were analyzed during this 
year by research chemist Emile Deal. The neutron activation an- 
alysis group at NBS, under the coordination of M. James Blackman, 
characterized about 500 samples from six different archeological 
projects, including work by Materials Analysis fellows Albert 
Jornet, Emlen Myers, Rita Wright, and Christopher Nagle. This 
CAL facility bought a hyper-pure germanium detector, a fifty-posi- 
tion sample changer, and new software for the vax 750 computer 
around which the gamma ray spectrometry systems at nbs are 

230 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Ronald Bishop developed a data storage/retrieval system for sar- 
CAR, using the vax 750 computer at the Support Center. A statis- 
tical softwear package interfaces with the databank. In addition to 
data resulting from the work of fellows and staff, those of about 
20,000 analyses done in the archaeometry program at Brookhaven 
National Laboratory have now been entered in the data bank. 
Recently, the uniquely important collection of samples and data 
of the eminent historical metallurgist, the late Earle Caley, was 
donated to sarcar. Ronald Bishop also continues his research into 
archeological problems relating to the Maya civilization, making 
use of the sarcar data-handling facility. 

Yu-tamg Cheng continued work on the development of a facility 
at the NBS research reactor for neutron-induced autoradiography of 
paintings. The work group for this project, which also includes 
Jacqueline S. Olin, Roland Cunningham, and research associate 
Susan Hobbs, continued the study of paintings by American artist 
Thomas W. Dewing with two of his works. Duet and Nude. In 
cooperation with the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that museum's 
earlier project on the study of the techniques used by Rembrandt, 
originally done at Brookhaven National Laboratory, was continued 
with the autoradiography of two paintings by Rembrandt: Man in 
an Archway and Portrait of a Lady. 

As a visiting scientist in cal's archaeometry department. Dr. Ian 
Brindle of Brock University, Ontario, Canada, worked with the 
staff on the development of procedures for the provenience study 
of North American native copper artifacts, using direct current 
plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Dr. Bruno Frohlich, under 
contract with gal, carried out an electromagnetic prospecting proj- 
ect in Bahrain, to identify and characterize archeological sites on 
the Arabian peninsula. Two new postdoctoral fellows in Materials 
Analysis, Marilyn Beaudry and Julian Henderson, were appointed. 

Cal Archaeometry Department staff produced a number of 
lectures and contributions to professional meetings. Four contribu- 
tions were presented by Jacqueline Olin, Marino Maggetti, Albert 
Jornet, and James Blackman at the Williamsburg Conference of the 
Society for Historical Archaeology. Albert Jornet represented the 
group with "A Study of Ceramic from the Paterna-Manises Area" 
at the Pittsburgh meeting of the American Ceramic Society and 
with "Study of Maiolica from Three Production Areas of Spain" 
at the International Archaeometry Symposium in Washington, D.C. 
Also at this meeting, Emile Deal presented "Determining the 
Provenance of Works of Art and Comparative Samples by Lead 

Museum Programs I 231 

Isotope Ratio Analysis/' and James Blackman offered "The Use of 
Interlaboratory Data Sets in Provenience Studies." 

Ronald Bishop presented "Compositional Attribution of Non- 
Provenienced Maya Polychrome Vessels" at the international sem- 
inar "Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art" at 
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, where Yu-tarng Cheng showed 
a poster describing the proposed facility for autoradiography at 
NBS. Rita Wright presented "Standardization as Evidence for Craft 
Specialization, a Case Study," at the Chicago meeting of the Amer- 
ican Anthropological Association. Ronald Bishop presented "SAR- 
CAR, A New Archaeometrical Resource" at the icom Conservation 
Committee meeting. 


Staff members of the Conservation Analytical Laboratory continued 
to lecture and teach, both inside and outside the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. Ronald Bishop lectured at the University of Costa Rica on 
"Activacion de Neutrones de la Ceramica y Jade de Costa Rica"; 
and on "Neutron Activation and the Modeling of Ceramic Com- 
positional Data" at the Center for Materials Research in Archae- 
ology and Ethnology (cmrae) at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. Emile Deal lectured on the archaeometrical use of lead 
isotope analysis at the University of the District of Columbia, and 
presented a poster on the subject for the Association for the Devel- 
opment and Advancement of Black Scientists and Engineers. 
Martha Goodway lectured at a National Park Service workshop 
on bronze statuary; on "Forensic Aspects of Art Forgery" for the 
North Eastern Association of Forensic Scientists; and on "Metal- 
lurgy in the Museum" for the American Society for Metals, Wash- 
ington chapter. Eleanor McMillan taught and lectured at four 
different workshops organized by the Office of Museum Programs; 
she also lectured on "Exhibit Design and Conservation" for the 
American Association of Museums and for the Northeast Mu- 
seums Conference; and on "Preventive Maintenance" for the 
U.S. Army Curatorial Museum Training Course; on "Conserva- 
tion at the Smithsonian" at Gonzaga University in Spokane; and 
on "Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution, a Closer Look" 
for the Cincinnati Historical Society. Jacqueline Olin presented 
lectures on the definition and goals of archaeometry at the Univer- 
sity of Maryland and at the State University of New Jersey at 
Rutgers. Tim Vitale spoke on "The Examination and Treatment of 
a Variety of Works on Paper from the National Air and Space 

232 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Museum Collection" at the Space Science and Exploration Depart- 
ment. Rita Wright lectured on "Why and How Archaeologists 
Study Ceramic Technology" at the Winterthur Art Conservation 
Program; together with Emlen Myers she presented an Archae- 
ometry/Anthropology Lunchtime Talk on "Patterns of Techno- 
logical Variation and Change: Examples from Third Millennium 
Pakistan and Contemporary Morocco." 

The information program for the general public handled 596 
requests, referring the questions to the appropriate cal conserva- 
tors. Marjorie Cleveland of the professional information service 
performed more than a hundred literature searches for conserva- 
tors and researchers. 

Tim Vitale coordinated the course "Traditional Japanese Mount- 
ing Techniques for Application to Western Conservation Treat- 
ments/' taught by Japanese expert Katsuhiko Masuda at cal. This 
valuable course, originally presented at the International Conserva- 
tion Center at Rome, had been available to only a few American 
conservators; here twelve participated. 

The twenty-fourth International Archaeometry Symposium was 
organized by Jacqueline Olin and James Blackman and held in the 
Baird Auditorium May 14-18. More than two hundred participants 
from sixteen countries attended this meeting, which included ses- 
sions on Stable Isotope Measurement in Archaeology, Ancient 
Technology, Prospection, Mathematical Methods, Provenience 
Studies, and Dating. The proceedings of the meeting will be pub- 
lished in the Smithsonian Press series Contributions to Anthro- 

In the series of si-nbs seminars, Helmut Schweppe of basf 
Aktiengesellschaft in West Germany presented a lecture on the 
"Identification of Dyes in Historical Textiles." He also conducted 
a workshop for Smithsonian conservators at cal. Other lectures in 
this series were given by Emile Deal on "The Use of Lead Isotope 
Ratios for the Determination of the Provenience of Ancient Ob- 
jects" and by Ronald Bishop on "The Science and Art of Classic 
Maya Pictorial Ceramics." 

Preparation continued for the conservation training project, 
which is expected to start in September 1985. 

National Museum Act Programs 

The National Museum Act (nma), established by Congress in 1966, 
responded to continuing needs in the museum field through grants 

Museum Programs I 233 

for researching museum-related problems, disseminating technical 
information, and training mid-career or beginning professionals. 
Conservation issues were again emphasized in each of the grant 
categories that were offered in 1984. The Advisory Council re- 
viewed 228 proposals requesting over $4 million, the largest group 
of applications ever received. Sixty-two awards were made, totaling 
$686,000; of that number, 70 percent concerned training and re- 
search in conservation. 

Training grants for beginning professionals were made to aca- 
demic institutions with museum-related courses, to museums with 
established internship programs, and to individuals pursuing grad- 
uate or advanced training in conservation both here and abroad. 
Graduate training in academic institutions included support for the 
first American program in architectural conservation. Internship 
programs, which enable individuals to gain valuable hands-on ex- 
perience that cannot be acquired in an academic setting, involved 
art and history museums as well as a major planetarium in the 
Midwest, botanical gardens in New York and Missouri, and three 
zoos. Grants for individuals covered various areas of conservation, 
such as paintings, textiles, works on paper, and ethnographic 

Seminars supported by nma are designed primarily to reach pro- 
fessionals who are already employed by museums and who can 
profit from state-of-the-art information on specialized topics. In 
1984, awards were made to benefit individuals in history, science, 
and art museums. The seminar for history museum professionals 
at Colonial Williamsburg, jointly sponsored by the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums, the American Association for State and Local 
History, and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, has 
successfully addressed changing needs for twenty-five consecutive 
years. Special workshops for professionals in science museums 
involved model outreach and teacher-training programs that are 
relevant to the important educational role of museums. Several 
seminars dealt with conservation topics, such as the care of paint- 
ings, paper, and photographic collections or the use of microscopes 
in determining the treatment of objects. A series of regional sem- 
inars on management for staff members of museums exhibiting 
African American materials was funded, as well as a three-day 
workshop on issues that affect Native American museums. 

Most of the research grants made in 1984 involved technical 
problems in conservation. One study will investigate the effective- 
ness of certain pesticides both on insects and museum specimens 

234 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

and another, methods of consolidating deteriorated stone. Nma 
funds will partially support the development of a test that can be 
used by museums to determine safe storage enclosures for historic 
photographs and a project to identify fungi that endanger artistic 
and historic works. An award was made to prepare a manual for 
museum professionals on the latest techniques of preserving 
daguerrotypes; this information is the result of previous nma 
grants on this topic. 

A special category of grants concerns technical services to the 
museum field that do not involve training or research. In 1984 a 
museum-related organization in New York was awarded funds to 
produce a series of data sheets on health hazards in museum con- 
servation, and a zoological garden in the Midwest received a grant 
to improve an inventory system that provides information on 
captive animals, many of which are endangered species, to zoos in 
the United States and abroad. The National Museum Act continued 
to support important regional museum associations around the 
country, enabling them to strengthen the programs of their annual 
meetings, and to sustain the consultant program for history mu- 
seums that has been successfully administered by the American 
Association for State and Local History since 1972. 

Office of Exhibits Central 

This year the Office of Exhibits Central (oec) worked with almost 
every Smithsonian museum on one extraordinary exhibition: Trea- 
sures from the Smithsonian Institution, which opened on August 
12, 1984, at the Royal Scottish Museum in conjunction with the 
1984 Edinburgh Festival. It will close and be returned to the Smith- 
sonian in early November. Conceived, designed, written and edited, 
produced, crated, shipped, and installed within six months. Trea- 
sures from the Smithsonian Institution called on all of the talents 
and in-depth experience of the oec. This, however, was but one 
of more than two hundred projects worked on by the oec this year. 
In June oec administrative, editorial, and typesetting offices were 
relocated to the Smithsonian Institution Service Center (sisc) at 
1111 North Capitol Street, because of the roofing and restoration 
work in the Arts and Industries Building. Substantial rearrange- 
ments were necessary to incorporate staff and equipment into the 

Museum Programs I 235 

existing oec facilities at sisc but, for the first time since being 
established, the entire oec staff is now located in one building. In 
September the oec Model Shop began providing limited freeze-dry 
services, which had been discontinued when the lab was closed in 
the Natural History Building a year earlier. In October a complete 
house cleaning is scheduled to upgrade all oec offices and shops. 

The two hundred or so separate projects that oec completes each 
year include many exhibit-related tasks that are performed during 
the inherent down-time of all exhibition programs. These tasks 
utilize the same equipment and talents as exhibition work, hence 
the term exhibit-related projects. This year, for instance, name- 
plates used at Regents meetings were re-done, which involved 
twenty work-hours and less than %75 in material costs. A new, all- 
weather label was produced and installed for the Downing Urn 
located on the Mall lawn of the Castle building. This required 
thirty work-hours and $36.08 in material costs. The oec's com- 
puterized accounting system records all projects and the requesting 
Smithsonian office reimburses all material costs. Such projects are 
routinely accepted on a time-available basis; however, more than 
half of the yearly projects produced by the oec are more compre- 
hensive and are scheduled on a deadline basis. 

Thirty new exhibitions were produced for the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Traveling Exhibition Service (sites), three others required 
updating changes, and fourteen were refurbished for extended tour. 
Two special temporary exhibitions were installed in the Castle 
lounge, and the oec again provided graphics for the Festival of 
American Folklife. The Information Carts and summer information 
pylons for the Mall were refurbished by the oec, and portrait man- 
nikin heads were cast of astronauts Sally Ride and Guion Bluford 
for the National Air and Space Museum. The oec Exhibits Editors 
Office wrote, edited, designed, and supervised the printing of thirty 
foreign and forty domestic tour brochures for the Associates 
Travel Program. This year the brochure for China tours was de- 
veloped as a folder describing each of the twelve tours offered. 
This very successful format will now be used for other multiple 
tour offerings. 

Model-makers David Paper, James Reuter, and Benjamin Snouf- 
fer received cash awards this year for the construction — which 
required considerable research and interpretation of very limited 
documentation — of a nine-foot-high model of Russian construc- 
tivist Vladimir Tatlin's Monument to the Third International for 
the Hirshhorn Museum exhibition Dreams and Nightmares. The 

236 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

model, now in the museum's collections, is a milestone in the 
development and building of scale models of visionary art/archi- 
tecture. For the same exhibition Karen Fort, chief exhibits editor, 
wrote and edited a complex didactic script for the labels — an un- 
usual approach in most art exhibitions. By all standards the Ex- 
hibits Editors Office had an active and very involved year. Karen 
Fort also wrote and edited labels for the Art of the Cameroon 
exhibition, and editor Rosemary Regan wrote and edited the text 
and coordinated Spanish translations for the bilingual exhibition 
Age of Gold; both scripts were written from catalogue copy for 
these SITES exhibitions. Michael Fruitman, an oec editor, left the 
Smithsonian for a writing position at the Government Accounting 
Office. Fruitman's services of top-rate exhibit-label writing and 
editing over a period of nine years are much appreciated. He was 
replaced by editorial assistant Diana Cohen. 

The Art of Cameroon exhibition script involved interpreting as 
well as identifying 125 objects; other oec participation on this 
comprehensive exhibition was equally complex. John Widener, 
assistant chief, oec, supervised the construction of the cases on 
contract. The Model Shop designed and produced brackets or 
mounting devices for each object, ranging from life-size sculpted 
wood figures and masks to extremely delicate leather and beadwork 
jewelry. The Graphic Production Unit silk-screened the exhibition 
labels on formica, plastic, and fabric surfaces; and the Fabrication 
Unit built custom shipping crates for all of the objects and all of 
the exhibition cases and fixtures. The exhibition opened in the 
Evans Gallery, National Museum of Natural History, and will 
travel for approximately two years in the United States. 

No exhibition this year, or since oec was established in 1972, 
better illustrates the experienced teamwork of this office than does 
Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution. Designed, written and 
edited, produced, shipped to Edinburgh, and installed within six 
months' time, this major exhibition — the Smithsonian's first partici- 
pation in the Edinburgh Festival — has been an outstanding success, 
as well as the largest, most comprehensive exhibition ever traveled 
by the Smithsonian Institution. 

More than 260 objects, representing almost every Smithsonian 
unit, were assembled by Donald McClelland, sites coordinator and 
curator/organizer for the exhibition. Oec director Jim Mahoney 
designed the exhibition, produced the drawings and specifications 
for contracting the construction of the "set" by the London firm 
of Wedgehand Ltd., and supervised the complete installation in the 

Museum Programs I 237 

Royal Scottish Museum. Karen Fort wrote and edited the exhibi- 
tion labels from information provided by sources throughout the 
Smithsonian. She also supervised the phototypesetting of the more 
than three hundred labels by oec specialist Elizabeth Wilform. 
Mary Dillon, as assistant designer, was the ultimate "girl Friday/' 
coordinating design information and detailing within the oec and 
between the Smithsonian and the Royal Scottish Museum. Model 
Shop supervisor Walter Sorrell oversaw the making of brackets 
and mounting devices for the objects and the design and construc- 
tion of customized interiors for the shipping crates. Fabrication 
supervisor Kenneth Clevinger measured and coordinated the con- 
struction of the shipping crates — 127 in all — and the fabrication 
of pedestals and graphic elements. James Speight, Graphic Produc- 
tion supervisor, and his staff silk-screened all of the labels. And 
John Widener balanced and juggled the scheduling of all of this, 
as well as oec's other projects, through the shops. 

Mary Jane Clark, sites registrar, coordinated the documentation, 
packing, shipping, and unpacking at the Royal Scottish Museum. 
She also served as courier on the first of three U.S. Air Force flights 
that transported the exhibition to Edinburgh and worked through 
the entire installation. The oec's David Paper and James Reuter 
worked on every phase of the installation; Mary Dillon served as 
a courier and worked through the installation; and Christopher 
Addison, of the National Museum of American Art, Barbara Cof- 
fee, of the National Museum of American History, and sites 
staffers Eileen Rose and Janet Freund also participated as members 
of the installation team. It was an exciting and exhausting experi- 
ence. On the day after the opening ceremonies, Jim Mahoney, 
Mary Jane Clark, and the Royal Scottish Museum staff discussed 
plans for dismantling the exhibition and taking the objects home 
to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Office of Horticulture 

Fiscal year 1984 has been extremely productive throughout the 
units of the Office of Horticulture. Our educational research and 
outreach projects have expanded dramatically. Requests from 
within the Smithsonian Institution as well as from other museums, 
botanical organizations, educational institutions, and the general 

238 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

public for assistance with horticultural research, publicatior\s, 
seminars, and exhibitions have been fulfilled without additional 
personnel. A major factor in this accomplishment has been the 
excellent work contributed by our supporting staff of volunteers 
and interns. 

Some of the specific projects included: the removal and trans- 
planting of the plantings on the east end of the National Air and 
Space Museum; the closing of the award-winning American Gar- 
den at the IV International Horticultural Exhibition (iga 83) in 
Munich, West Germany; the inventory of the Burpee Collection 
of rare seed catalogues; the acquisition of many labeled antique 
garden furnishings for the Enid A. Haupt Garden in the Quad- 
rangle; and the relandscaping of the courtyards at the National 
Museum of African Art and at the American Art and Portrait 
Gallery Building. 

The office provided support for 394 Special Events during the 
year — a 33 percent increase over fiscal year 1983. Of those, the 
following events required special attention: the Regents Dinners, 
Doubleday Dinners and Lectures, Musical Weekend, Renwick 
Waltz for the Contributing Membership, Diplomatic Dinner, Yale 
Alumni Dinner, the 20th Anniversary Dinner in honor of S. Dillon 
Ripley, the Whistler Exhibition, and the "Smithsonian Treasures" 

The office assisted the Women's Committee of the Smithsonian 
Associates with their Annual Christmas Ball, held on December 9, 
1983, by transforming the rotunda of the National Museum of 
Natural History (nmnh) into a "Dickens Christmas." More than 
160 poinsettias, eleven cut trees, twelve garlands, and nine "kiss- 
ing balls" captured the holiday spirit. Village scenes were fabri- 
cated by the Office of Exhibits Central with the assistance of 
Warren Abbott, an Office of Horticulture gardener and artist. 

The seventh annual Trees of Christmas exhibition was pre- 
sented from December 15, 1983, through January 2, 1984, in con- 
junction with the National Museum of American History (nmah). 
Dixie Rettig, one of our volunteers, assisted Lauranne C. Nash, 
chief of Education Division, throughout the year with her coordi- 
nation of this exhibit. Of the twelve trees presented, the following 
nine were new: "State Birds and Flowers" from Judy Ford Hogan 
and Mary I. Llewellyn; "Muslin and Lace" from Virginia C. Trus- 
low; "Nutcracker Suite" from the Washington, D.C., Chapter, 
Embroiderers' Guild of America, Inc.; "Crocheted Snowflakes" 
from Helen Haywood, Dorothy Scimshaw, and Priscilla Sparks; 

Museum Programs I 239 

"Folk Art Tree" from the Nation's Capital Chapter of the Na- 
tional Society of Tole and Decorative Painters, Inc.; "Red, White, 
and Blue" from Sunny O'Neil; "Scandinavia" from the Scandina- 
vian Council of the Washington, D.C., area; "Tole and Decorative 
Painting" from the National Society of Tole and Decorative Paint- 
ers, Inc.; and the "American Crafters' Tree" from American craft- 
ers. The following three trees were chosen from previous exhibi- 
tions: "Germany" from the Association of German- American 
Societies of Greater Washington, D.C.; "Nature's Bounty" from 
four generations of the Cronin family: Blanche Williar, Jane 
Cronin, Donna Cronin Fay, Teresa and Michael Fay; and the 
"Legend of the Spider" (previously named the tree of "Ukraine") 
from Helen Gunderson, Maureen Coleman, Mary G. Pister, and 
Dixie Rettig. All ornaments from the new trees were donated to 
the Office of Horticulture for future Trees of Christmas exhibi- 
tions. Mike Carrigan, exhibits designer for nmah, borrowed con- 
temporary wooden sculptures by William Accorsi, which were dis- 
played with the trees. On December 14 the office sponsored a 
reception honoring the hundreds of volunteers who worked on 
the exhibition. 

On March 30, 1984, the Office of Horticulture transformed the 
Renwick Gallery into a spring festival of flowers for the Annual 
Contributing Membership Waltz. Two magnificent antique urns 
from the William Adams foundry and one large rusticated tree 
trunk urn bearing the mark of the Miller Iron Company were 
restored for this event. The Greenhouse-Nursery Division forced 
spring bulbs, cut forsythia, and other spring flowers to create 
spectacular arrangements in these urns, which have been acquired 
for the Quadrangle Garden through the generosity of Mrs. Enid A. 
Haupt. Several hundred tubs of cymbidium orchids as well as other 
specimen plants from the permanent collections of the office were 
used to create this spring floral theme. 

In late May-early June, floral decorations were provided for 
"Smithsonian Treasures," sponsored by the Smithsonian National 
Associate Travel Program, to enhance the setting at each program 
site. Potted plants and flower arrangements from Office of Horti- 
culture collections decorated the many events held during the 
American Association of Museums Conference (June 10-14). 

The Plant and Accessioning Records System was completely 
overhauled during the year. August A. Dietz IV, Greenhouse- 
Nursery manager, worked with the director of the office on a 
three-month detail to review and rewrite the accessioning policies 

240 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

. ■• - ...^^^- I 

James R. Buckler, director of the Office of Horticulture, and Christian Hohenlohe, 
former Treasurer of the Smithsonian, view the Smithsonian Institution American 
Garden at the IV International Horticulture Exhibition in Munich, West Ger- 
many, from the pavilion, which was reproduced from a nineteenth-century sum- 
merhouse located at the Soldiers' and Airmen's Home in Washington, D.C. 

for our collections. In 1983 the office began reviewing all land- 
scape plans of Smithsonian properties in order to accession all 
permanent plant collections accurately. This mapping process has 
been completed and brass labels have been made for the perma- 
nent trees, shrubs, and groundcover beds. Maureen Coleman, land- 
scape designer, was responsible for coordinating this project. The 
horticultural records assistant, assigned to the Greenhouse-Nursery 
Division in March 1984, entered the data gathered during the 
mapping phase into the computer. 

The Office of Horticulture Library, established as a full Branch 
Library of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries in fiscal year 1983, 
was increased by approximately 150-200 volumes. Many of these 
are highly technical references needed to continue the research on 
our orchid collection. Marguerite MacMahon, a volunteer, has 
diligently continued to maintain the inventory and storage records 
of the large number of periodicals received by the office each year. 

The donation of the Burpee Collection was received by the 
office during 1982-83. This extraordinary gift of more than 25,000 
seed-trade catalogues, records, and memorabilia from the W. Atlee 
Burpee Company and the late Mrs. David Burpee is rapidly be- 
coming available as a result of the work of horticultural and land- 
scape historian Kathryn Meehan and volunteers Sally Tomlinson, 
Helen Gunderson, and Jeanne O. Shields. Working with the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Mrs. Meehan has coordinated 
the unpacking, sorting, fumigating, cataloguing, and organizing of 
this important collection, which will be housed in the Office of 
Horticulture Library, located on North Balcony of the Arts and 
Industries Building. To date, 12,715 catalogues, through the year 
1913, have been processed. 

In July 1984 the James Smithson Society provided a grant of 
$35,000 to purchase a collection of 150 volumes on the History of 
Landscape Architecture in America, 1799-1938. This rare collec- 
tion, assembled by Elizabeth Woodburn, antiquarian bookseller 
and horticultural historian in Princeton, New Jersey, will be invalu- 
able for current and future research on the history and evolution 
of horticulture and landscape design. 

Another small but significant collection of seed-trade records, 
correspondence, and tools was received from Gladys and Florence 
Whitehead, descendants of the Bedman family who founded the 
Bedman Brothers Seed Farm in 1843 near Rahway, New Jersey. 
The Bedmans produced seed for many important companies, in- 
cluding W. Atlee Burpee. They were noted for their development 

242 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

of seed for the popular nineteenth-century "bedding-out" plant, 
salvia, in addition to many others. 

The Interior Plant Program was transferred from the Education 
Division to the Grounds Management Division for the installation, 
maintenance, and rotation of all interior plants. This transfer has 
streamlined our service to Smithsonian bureaus. Renovations of 
the permanent galleries at the Freer, National Air and Space Mu- 
seum, National Museum of African Art, and Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden were completed in 1984 along with large 
installations of plants for the Whistler exhibition at the Freer; 
Ban Chiang at nmnh; and the Palm Court at nmah. All plants were 
selected by Lauranne Nash to complement the exhibitions and/or 
decor of the particular gallery as well for their ability to with- 
stand the environmental conditions. The office maintains on a daily 
basis over 2,000 plants throughout the Smithsonian Institution 

Volunteers Bruce Buntin, Dorothy High, and Charlene Hescock 
completed another successful year of weekly maintenance and 
rotation of rare and unusual plants and floral arrangements for 
the exhibition A Victorian Horticultural Extravaganza. 

Recruitment for the Student Intern Program was conducted in 
fiscal year 1984 by mailing more than 1,100 letters to horticul- 
tural schools and members of professional societies. As a result, 
the following interns worked with this office: Melissa Pilant, 
Washington State University, referred by the Smithsonian Office 
of Elementary and Secondary Education, spent five weeks as a 
junior intern in all divisions; Mr. David Steingrubey, University of 
Florida, registered for a one-year internship working in our orchid 
collection; and Jennifer Dimling, Colorado College, began working 
at the Greenhouse-Nursery Division in September 1984. 

Lauranne Nash has continued to serve on the Smithsonian 
Institution Internship Council and was elected to serve as cochair- 
person for one year beginning in January 1985. 

The Grounds Management Division, under the direction of 
Kenneth Hawkins, completed many projects this year, including 
the relandscaping of the courtyard at the National Portrait Gal- 
lery and the National Museum of American Art; installation of 
eighty rare white quince along the walls of the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden; installation of new tubbed plants on the 
third-floor terrace and flower boxes for the west terrace cafeteria 
at the National Air and Space Museum; relandscaping the Na- 
tional Museum of African Art's courtyard by installing a magnifi- 
cent Victorian cast-iron fountain (c. 1849, J. W. Fiske), Victorian 

Museum Programs I 243 

benches and lamp posts, as well as tubbed plants; the landscaping 
of the Victorian Bandstand and Calder Sculpture at the nmah; 
and the creation of a new garden at the Barney Studio House 
in time for the American Association of Museums conference. 
Through the efforts of Gerald Dobbs, an Office of Horticulture 
gardener, the Fragrant Garden (East Garden) continued to evolve 
as a sensory attraction for the handicapped. The Grounds Man- 
agement Division, assisted by John W. Monday, assistant director, 
and Maureen Coleman, completed the removal of plantings from 
the east end of the National Air and Space Museum in prepara- 
tion for the new restaurant. Most of the plantings were relocated 
at the Museum Support Center. 

In addition to these major projects, the Grounds Management 
Division was responsible for snow and ice removal; replacement 
of the dead hawthorns with ginkgo trees at nmnh; and the plant- 
ings of 55,000 spring bulbs, 14,000 pansies, and 22,000 flowering 

The Greenhouse-Nursery Division produced 14,000 pansies, 
30,000 annuals, 13,000 cut flowers, 700 tropical plants, and over 
12,000 seasonal potted plants for special events, interior plant dis- 
plays, and exterior flower beds and borders. In addition, the 
Greenhouse-Nursery Division provided special plantings for the 
Victorian Bandstand installed at the nmah, and the perennials and 
woody plants for the Barney Studio House Garden. 

Several improvements were made to the greenhouse-nursery 
complex to improve safety conditions and to reduce temperature 
fluctuations that are damaging to plant materials. The plant collec- 
tions in the greenhouse continued to expand at a modest pace; at 
the same time the office evaluated existing collections to allow for 
the disposition of poor quality genera, species, and hybrids. In 
November 1983 Paul E. Desautels, guest curator of the Orchid 
Collection, and Buckler, director of the office, visited Mrs. Beverly 
Pabst in Hillsborough, California, to pack the remaining orchid 
collection of the late Rudolf Pabst. The 247 extremely rare "stud" 
plants that were donated to the office by Mrs. Pabst this year will 
be a vital addition to the 2,000-plant collection she donated in 
1979. The office also acquired 200 species of orchids from Brad 
Van Scriver of Garden Grove, California. 

More than 40 percent of the Black River Collection, acquired in 
1982, has flowered and evaluations have been made. The plants 
not worthy of the National Orchid Collection are exchanged and 
traded for new plants or supplies, primarily under contract with 

244 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Kensington Orchids, Kensington, Maryland. In addition, the office 
provided surplus plants to the National Zoological Park, the U.S. 
Botanic Gardens, and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. The 
office is now installing a tissue culture laboratory for the propaga- 
tion of rare and desirable clones and endangered species. In Oc- 
tober 1983, the office exhibited about forty mixed hybrids and 
species from the National Orchid Collection at the National Capital 
Orchid Show held at the U.S. National Arboretum. An exhibit has 
been planned for the 1984 show. 

The Bromeliad Collection was inventoried this year and the data 
collected will be entered into the computer in fiscal year 1985. This 
remarkable collection of over 800 plants (350 hybrids and species) 
is often displayed with our orchid collection in interior exhibitions 
throughout the Smithsonian Institution museums. In addition, the 
office has now developed collections of 110 varieties of Hedera helix 
(English Ivy) and twenty-four varieties of Hosta. 

In March 1984 the office estabHshed a full-time position to 
handle the records and accessioning system of the Greenhouse- 
Nursery Division thus permitting the office to reduce the accession- 
ing backlog by more than 80 percent. Over 18,000 accessions were 
entered into the computer bank this year — primarily of the orchid 
collection. Desautels will continue to edit all data from our com- 
puter printouts, and an accurate inventory should be available 
early in the fall of 1984. Thirty percent of the plants in the orchid 
collection have been arranged in the greenhouses in alphabetical 
order by scientific name so that the physical inventory of the 
collection can be cross-indexed with the computer records. 

The office has worked throughout the year on the new Enid A. 
Haupt Garden for the Quadrangle. The completion of this garden 
in 1986-87 will mark the opening of a distinguished new American 
garden for public enjoyment. Director James R. Buckler and the 
Office of Horticulture staff have been working closely with John- 
Paul Carlhian, architect for the Quadrangle, from the Boston firm 
of Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson, and Abbott, and landscape 
architect Lester Collins in the development of the landscape plan. 
The office has already selected specimen plants and has collected 
original period garden furnishings, including vases or urns, settees, 
garden sculptures, lamp posts, and wickets or lawn guards for the 
garden. Many of the new garden furnishings are labeled pieces 
from such important nineteenth-century foundries as J. W. Fiske, 
J. L. Mott, Kramer Brothers, William Adams, and J. McLean. The 
Enid A. Haupt Garden will be created as an outdoor exhibition 

Museum Programs I 245 

gallery of plants, garden furnishings, and accessories. The office is 
now researching and designing the embroidery parterre, bedding 
designs, and the plantings appropriate for the garden vases. The 
Greenhouse-Nursery Division will begin production of much of 
the material needed for the bedding designs in the fall of 1984. 

In October 1983 the IV Internationale Gartenbau Austellung 
(IGA 83) in Munich closed to the public. The Smithsonian Institu- 
tion American Garden, designed by James R. Buckler and Kathryn 
Meehan, was presented a silver award by the German Association 
of Landscape Architects. More than eleven million visitors toured 
this grand international exhibition in 1983. For her enduring sup- 
port and generous financial contribution to the American Garden, 
Honore Wamsler, an American living in Munich, was awarded the 
Smithson Medal and a citation of appreciation by Secretary Ripley 
at a luncheon in her honor on February 7, 1984. On September 11, 
1984, Dr. Detlef Marx, director of iga 83, and his family visited 
the Smithsonian to express his gratitude for the Institution's par- 
ticipation in the Munich show. 

Staff members continued to support civic and educational pro- 
grams. John W. Monday agreed to serve three more years on the 
Horticulture Advisory Committee of the Northern Virginia Com- 
munity College and to serve as chairman of the Eastern Regional 
Advisory Council of the "Horticulture Hiring the Disabled." Lau- 
ranne C. Nash completed a year's service as president of the D.C. 
branch of the Professional Grounds Management Society and be- 
gan serving another one-year term as chairman of the board of the 

Buckler served on the board of directors of the Rockwood Mu- 
seum, the finest rural Gothic estate left in America, located in Wil- 
mington, Delaware; and the National Colonial Farm, a joint project 
of the Accokeek Foundation and the National Park Service in Acco- 
keek, Maryland; he was also elected to the board of the new 
Kentucky Botanical Gardens in Louisville. For much of the year. 
Buckler served on the Long-Range Planning Committee of the 
National Colinial Farm to establish a workable management, edu- 
cational, and research plan through the year 2005. 

In addition. Buckler continued to present educational programs 
to museums, botanical gardens, and historical societies throughout 
the year. A lecture entitled "The Horticultural Extravaganza of the 
Victorian Era" was presented to the Garden Club of Wilmington, 
Delaware (January 9); Fairfax Virginia Garden Club (January 10); 
the Goose Creek Herb Guild of Middleburg, Virginia (March 25) ; 

246 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

and the Golf Course Superintendents of Metropolitan, D.C. (April 
24). Major presentations were given on the history and evolution 
of nineteenth-century horticulture in America at the "Old Home 
and Garden Fair" at the Margaret Strong Museum in Rochester, 
New York (March 23); the annual meeting of the Congressional 
Cemetery Association, Washington, D.C. (March 24); the first 
"Art in Bloom" program, Minneapolis, Minnesota Institute of Arts 
(May 10); and the Strawbery Banke Museum in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire (September 14). 

On July 25, 1984, Buckler was awarded Honorary Membership 
in the American Academy of Floriculture by the Society of Ameri- 
can Florists (saf) "in recognition of his efforts on behalf of the 
floral industry and SAF-The Center for Commercial Floriculture." 
This award was presented during the 100th anniversary of saf. 
For the saf centennial publication. Buckler and Kathryn Meehan 
wrote an article entitled "A Victorian Horticultural Extravaganza" 
that highlighted the early years of the floricultural and horticultural 
industry in America. 

On February 8, 1984, Lauranne Nash represented the Office of 
Horticulture at the Second Annual Horticultural Career Day at the 
University of Maryland, for horticultural students in the Washing- 
ton, D.C, area. She provided information on horticultural careers 
at the Smithsonian and other government agencies. On March 6, 
1984, she lectured to the students in the Institute of Applied Agri- 
culture's Horticulture Seminar at the University of Maryland on 
the Interior Plant Program at the Smithsonian. She also served as 
a horticulture judge for the Arlington County Fair in Virginia on 
August 23, 1984. 

The office continued to work with the Smithsonian Resident 
Associate Program in providing tours of the Greenhouse-Nursery 
Division and the Philadelphia Flower Show. 

Participants from across the United States and as far away as 
China enthusiastically joined the Office of Horticulture for a broad 
offering of horticultural lectures, seminars, and workshops during 
fiscal year 1984. 

In commemoration of the Bicentennial of the Treaty of Paris, an 
all-day seminar was offered by the Smithsonian Resident Associate 
Program on October 20, 1983, entitled "The Great Garden Ex- 
change." Coordinated by Buckler and Mrs. Meehan, a panel of 
horticultural historians explored the dominant garden traditions 
and exciting experiments that distinguished the period 1750 to 
1830 in the United States, England, and France. Panelists and their 

Museum Programs I 247 

lectures included: Dr. Joan Challinor, chairman. National Com- 
mittee for the Bicentennial of the Treaty of Paris, "Historical Over- 
view of the Period"; Julia Davis, garden historian, "Atlantic 
Letters: The English Landscape Influence in North America"; 
Howard Adams, garden historian and guest curator of the 1976 
National Gallery of Arts exhibition The Eye of Thomas Jefferson, 
who spoke on "The French Garden's Influence in America"; Elea- 
nor M. McPeck, landscape historian and instructor, Radcliff 
College Seminar Program in Landscape Design, "Modern Garden- 
ing in America"; and Buckler, "Gardens of American Statesmen: 
Mount Vernon, Woodlawn, Williamsburg, and Monticello." 

The office also coordinated "Gardens by Design," a week-long 
in-depth seminar and tour program of major horticultural sites in 
and around Washington, D.C., offered by the Smithsonian National 
Associate Program, April 29-May 4. Forty-three participants 
studied the arts of designing and planting large and small gardens 
of historic or contemporary nature. Tours of historic properties, 
estate gardens, botanic collections, and modern greenhouse-produc- 
tion facilities were led by staff and guest horticultural specialists. 

Through the sponsorship of the Office of Museum Programs, 
"Horticulture in a Museum Setting," a three-day workshop (June 
27-29), was coordinated by the Office of Horticulture and intro- 
duced twenty museum professionals to the horticultural possibili- 
ties in and around museum buildings. The workshop covered such 
topics as the history of gardens, the relationship of horticulture to 
collections, basic maintenance, growing methods, historic horti- 
cultural research, landscape design, the selection and maintenance 
of interior plants, design and installation of seasonal decorations, 
design and installation of signage in the garden, putting garden 
plans on paper and into print, fundraising, and volunteer assistance. 
The workshop included tours to a number of horticultural sites in 
the Washington area. 

Buckler conducted tours of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden; A Victorian Horticultural Extravangaza exhibition; 
the Horticultural Research Center, Hill wood Gardens; and, together 
with the staff, the Smithsonian greenhouses and collections. A tour 
of Dumbarton Oaks was conducted by Donald Smith, superinten- 
dent of grounds; and Erik Neuman, curator of education, led a tour 
of the National Arboretum. 

The Office of Horticulture entered its thirteenth year as a unit 
of the Smithsonian Institution in the summer of 1984. The up- 
coming two years promise to be very exciting, with the develop- 

248 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

ment of a new greenhouse-nursery facility at the U.S. Soldiers' 
and Airmen's Home, the continued work on the Enid A. Haupt 
Garden, and the publication of research data by the director on 
the history and evolution of horticulture in America during the 
nineteenth century. It is anticipated that the office will continue 
to expand its educational, research, and exhibition programs for 
all of the museums and to offer additional seminars, workshops, 
and lecture series on practical and historical horticulture. 

Office of Museum Programs 

The Office of Museum Programs (omp) of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution provides training, services, information, and assistance for 
the professional development of museum personnel and institu- 
tions throughout the United States and abroad. Its goals and ob- 
jectives are fulfilled by coordinated activities that are woven into 
a total program of distinct but interrelated training activities, ser- 
vices, and research into methods that will improve the effective- 
ness of museum operations and practices nationally and inter- 

From the diverse and extensive resources and expertise of the 
Smithsonian, the Office of Museum Programs offers museum train- 
ing workshops, both in Washington, D.C., and on site; arranges 
for internships, short-term professional visits, and foreign profes- 
sional training and group projects; provides an awards program 
for minority museum professionals; produces and distributes 
audiovisual presentations on conservation awareness and theory, 
preventive care of collections, and practices in educational pro- 
gramming; provides training, technical assistance, audio visuals, 
and consultation services for Native American museums; produces 
publications on museum-related topics; offers counseling, consult- 
ing services, and conferences on museum careers, training, and 
museum practices; and administers a special national project under 
a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation to "expand the edu- 
cative influence of museums." A branch of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Libraries, the Museum Reference Center provides biblio- 
graphic and documentary support for the activities of omp and is 
available to museum professionals, students, and researchers. 

The grouping of these functions into one program facilitates 
response of the Institution to the multitude of requests received 

Museum Programs I 249 

from museums throughout the United States and abroad for assis- 
tance and guidance, and has the added benefit of keeping the staff 
of the Institution informed and aware of museological develop- 
ments elsewhere. 

The Office of Museum Programs serves as the focal point and 
clearing house for the Smithsonian Institution Audiovisual Ad- 
visory committee and for metric transition activities of the Insti- 
tution, and assists with planning efforts for a conservation train- 
ing program to be offered by the Conservation Analytical Lab- 

The Kellogg Foundation awarded a generous three-year grant 
to the Office of Museum Programs and the Resident Associate 
Program "to expand the educative influence of museums" every- 
where. With the guidance of a national advisory committee, the 
Office of Museum Programs is implementing the program through 
colloquia, workshops, residencies, and videotapes for museum pro- 
fessionals throughout the United States. Interacting with col- 
leagues and representatives of such community resources as uni- 
versities, libraries, corporations, organizations, and school systems, 
the prograni is emphasizing and promoting the influence of mu- 
seums as educational institutions while examining and discussing 
the learning process that occurs in them. 


The Training Program consists of a Washington-based workshop 
series, on-site workshops, the Internship and Visiting Professionals 
Programs, the Awards for Minority Museum Professionals, and 
two United States Information Agency / Office of Museum Pro- 
grams cosponsored projects per year, supervised by Mary Lynn 
Perry, Training Program Coordinator. 


The Office of Museum Programs sponsors an annual schedule of 
twenty-five to thirty short-term workshops in museum practices 
which provide mid-career training opportunities for museum pro- 
fessionals from the United States and abroad. The workshops last 
from three to five days and are held at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. They focus on current theories and practices in the field, and 
make Smithsonian materials, facilities, and human resources avail- 
able to the larger museum community. 

Faculty for the workshop series are drawn from the Institution's 
staff, and from outside experts who join programs to offer special- 

250 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

ized information or speak from a particular perspective. Subject 
matter covers a broad range of topics on all aspects of museum 
operations; topics include museum management, fundraising, edu- 
cational programming, conservation, collections management, stor- 
age and handling, exhibition design and production, volunteers 
and docent training, security, shop management, horticulture in 
museums, registration methods, and public relations. 

During 1984 over 550 museum professionals enrolled in the 
Washington-based workshop series. Enrollment represented all 
types, sizes, and disciplines of museums, and a broad geographic 
distribution, including 43 states in the continental United States, 
Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia. In addition, museum 
professionals from Bermuda, Canada, France, Hong Kong, New 
Zealand, Trinidad, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands 
participated in the workshops. 

During 1984 the training program developed a new week-long 
workshop, "Orientation to Museum Work for Entering Profes- 
sionals," based on the recommendations of the International Coun- 
cil of Museums Committee for the Training of Personnel. The 
committee recommended basic museological training of museum 
staff at all levels while providing an overview of sound museum 
practices, especially for new museum professionals. This work- 
shop gave individual museum workers an understanding of the 
museum's role in society, and an understanding of their own roles 
in the museum. 

Evaluations by the participants indicated the success of this new 
workshop offering and "Orientation" was scheduled for presenta- 
tion again in August 1984. As one participant noted: "Not only 
was there a tremendous amount of valuable information, but the 
inspiration which [came] from it all [was] so great that I can 
hardly wait to go back to work!" 

Other new workshops in 1984 included "Horticulture in a 
Museum Setting," "Participatory Exhibitions," "Public Programs," 
"Museum Graphics," and "Curatorial Roundtable." 


The On-Site Workshop Program is designed to provide training 
services to museum professionals at locations throughout the 
United States and abroad with the cooperation and cosponsorship 
of host museums, institutions, and museum-related organizations. 
The workshops, which are generally two to three days in length, 
draw faculty from the Smithsonian's professional staff although 

Museum Programs I 251 

other on-location experts may be called upon to supplement presen- 
tations and assist in developing a local resource network for the 
workshop participants. 

During fiscal year 1984, the program, coordinated by Pamela W. 
Leupen, presented ten on-site cooperative workshops at museums 
in California, Florida, Illinois, New York, South Carolina, and 
throughout Virginia. Enrollment totaled 176 museum professionals 
representing museums in California, Connecticut, Delaware, the 
District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, and Virginia. Cosponsors 
for the workshops included the Virginia Association of Museums, 
the Southern Arts Federation of Museums, the California Museum 
of Afro-American History and Culture, and the New York Regional 
Conference of Historical Agencies. 

Sustained growth in the On-Site Workshop Program is antici- 
pated for 1985, including a workshop on "Preventive Care in 
Pakistan," and the program will continue to be a strong and 
beneficial response to the training needs of museum professionals. 


The Smithsonian Office of Museum Programs Internship Program 
offers specialized training in museum practices to undergraduate 
and graduate students as well as to employed professionals. Indi- 
viduals from the United States and abroad are eligible to partici- 
pate in the program. During 1984, the program, coordinated by 
Raymond Branham, placed 111 individuals in internship positions 
throughout the Institution, an increase of sixty-one over the 
previous year. Eleven of these interns were from foreign countries. 
The internships often carry academic credit from a university and 
the average duration is from three to six months, with shorter or 
longer programs available. 

The focus of the internships is on musuem practices; the intent 
is for the experiences to be mutually beneficial to the intern and 
to the Institution. Intern assignments may involve training in 
administration, education, collection management, registration, 
exhibition design and production, and curatorial practices. Interns 
may attend Office of Museum Programs workshops while in resi- 
dence at the Smithsonian. Long-term interns, especially those from 
foreign countries, often elect to travel as part of their program. In 
such cases, the Office of Museum Programs prepares itineraries 
and contacts staff at appropriate museums throughout the United 

252 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

States; in some cases, arrangements with foreign museums may be 
made. The Office of Museum Programs coordinates meetings, 
lectures, and special presentations by foreign interns to supple- 
ment the interns' museum experiences. In 1984, special presenta- 
tions were given by Des Tatana Kahotea of New Zealand and 
Dr. Fawzi Sweha Boullos of Soloman, Egypt. 

In addition to fulfilling regularly assigned responsibilities, interns 
participated in the annual Office of Museum Programs Museum 
Careers Seminar Series, a seven-week program, from June 20 to 
August 1, which offered Smithsonian and other museum interns 
in the Washington area exposure to professional career choices in 
the museum field. After the success of last year's program, 
attendance in the seminar in 1984 increased to thirty-eight partici- 
pants, with a waiting list. To further enrich the seminar, special 
tours were offered, including a behind-the-scenes exploration of 
the exhibition design and production areas of the National Museum 
of Natural History and the new Indian House at Hillwood Museum. 
Evaluations, which students completed at the end of the seminar, 
indicated that the experience was extremely useful in understanding 
the duties, responsibilities, and qualifications required in the 
careers that were discussed. 


A specialized service is offered to museum professionals interested 
in shorter periods of training and study than is required by the 
Internship Program. Through the Visiting Professionals Program, 
museum professionals gain access to collections and Smithsonian 
staff for concentrated discussion and consultation. The program 
is designed to serve individuals who are available for training 
periods of up to one month and consists of a combination of 
meetings, workshop activities, demonstrations, research oppor- 
tunities, and visits to museums selected to meet special training 
needs. During 1984, one hundred and sixty individuals representing 
museums in the United States and seventy-five from abroad 
participated in the program. The number of participants in this 
year's program nearly doubled last year's enrollment. 


The Office of Museum Programs responds to special requests for 
programming related to museum studies and the museum profes- 
sion, and in 1984 continued a program, initiated in 1983, for high 

Museum Programs I 253 

school and college students who are interested in learning more 
about a museum career by being exposed to the duties and respon- 
sibilities of museum work. 

This year, fifty-eight students participated in the program, most 
of whom were enrolled in the Multicultural Bilingual High School 
of Washington, D.C., a national model which offers English as a 
second language. Ten countries, including El Salvador, Guatemala, 
and Cambodia, were represented by these students. 

The students are referred to as externs since their experience is 
generally one week in duration and emphasizes the daily operations 
of the working world as it relates to the museum field. A general 
orientation session begins the externship, which concludes with an 
evaluation and resume-writing session. 


With the United States Information Agency, the Office of Museum 
Programs cosponsored a project on "Museum Administration" for 
European museum professionals in the fall of 1983. The project 
included curators and directors from Belgium, Czechoslavakia, the 
Democratic Republic of Germany, the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, Italy, Romania, and Yugoslavia. The group members 
attended an Office of Museum Programs seminar designed to 
introduce them to diverse techniques of museum administration in 
the United States. Participants visited museums of varying sizes 
and disciplines in New York, Boston, Chicago, Santa Fe, and 
San Francisco. The group had an opportunity to view museum 
collections and to exchange ideas and information with staff 
members concerning a variety of topics related to museum admin- 
istration. Participants also attended the Northeast Museums Con- 
ference Annual Meeting. 

The fifth annual "Education in Museums" multiregional project, 
cosponsored by the Office of Museum Programs and the United 
States Information Agency, was held in May and June, 1984. 
Thirteen museum professionals representing nine foreign countries 
participated. Directors, educators, and curators from Costa Rica, 
the Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Mexico, Palau, 
Senegal, Syria, and Tanzania were included. A seminar addressing 
various facets of museum education at the Institution included 
sessions on "What and Why — Museum Education/' "School Pro- 
grams," "Scholarly Research," "Public Access to Collections," 
"Museums and the Community — Inhouse and Outreach Programs," 
and "Museum Education and Special Audiences." Following the 

254 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Theresa Singleton (left), historical researcher from the South Carolina State 
Museum, and Deborah Willis-Thomas, photograph specialist, Schomburg Center 
for Research in Black Culture, New York City Public Library, use the resources 
in the Museum Reference Center while visiting the Smithsonian as participants 
in the Office of Museum Programs' Minority Awards Program. 

seminar, the group visited museums in five other American cities 
to view museum education programs in action and to discuss 
mutual interests with staff. A final "Education Forum" was held 
in San Francisco to permit discussion of the foreign participants' 
observations and reactions to the programs observed in the Amer- 
ican museums. The group returned to Washington to attend the 
annual American Association of Museums meeting. 

The two Office of Museum Programs / United States Information 
Agency cosponsored programs represent a continuing effort on the 
part of both sponsors to make possible an international profes- 
sional exchange between American museum professionals and their 
international colleagues. Following the success of these two pro- 
grams, the Office of Museum Programs has been requested by the 
United States Information Agency to coordinate a newly developed 
third project concerning conservation and preventive care of collec- 
tions in fiscal year 1985. 


A new activity in 1984 conducted jointly by the Training Program 
and the Native American Museums Program was "Awards for 
Minority Museum Professionals," providing up to $500 for seven- 
teen museum professionals to stay in residence for two weeks at 
the Smithsonian. The professionals attended a selected workshop 
from the Washington-based series and spent the remainder of 
their time in individual study at the Institution. During the second 
week the professionals had access to Smithsonian collections, staff, 
and facilities on a scheduled basis. Their programs incorporated 
meetings, tours, demonstrations, visits to laboratories, and obser- 
vations of specialized techniques and programs in action. The 
participants represented fourteen states and included three Native 
Americans, two Hispanics, one Asian, and eleven blacks. Matching 
funds were provided by the Office of Equal Opportunity. 


In fiscal year 1984, the name of this program was changed from 
Conservation Information Program to Audiovisual Program. The 
new name reflects the broader range of topics now covered by the 
audiovisual productions of the Office of Museum Programs. In 
addition to conservation, these topics include museum interpreta- 
tion, visitors, and careers; protection; historic preservation; and 

256 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The Audiovisual Program, coordinated by Laura Schneider, pro- 
duces and distributes training and educational videotapes and 
slide/cassette packages on these subjects for use by museums, 
libraries, universities, cultural institutions, and interested individ- 
uals. Most programs are accompanied by a printed text. Their 
primary purpose is to increase awareness of current techniques and 
practices in preventive care of museum collections and cultural 

New audiovisual programs include a videotape on security 
entitled "On Guard: Protection Is Everybody's Business"; a 
slide/cassette program called "Photographic Negatives in the Juley 
Collection: Their Care and Preservation"; and a slide/cassette 
program designed as an introduction to the Office of Museum 

Programs being completed include a videotape on the preventive 
conservation of outdoor sculpture at the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden and a slide/cassette program on lighting for the 
care of collections. Plans for productions in 1985 include videotapes 
on gilding and historic preservation. "Tribal Archives II," a con- 
tinuation of the instructional tape for Native American groups, is 
also projected. Translations of several audiovisual programs in 
other languages are planned for 1985 as well. 

Since 1974, when the Audiovisual Program began, 5,874 presen- 
tations have been distributed on short-term loans. In 1984, 261 
slide programs and 421 videotapes were loaned to museums, other 
institutions, and individuals. 

In 1984, forty slide programs and 147 videotapes were sold to 
museums in Italy, Australia, and Taiwan. In addition, 1,092 sep- 
arate texts were disseminated to institutions and individuals on 
request. Copies of the texts were also sent free of charge to libraries 
requesting them. Two slide/cassette programs on preventive care 
of collections were donated to Saudi Arabia. An inventory of the 
Office of Museum Programs audiovisual materials was completed 
for the use of Smithsonian Institution staff. 


The Native American Museums Program was established in 1977 
to provide information services and educational opportunities to 
employees of tribal and urban Native American museums and 
cultural centers and others who work closely with Indian, Eskimo, 
and Aleut collections. The program offers workshops, short-term 
residencies, technical assistance, publications, and audiovisuals 

Museum Programs I 157 

that enable participants to understand and implement the basic 
operations and research functions of cultural institutions. It serves 
as the point-of-contact for Native Americans requesting profes- 
sional training and museological assistance from the Smithsonian. 
The program actively fosters a network of communication and 
support among members of the Native American cultural com- 
munity and the museum field; it promotes liaison with allied 
disciplines and professions, and with public- and private-sector 
organizations and agencies on national, regional, and state levels. 

Three special outreach projects highlighted the 1984 Native 
American Museums Program year: 

National Program Residencies, supported by the Smithsonian 
Educational Outreach Program and designed to complement the 
educational activities of the 1983 national workshop for Native 
American museum and cultural center directors, were offered to 
eight employees of tribal museums. Each resident received two 
weeks of training at the Smithsonian on an individually selected 

The editing and publication of the National Workshop Proceed- 
ings, also made possible by the Outreach Program, is in progress. 
These Proceedings make important information available to those 
who are unable to attend the workshops. Dissemination will occur 
in 1985. 

A slide/tape program, "Tribal Archives: Basic Responsibilities 
and Operations," is being completed. It describes ways to organize 
and administer a program for the care of historical records. Case 
studies, model forms, and procedural manuals from Indian pro- 
grams are used to illustrate the main points. An evaluation of the 
program was conducted by Indian archivists at on-site training 
conferences in Santa Fe and San Francisco, and by archivists and 
educators at professional meetings throughout the country. This 
is the second audiovisual program produced in collaboration with 
the Native American Archives Project for use by Indian com- 
munities. The first, "Tribal Archives: An Introduction," defines 
basic archival concepts and provides examples of its value to the 
community. It was selected for presentation at the Tenth Inter- 
national Congress of Archives held in West Germany during 

Nancy J. Fuller, coordinator of the Native American Museums 
Program, organized and chaired the session, "Minorities and the 
Profession: Developing Actions to Encourage Broader Minority 
Staff Representation," for the American Association of Museums 

258 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

annual meeting, and served as a panelist for the "Tribal Archives" 
session at the Midwest Museum conference conducted by the 
Oneida Nation Museum. Other projects included the publication 
of the bibliography, "Native American Museums and Related 
Issues/' in the Council of Museum Anthropology Newsletter, the 
updating of "Some Resources Useful to Native American Mu- 
seums/' and preparing new issues of the Native American Mu- 
seums Program newsletter. 


The goal of the Kellogg Project, which is supported by a grant 
from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, is "to expand the educational 
role of museums." During its second year, increased emphasis was 
placed on the importance of collaboration among museums, leading 
to the creation of active, continuing networks of museum profes- 

In 1983-84, the Project arranged six regional workshops and 
twenty-two professional residencies at the Smithsonian and else- 
where and began educational demonstration programs at twelve 
participating museums. Four-day workshops, entitled "Museums 
as Learning Resources," were organized in each of the six regions: 
New England (Boston, Massachusetts); Northeast (Bronx, New 
York); Southeastern (Charlotte, North Carolina); Midwest (Toledo, 
Ohio); Mountain-Plains (San Antonio, Texas); and Western (Port- 
land, Oregon). These workshops succeeded in bringing together 
within each region twenty-two museums and other educational 
institutions (involving 132 participants) to discuss current issues 
and problems in museum education and, most important, to form 
the nucleus of an active and ongoing network of museum profes- 
sionals both regionally and nationwide. 

Two categories of professional residencies were designed to ful- 
fill Kellogg Project objectives. First, the "Kellogg Museum Profes- 
sionals at the Smithsonian" program brought to the Smithsonian 
for individualized residencies ten museum professionals who were 
involved in the regional workshops. During a week of study these 
professionals met with Smithsonian staff and area professionals to 
exchange program ideas and expertise. Second, the twelve museums 
participating in demonstration projects developed residencies, based 
on aspects of their educational programs, which took place at the 
Smithsonian and at other appropriate museums. 

Examination of the learning process in museums and evaluation 
of the effectiveness of all activities are part of the continuing ac- 

Museum Programs I 259 

tivities. The twelve demonstration programs, designed as practical 
applications of Kellogg Project philosophies, will be the focus of 
activity in 1984-85. There will also be a colloquium, specialized 
workshops and residencies, and production of a videotape to con- 
tinue to explore the educational process in museums. Planning for 
dissemination of results of the program activities is underway. 

Two meetings of the National Advisory Committee were con- 
vened for review of the progress of the Kellogg Project. 


The Museum Reference Center, a branch of the Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries associated with the Office of Museum Pro- 
grams, and the only comprehensive museological documentation 
center in the United States, centers its activities around searching 
and providing information, bibliographic services, and distribu- 
tion of materials to museum professionals and students research- 
ing specific aspects of museology and to the public in need of 
museum administrative guidance. Administrators, curators, trust- 
ees, friends of museums, educators, exhibitors, registrars, con- 
servators and students of the field have received assistance with 
their investigations, problems and studies. 

The Museum Reference Center's staff, volunteers, and interns 
answered over fifteen hundred inquiries originating from museum 
professionals, researchers, and students in the United States, Can- 
ada, and forty-eight foreign countries. Over five hundred persons 
visited the Center to study, tour, and learn about its unique col- 
lections. Special tours were provided for delegations and individ- 
uals from Bangladesh, Belgium, Chile, Denmark, France, Hungary, 
India, Ireland, Japan, Sudan, the Netherlands, and the United 

In response to a request sent by the Kellogg Project staff to 
6,000 museums, educational materials were received from thou- 
sands of institutions throughout the country. The materials were 
recorded, classified, and filed in the Museum Reference Center, and 
many of these program publications are now in use by the resi- 
dents of the Kellogg Project. 

In April, the Museum Reference Center published the inaugural 
issue of Muse World, which lists new books being acquired and 
new journal titles. Issues will be published on a quarterly basis 
as a current awareness service within the Smithsonian and to 
museum professionals upon request. 

260 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Nineteen bibliographies and resource guides were compiled and 
published. Among the new titles are: 

Participatory Exhibits 

Museum Directories in the United States 

Technology and Computers in the Museum Environment 

Evaluation Studies in Museums and Art Galleries 

Selected List of Periodicals in English of Interest to Museum 

Traveling Exhibition Organizations : A Resource List 
The Use of Audiovisuals, Holography, and Videodisc/Optical 

Disc in Museums and Other Related Institutions 
Horticulture and Gardening in the Museum Setting 

The following bibliographies were completely revised and updated : 

Museum Security 

Museum and Exhibition Lighting 

Education in Museums 

Labeling : The Words You Exhibit 


Museum Architecture and Adaptive Use : Bibliography and 

Resource Guide 
Museum Insurance 
Exhibit Design 

Museums and the Handicapped 
Museums and Minorities 

A total of sixty bibliographies on museum-related topics are now 
available free of charge. 

Interns were Jodi Wesemann, Anne B. Wheeler, Dawn Scher, 
Theresa Courke (South Africa), and Dorothy Foster. The regular 
volunteers, Carolyn Shugars, Barbara Bowen, and Renata Rut- 
ledge, worked one day a week throughout the year to complete 
several projects, in addition to their duties of classifying incoming 
documents, typing, and researching inquiries. Muse World was 
compiled by Carolyn Shugars, and Renata Rutledge assisted in the 
compilation of the bibliography of "Museum Security." 

New staff member Ed Johnson joined the Museum Reference 
Center as a library assistant in May 1984. His duties include serial 
control and the organization of the documentary files, which in- 
cludes updating the records and disposing of outdated material and 
duplicates in the collection. 

Museum Programs I 261 

The Librarian and staff addressed twenty-one workshops spon- 
sored by the Office of Museum Programs, explaining the services 
of the Museum Reference Center to the participants. BibUographies 
on all workshop topics were distributed and many of the partici- 
pants either toured the Center or took time to conduct private 


The Office of Museum Programs offers career counseling for per- 
sons interested in the museum field or career changes, undertakes 
organization of national and international conferences, provides 
consultation services for museum studies programs at universities, 
and advises units of the Smithsonian Institution (including Inter- 
national Activities, Symposia and Seminars, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion/ALiABA Museum Law Conference, and Programs for the Dis- 
abled) on museum aspects of their work. 

Over one hundred consultations on museum practices and or- 
ganizations were provided to individuals and to delegations dur- 
ing 1984, many from other countries, including the People's Repub- 
lic of China, India (3), Mexico, the Federal Republic of Germany, 
Nigeria, Belgium, Hungary, Denmark (2), Australia, Austria (2), 
Spain (2), Saudi Arabia, Gabon (2), Sudan (2), Bangladesh, Pakis- 
tan, Poland, France (2), Costa Rica, South Africa, Benin, Israel, 
Dominican Republic, United Nations (2), Cameroon, Egypt, Japan, 
Korea, Taiwan (2), Shanghai, Brazil, Haiti, New Caledonia, as well 
as UNESCO, an inspection team from the United Nations, and a 
group representing fourteen Latin American countries. 

Staff members of the Office of Museum Programs annually 
serve as speakers at regional and national museum conferences, 
provide consulting services, and are actively engaged in inter- 
national museum activities. They attended professional meetings of 
the International Council of Museums, International Council of 
Museums Advisory Committee, International Council on Monu- 
ments and Sites, Art Table, Smithsonian Institution/uNESco Con- 
ference on Preservation, National Art Education Association, 
Smithsonian Institution Budget Seminar, Foreign Service Institute, 
American National Metric Conference, the Midwest, Northeast, 
Southeast, New England, Western, and Mountain-Plain Museum 
Conferences, American Association of Museums, and the Kennedy 
Center meeting on Media and the Arts. 

Director Jane Glaser serves on the board and is secretary of 
the International Council of Museums Committee on Training of 

262 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Personnel; serves on the International Council of Museums Ad- 
visory Committee; serves on the scholarship committee for Smith- 
sonian Institution/ ALiABA Museum Law Conference; serves as an 
American Association of Museums senior examiner for accredita- 
tion and reaccreditation; serves as chairperson of the Smithsonian 
Institution's committee for planning of the Conservation Training 
Program at the Smithsonian Support Center; chairs the Smith- 
sonian Institution Audiovisual Advisory Committee; and serves as 
the Coordinator of metric conversion at the Smithsonian, attend- 
ing the governmental interagency meetings. A Smithsonian Institu- 
tion metric exhibition is under consideration. The Office of Mu- 
seum Programs is represented on the Smithsonian Institution In- 
ternship and Conservation Councils and on the pan-Institutional 
Native American coordinating committee. 

In 1984 the Office of Museum Programs director made presenta- 
tions to: the District of Columbia Multi-Cultural Program, the 
International Council of Museums Committee for Training of Per- 
sonnel in Leiden, the Office of Museum Programs Careers Sem- 
inar Series, the Office of Museum Programs / United States Infor- 
mation Agency projects participants, the Kellogg Workshops, the 
American Association of Museums sessions on national collabora- 
tion and on certification of curators. District of Columbia high 
school students, the Sietar international meeting, the National 
Council on the Aging, the National Art Educators Association, 
Mount Vernon College, the Southeastern Museum Conference, 
international visitors, the Office of Museum Programs, the Mu- 
seum of American History Museum Technicians, George Mason 
University, Smithsonian Institution interns, and George Wash- 
ington University classes in museum studies. 

Mrs. Glaser represents museums as subcommission chairperson 
on a Commission for the Social Sciences organized by the Inter- 
national Research and Exchanges Board which is exploring the 
possibilities of exchanges of personnel, publications, and research 
with the German Democratic Republic. Meetings have been held 
in the German Democratic Republic and the United States. She 
organized a Museum Management Seminar, conducted in the Ger- 
man Democratic Republic, and presented a paper on "Museums as 
Learning Resources." She served as consultant to the Blenner- 
hasset Island Commission, to the Beckley, West Virginia, Muse- 
ums, and to the National Museum of Denmark, and as evaluator 
for the University of Oklahoma Museum Studies program. 

The Office of Museum Programs published and distributed a 

Museum Programs I 263 

"Survey of Audiovisual Programs Produced by the Smithsoniari 
Institution" which hsts and describes all film, video, slide record- 
ings, and filmstrip programs produced by units of the Smithsonian 
Institution. The Office of Museum Programs publishes and dis- 
tributes brochures on its programs and in 1984 distributed ap- 
proximately two thousand copies of Museum Studies Programs in 
the United States and Abroad and approximately five hundred 
copies of the Proceedings of the Office of Museum Programs' 
"Children in Museums" International Symposia. A revised and 
updated edition of Museum Studies Programs in the United States 
and Abroad will be published with the cooperation of the Interna- 
tional Council of Museums in 1984. 

Office of the Registrar 

This year saw the culmination of a long period of policy formula- 
tion and final approval of collections management policies for all 
Smithsonian museums. However, since policies of all types must 
be updated regularly to reflect changes in circumstances, the mere 
existence of collections management policies does not mean termi- 
nation of this effort. It means that policy documents must be 
reviewed regularly and revised as necessary. The Office has been 
assigned responsibility for conducting such reviews and also for 
monitoring compliance with existing policies. 

The shift from implementation to updating activity also applies 
to inventory, which is an integral part of collections management. 
Having completed its initial baseline inventory effort last fiscal 
year, the Institution has moved from implementation to perpetual 
maintenance in that area as well. In a sense, this implies a return 
to the regular practices of accessioning, cataloguing, and deacces- 
sioning which existed prior to the start of the baseline inventory 
effort in 1978. As in the past, the purpose of perpetual mainte- 
nance of collection records was to insure that any item could be 
either located or accounted for upon demand. However, the re- 
quirements now have been tightened. Whereas specific time limits 
were not usually placed on responses to accountability demands, 
now museums must be able to locate or account for an item within 
specified periods. One of the Office's current responsibilities is to 
solicit plans from the various collecting bureaus for complying 
with the new requirements. 

264 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The activities of the Office, though peaking as a result of these 
milestone accomplishments by the Institution, nevertheless con- 
tinued to follow patterns already established. Coordinating the 
affairs of the Registrarial Council continued to occupy much of 
the Office's attention and this year featured a concerted effort to 
correct a long-standing need for security back-up of vital collec- 
tion accountability information, this time through concentration 
on more modern photographic and electronic techniques. 

The annual workshop on registration methods was offered 
again, and its presentation on the formulation of collections man- 
agement policies was included as a regular feature of the work- 
shop on management of collections. The semiannual workshops on 
computerization for museum collections were updated to include 
material on applications of microcomputers to collections infor- 
mation needs. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

The Smithsonian Institution Archives (sia) is the repository of 
official records of historic value documenting Smithsonian activi- 
ties in science, art, history, and the humanities. Sia is responsible 
for physical care of and intellectual access to records and pro- 
ceedings of the Smithsonian. Supplementing official records in 
the Archives are collections of personal papers of staff members 
and records of professional societies associated with work of the 
Institution through the years. These rich and diverse holdings are 
essential sources for American intellectual history and develop- 
ment, and they are a primary data base for Institution policy and 
legal and administrative reference. A guide, published periodically, 
is widely distributed to libraries and research centers in the United 
States and abroad. 

A new Smithsonian Archivist, Wilham W. Moss, was appointed 
on December 11, 1983. Formerly the chief archivist of the John F. 
Kennedy Library in Boston, he brings to the position fifteen years' 
experience with the National Archives. A past president of the 
Oral History Association, he is also the Society of American 
Archivists' liaison with the Chinese Archives Association of the 
People's Republic of China. 

Museum administrators and curators throughout the United 
States will become better acquainted with opportunities and proce- 

Museum Programs I 265 

dures for improving archives and records management through a 
new manual. Museum Archives: An Introduction, written by 
Deputy Archivist William A. Deiss and published by the Society 
of American Archivists. Sia's Guide to the Smithsonian Archives, 
1983, was cited in May 1984 for "excellence in archival finding 
aids/' and an award to that effect was presented by the Mid- 
Atlantic Regional Archives Conference. For the 1984 meeting of 
the Society of American Archivists in Washington, D.C., sia 
coordinated and directed the publication of a new brochure, 
Smithsonian Institution Archival, Manuscript, and Special Collec- 
tion Resources. It describes the holdings and operations of the 
Archives of American Art, the Archives Center of the National 
Museum of American History, the Catalog of American Portraits 
at the National Portrait Gallery, the Collection Archive of the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Human Studies 
Film Archives of the National Museum of Natural History, the 
National Aerospace Reference Collection of the National Air and 
Space Museum, the National Anthropological Archives of the 
National Museum of Natural History, the Office of Printing and 
Photographic Services, the Office of Research Support of the Na- 
tional Museum of American Art, the Smithsonian Institution 
Archives, and the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. The brochure 
and a booth with photographic displays and catalogues of these 
eleven centers were designed and developed under the direction of 
Associate Archivist Alan Bain with contributions from staff mem- 
bers of all eleven offices. 


Three new projects were begun by sia during fiscal year 1984. 
In cooperation with the Office of Information Resource Manage- 
ment and Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Associate Archivist 
Richard V. Szary developed and coordinated plans and procedures 
for the application of the Smithsonian Institution Bibliographic 
Information System (sibis) to the Smithsonian's archives and manu- 
script collections. Upon completion of the project in 1986, re- 
searchers will be able to get on-line automated information about 
principal archives and manuscript collections throughout the Insti- 
tution. Implementation of sibis for archives should make possible 
future sharing of basic information with distant research centers 
through the Research Libraries Group. 

A second major project, to survey and collect descriptive data 
on photographic collections throughout the Smithsonian, was be- 

266 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

gun in March 1984. The project, expected to take a minimum of 
two years for the more than ten milHon images estimated to be 
at the Smithsonian, will make this information available on a par 
with manuscript and archives information through the sibis net- 
work. A printed "finders' guide" to still photographic resources 
of the Smithsonian Institution is also planned as a project product. 

A parallel project has been started to survey and gather data on 
collections of scientific illustrations and drawings in the National 
Museum of Natural History. In addition to gathering basic descrip- 
tive information on location, contents, and conditions, consulta- 
tions are being held with scientists and illustrators to develop 
criteria for appraising the scientific, artistic, and historical value of 
the collections. 

These three projects, when completed, will go far toward ful- 
filling a goal expressed in Smithsonian Year for 1969, which called 
for a "central information bank on manuscript and photographic 
materials in the Smithsonian" and a "computerized information- 
retrieval system/' 


The basic archival program promotes and facilitates systematic 
and continuing identification, appraisal, and appropriate disposi- 
tion of official records of the Institution generated and assembled 
by offices throughout the Smithsonian. The basic archival pro- 
gram also includes acquisition of professional career files of prin- 
cipal staff members. 

In 1984, siA developed general disposition schedules for six 
major classes of Smithsonian records. Offices of record, responsible 
for keeping master sets of each class of record, are designated in 
the schedules, and guidance is given on the proper disposition of 
redundant copies no longer needed by other offices. This is the 
first time that this basic records management device has been 
developed for application on an Institution-wide basis. 

On-site records surveys and appraisals and design of specific 
records disposition schedules for individual offices and divisions 
were continued in 1984. Surveys were conducted in the Smith- 
sonian Environmental Research Center; the departments of Verte- 
brate Zoology, Invertebrate Zoology, Paleobiology, and the Smith- 
sonian Oceanographic Sorting Center of the National Museum of 
Natural History; the National Zoological Park; the National Por- 
trait Gallery; the Freer Gallery of Art; the Renwick Gallery; the 
Office of Plant Services; Smithsonian magazine; and in the Ex- 

Museum Programs I 267 

hibits Division, Office of Public Affairs, and Department of Space 
Science and Exploration of the National Air and Space Museum. 

Accessions of records of professional societies and personal 
papers in 1984 included records of the Chesapeake Research Con- 
sortium and the Estuarine Research Foundation, the papers of 
geologist Ellis L. Yochelson, historian Margaret B. Klapthor, and 
astrophysicist Riccardo Giacconi. Also of particular interest was 
the accession of a "Book of Dates" compiled by Elliott Coues, 
honorary head of the Department of Mammals, 1880-83, meticu- 
lously detailing world and national events that occurred through- 
out his life and family history. 

Security preservation microfilming of deteriorating and vital 
records continued in 1984, with sixty-three thousand images put 
on microfilm. Notable among these were the specimen and acces- 
sion record catalogues of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum; outgoing 
letterpress correspondence of Secretary Samuel P. Langley, 1877- 
1907; and outgoing letterpress correspondence of directors of the 
National Zoological Park, 1889-1927. 


Oral history interviewing with significant Smithsonian figures con- 
tinued in fiscal year 1984, and interviews completed and transcribed 
during the year brought the collection total to more than two 
hundred hours of recording accompanied by more than thirty- 
eight hundred pages of typewritten transcript. A significant by- 
product of the oral history project in 1984 was the scripting of 
narrations for films of Smithsonian expeditions to Panama, based 
on the recollections of Watson M. Perrygo, late taxidermist, field 
collector, and exhibits specialist of the Smithsonian. Assistance 
and advice were provided to other Smithsonian bureaus, notably 
to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American 
History and to the National Gallery of Art, on the initiation of 
new oral history projects. Plans are underway to develop a video- 
taping capability to augment the present audiotaping mode of 
recording employed by the oral history project. 


Smithsonian Archives presented eight lectures in 1984 based on 
research in progress using the Archives. Topics included "Objec- 
tivity and Bias in Science: The Controversies over Phenetics and 
Cladistics," by David L. Hull of the University of Wisconsin at 

268 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Milwaukee, "Artistic Sources for John Abbot's Watercolor Draw- 
ings of American Birds/' by Marcus B. Simpson of the Duke 
University School of Medicine, and "Predator Control or Predator 
Extermination: Attitudes and Policy, 1880-1980," by Thomas R. 
Dunlap of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 
Sia's historian, Pamela M. Henson, cohosted the 1984 Joint Atlantic 
Seminar in the History of Biology, held on April 13-14 in the 
Presidential Reception Suite of the American History Building. 


More than fourteen hundred research inquiries were directed to 
the siA and more than sixteen thousand reference service trans- 
actions were accomplished by sia during fiscal year 1984, a 25 
percent increase over 1983. Previous research using Smithsonian 
Archives sources resulted in a number of publications during 1984, 
among them Edward P. Alexander's Museum Masters, Their Mu- 
seums and Their Influence (Nashville: American Association for 
State and Local History, 1983), Kenneth Hafertepe's America's 
Castle: The Evolution of the Smithsonian Building and Its Institu- 
tion, 1840-1878 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1984), and Gerald Killan's David Boyle: From Artisan to Archaeol- 
ogist (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983). In 1984 several 
researchers concentrated their studies on materials relating to the 
U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-42 (the Wilkes Expedition), some 
of which will be used in a major exhibition on that expedition at 
the National Museum of Natural History in 1985. Other topics of 
note included North American Arctic exploration, 1818-20, and 
the employment of science in that exploration, a biography of 
Jeffries Wyman, the early history of the museum movement in the 
United States, 1773-1870, and a biography of N. Gist Gee, includ- 
ing comparisons of biological typologies employed by American 
and Chinese scientists. Research was also done on the history of 
the Natural History Building of the Smithsonian, in preparation for 
the seventy-fifth anniversary in 1986 of its completion. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

The Smithsonian Institution Libraries (sil) embodies and continues 
a tradition of library service provided for in the Foundation Charter 

Museum Programs I 269 

of 1846. In the mid-1960s Secretary Ripley recognized the Smith- 
sonian's need for orderly, speedy access to information and orga- 
nized most quasi-independent library units and collections into an 
institution-wide system — the Smithsonian Institution Libraries (sil) 
— under the leadership of one director. 

The SIL is a member of the American Association of Research 
Libraries and is organized on the model common in major North 
American universities, effecting the economies of centralized ad- 
ministration, collections processing, and systems planning. In 1984, 
branches of the sil operated in thirty-five locations, including the 
Washington, D.C., area. New York City, the Republic of Panama, 
and Cambridge, Massachusetts. To meet growing research needs, 
a new sil branch opened at the Museum Support Center in Silver 
Hill, Maryland, in October 1983 and plans are being formulated to 
establish a new branch in the Office of Horticulture. 

The libraries at the Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port, 
the Freer Gallery of Art, the Joseph Henry Papers, the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, and the National Museum of 
American Art/National Portrait Gallery — representing about 20 
percent of the Institution's library expenditures — are not part of 
SIL organizationally, and are discussed elsewhere. However, the sil 
assists these libraries in many ways and devotes approximately 5 
percent of its budget to their direct support. 

The SIL is organized in three operational divisions: Bibliographic 
Systems, concerned with standard descriptions and automated con- 
trol of all SIL collections; Collections Management, responsible for 
collection development policies, budgeting and selection for acquisi- 
tions, preservation, and housing of library collections essential to 
Smithsonian work; and Research Services, charged with direct, 
personal assistance to and interpretation for the scholarly clientele 
of the Libraries. Each division reports to a manager who is a mem- 
ber of the SIL executive staff. The sil, led by the director and asso- 
ciate director, is also assisted by staff for planning and administra- 
tion and for publications. 


The SIL is financed chiefly from the federal budget granted by 
Congress; in fiscal year 1984 these federal monies were about 
$3,678,000, or 93 percent of sil funding. The remaining 7 percent, 
or $290,000, came from Smithsonian Institution trust funds. The 
siL budgets represent 2 percent of all Smithsonian expenditures, 
federal and trust. 

270 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

During fiscal year 1984, the Libraries received a grar\t of 
$300,000 in special foreign currencies from the Office of Fellow- 
ships and Grants to support its Translation Publishing Program. 
The siL also obtained two grants from the Atherton Seidell En- 
dowment Fund: one of $31,500 for the retrospective conversion of 
library records and the second of $12,500 for the purchase of 
scientific serials on microfilm. The Women's Committee provided 
a grant of $3,000 to assist with cataloguing manuscripts in the 
Dibner collection and $6,000 was donated by the Dibner Fund, 
Inc., of Norwalk, Connecticut, to assist with the publication of a 
guide to the manuscripts in that collection. In addition, $45,000 
was allocated from trust funds for the purchase of the Echols 

As part of the Libraries' concern with future needs, the sil 
engaged the New York City firm of Mitchell-Giurgola Architects 
to begin studies of sil's requirements for an enhanced research 
library by the year 2000 and of models for an ideal branch library. 
On the issue of preservation needs in the Libraries, Pamela W. 
Darling, Special Consultant to the Library of Congress National 
Preservation Program, reviewed the condition of the Libraries' 
general collections. John Thomas, a consultant for the Office of 
Protection Services, produced a security management survey on 
physical security in the sil. 

Dr. Margaret S. Child, Manager of sil's Research Services, began 
serving as consultant to the Council on Library Resources in May 
1984 to assist in developing a national strategy for the preservation 
of documentary resources. Dr. Robert Maloy, Director of the sil, 
spoke on "The Book, Computers, and Futures for Humans" at a 
seminar on "Computers and Human Learning" in Baird Auditori- 
um, in December 1983. Silvio A. Bedini presented the keynote 
address at the annual convention of the American Congress of 
Surveyors and Society of Photogrammetry in September 1983. Mr. 
Bedini also was instrumental in preparing for the exhibition "The 
Naming of America," which opened in the Museum of American 
History in October 1983. Dr. Enayateur Rahim, another member 
of the SIL staff, is currently on leave of absence to work on a hand- 
book, The Smithsonian Focus in India, 1985. In the first months of 
1984, Phyllis Meltzer conducted research and compiled material 
which will be used for a history of the sil. Jean Chandler Smith 
was the Libraries' Research Associate in 1984. In the summer of 
1984, the SIL welcomed Dr. Ivan Rebernik of the Vatican Library 
School, who came as a Visiting Professional to observe the admin- 

Museum Programs I 271 

istration of an automated library. The sil also had ten interns and 
participated in the Stay-in-School employment project. 

The SIL was authorized ninety-eight work years in 1984. In addi- 
tion to federally funded positions, the sil supports nine employees 
with Smithsonian trust funds. Strenuous recruitment and increased 
involvement in minority recruiting resulted in improved staffing 
in both the branches and centralized services. 

The ability of the sil to provide a basic level of service and also 
to initiate and continue special projects is due in large measure to 
the dedication and constant, hard work of the sil staff and the 
forty-eight sil volunteers. 


In addition to continuing to provide bibliographic services to the 
Institution, the Bibliographic Systems Division has devoted time 
this year to preparations for and the implementation of an inte- 
grated automated library system for all library functions. In the 
autumn of 1983 after several years of planning, the sil selected a 
system provided by geac Computers International, an international 
library automation company. Shortly before the vendor was chosen, 
plans for a wider application of the automated system were made 
in cooperation with other bureaus of the Institution and the system 
evolved into the Smithsonian Institution Bibliographic Information 
System (sibis). The sibis system offers an automated authority 
control, the design of which was pioneered by sil staff working 
with the staff of other major research libraries who are geac cus- 
tomers. The development included the design of standards, dis- 
plays, and formats for a fully automated authority control of name, 
subject, and series headings in the bibliographic records. 

The automated library system began to be installed in stages. 
Thomas Garnett, a systems administrator, joined the staff when 
the implementation process began. The initial step was to create 
the sil data base by loading into the system records which already 
existed in a machine-readable format. Additionally, efforts con- 
tinued to convert those records which had been kept on traditional 
catalogue cards. These processes required revisions of sil standards 
and procedures for the efficient operation of the new system. All 
Bibliographic Systems staff has been involved in in-depth analyz- 
ing of the existing manual procedures and efforts to translate them 
into the automated system. Extensive testing and revision of the 
SIBIS system consumed hours of staff time and many problems 
relating to loading older data into the system have now been re- 

272 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

solved. These efforts have resulted in an updated work flow and 
a new procedure manual. Members of the sil staff were trained to 
use those modules which they will be using in their work. 

On-line cataloguing, functional in the fall of 1984, continues 
to be linked with a national bibliographic utility. Online Com- 
puter Library Center (oclc), and is now also used for direct data 
input and manipulation. 

Since the automated library system will not be fully effective 
until all siL records are included in the data base, manual records 
are converted on a continuing schedule as funding permits. This 
year it was possible to convert the Cooper-Hewitt Museum branch 
library's records as well as the records of older serials, the latter 
conversion accompHshed with the aid of a grant from the Atherton 
Seidell Endowment Fund. For many titles, the conversion includes 
changing the classification from the Dewey decimal system to that 
of the Library of Congress system, a process that has required 
extensive work in record changing and labeling. Future plans in- 
clude reshelving the affected works, a move which will bring the 
collections into proper sequence as a convenience to users. 

With the assistance of grants from the Dibner Fund and the 
Women's Committee, 1,612 manuscripts were catalogued, input 
into OCLC, and indexed for a forthcoming illustrated pubHcation. 

The indexing of trade literature continues, with the index added 
to sil's data base on sibis. The collections of the W. Atlee Burpee 
and the Warshaw companies are among the trade catalogues that 
have been indexed and protected in acid-neutral covers. Most of 
the work is performed by sil volunteers. 

The productivity of the division continues to increase, allowing 
more time for sil staff to begin to process previously uncatalogued 

The on-line public access catalogue, accessible from terminals 
placed in all sil locations, became available in the fall of 1984. 

The beginning of fiscal year 1985 will mark the implementation 
of the fully automated acquisitions system. In preparation for this 
change, sil staff conducted thorough studies of existing procedures 
and systems, placing particular emphasis upon the areas of finan- 
cial controls and management reporting from the acquisitions 


A change in leadership, substantial increases in specialized collec- 
tions, continued emphasis on collections security, and exploration 

Museum Programs I 273 


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Terminal screen of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries' automated library 
system. Processing on the system began on June 20, 1984, and terminals were 
soon installed in Central Reference and some of the branch libraries. 

of new preservation technologies were highlights of a busy year 
in the Collections Management Division. Jack Goodwin, division 
manager and twenty-five-year employee of the sil, retired in Oc- 
tober 1983. The position was reorganized and, in April 1984, Nancy 
E. Gwinn joined the staff as Assistant Director for Collections 
Management. Ms. Gwinn previously served as Associate Director 
for Program Coordination of the Research Libraries Group (rlg) 
of Stanford, California, where she was responsible for developing 
multi-institutional, cooperative programs in collection development 
and preservation. 

The Institution purchased three collections for the libraries, 
adding richness and depth in several areas. The first was a private 
collection that had been assembled by the late Professor John 
Echols, a distinguished linguist, lexicographer, and bibliographer 
at Cornell University. Nearly half of the material in this Southeast 
Asian collection is Indonesian and the materials in this purchase 
will support programs of the new Smithsonian Center for African, 
Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures, now under construction. 

The second collection, purchased for the sil by the National Air 
and Space Museum, consists of records pertaining to French aero- 
nautical history which were assembled by a Frenchman, Georges 
Naudet, who died in 1983. 

Finally, the James Smithson Society provided funds through the 
Office of Horticulture for a collection of 158 books illustrating the 
history of nineteenth-century landscape gardening. These volumes 
were pubhshed between 1799 and 1938. 

Several items of note appear among the gifts and purchases for 
the SIL Special Collections branch. Secretary Ripley donated a copy 
of John Withering's The Orders, Lawes and Ancient Customes of 
Sivanns (London 1631), a rare work describing the marking and 
management of swans on the Thames. A private fund supported 
the purchase of Galileo Galilei's Trattato delta Sfera (Rome 1656), 
a posthumous edition of Galileo's lectures in Padua. 

Trust Fund purchases included rare books on the topics of math- 
ematics and entomology, and on Newton's discoveries. J. Loir's 
Theorie du Tissages des Etoffes de Sole may be the only complete 
copy in the United States of this monumental five-volume set of 
design charts and swatches from one of the traditional textile 
centers of the world. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of optics is the 
central theme of G. B. Venturi's Essai sur Les Ouvrages Phisico- 
Mathematiques de Leonardo da Vinci (Paris 1797). 

Museum Programs I 275 

As the year drew to a close, the chiefs of the fourteen sil 
branches began to develop new collection policies. 

The SIL Book Conservation Laboratory moved into its seventh 
year of work to restore valuable but deteriorating materials in sil 
collections. By the third quarter the conservators had treated nearly 
250 rare volumes and had constructed over 1,800 protective en- 
closures and boxes. The laboratory also published and distributed 
a handsome brown and yellow poster outlining emergency water- 
damage procedures, a cautionary step taken in reaction to several 
minor floods in the Libraries. A professional visitor, Anthony 
Zammit, conservator with the State Library of South Australia, 
completed a two-month internship under the guidance of Johannes 
Hyltoft, sil's Chief Conservator. 

Preservation of library materials involves numerous techniques, 
ranging from full restoration of bound volumes to rescue of a 
book's intellectual content through microfilming or photocopying. 
In June, the sil formed an Optical Disk Working Group to explore 
the possibility of using this new technology. The method under 
study, which combines storage on optical digital disk and access 
through high-resolution terminals and printers, has potential for 
increasing access to library materials as well as preserving their 


The Research Services Division of the sil provides reference sup- 
port to Smithsonian scientists, curators, and other staff as well as 
to a broad range of users from outside the Institution. The division 
is organized in fourteen branches dispersed over thirty-five separate 
locations around the Mall and throughout the Washington, D.C., 
area, and in New York City, Panama, and Cambridge, Massachu- 

The division continued to expand its provision of core services, 
such as on-line searching of bibliographic data bases, the prepara- 
tion of special-subject bibliographies, and tracking down in re- 
positories throughout this country and abroad documentation need- 
ed by its patrons. Communication and the rapid dissemination of 
information was facilitated by the installation of telefacsimile ma- 
chines in the branch libraries of the Museum of Natural History, 
the Museum of American History, and the Museum Support Cen- 
ter. The installation of an ibm pc at the stri branch library has 
made it possible to search dialog and other on-line bibliographic 
data bases in the United States. 

276 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

One highlight of the year was a massive effort to eliminate the 
backlog of overdue loans from the Library of Congress. As of mid- 
August 1984, only forty books remained outstanding on the current 
list of overdue volumes, and the backlog of some two thousand 
old loans, some dating back to the 1960s, had been reduced by half, 
exclusive of Smithsonian Deposit volumes. 

A review of the activities of the division during the past year 
underlined the increasingly prominent role which several sil 
branches are coming to play as national resources in their respec- 
tive fields. The branch at the Museum of African Art distributes 
its monthly acquisitions list to about 170 libraries in this country 
as well as to eighty abroad, including libraries located in Eastern 
Europe, Africa, and Australia. The branch librarian, Janet Stanley, 
completed for publication the manuscript of African Art: A Biblio- 
graphic Guide, received the published version of an earlier bibliog- 
raphy, Ife, the Holy City of the Yoruha, prepared in collaboration 
with Richard Olaniyan, and wrote four articles and three reviews. 
In addition, she has been serving as the consultant on African Art 
terminology to the Getty Trust's Art and Architecture Thesaurus 
Project. The Trust has made two grants to the sil during the past 
year to cover the costs of Ms. Stanley's participation in that project. 

The librarian at the National Zoological Park branch library, 
Kay Kenyon, continued her efforts to organize the librarians of 
zoos throughout the country. She led roundtable discussions at the 
annual meeting of the American Association of Zoological Parks 
and Aquariums and continued to write and edit issues of Library 
News for Zoos and Aquariums which now has a mailing list of over 
170 interested readers throughout the United States, Canada, and 
abroad. She also published an article on "Zoological Libraries" in 
Sci-Tech News and produced a bibliography, "Why Zoos?" which 
commanded a wide readership. 

The Museum Reference Center (mrc) serves as the primary 
source of information about every aspect of museum administra- 
tion for museum professionals, researchers, and students. Five 
hundred visitors from outside the Smithsonian used the Center's 
unique collections and another 1,300 inquiries were received by 
mail and telephone from around the world. Forty-eight foreign 
countries were represented in these visits and queries. 

The vertical files of the mrc branch library are the heart of the 
Center's resource materials. The collection was greatly enriched by 
the addition of a profusion of educational materials, brochures, 
programs, and announcements sent in response to a request from 

Museum Programs I 277 

Paul Perrot, former Assistant Secretary of Museum Programs, to 
thousands of museums throughout the country. In addition to over- 
seeing the organization of this flood of material and dealing with 
the constant heavy reference use of the Center, its librarian, Cath- 
erine Scott, aided by a half-time technician, Edward Johnson, and 
three loyal volunteers, Renata Rutledge, Carolyn Shugars, and 
Barbara Bowen, compiled eight new bibliographies and revised and 
updated ten others. Finally, the mrc branch launched a quarterly 
list of new acquisitions as a service for museum professionals 
within the Smithsonian and for those outside who use the Center. 
The Museum Support Center (msc) branch library which sup- 
ports the Institution's Conservation Analytical Laboratory is also 
becoming more well known nationally and internationally as a 
source of information for specialists. Although its constituency has 
a more restricted field of specialization than some other branches, 
the MSC branch received seventy-five mail and telephone inquiries 
on conservation issues from scientists outside the Institution, a 
quarter of them from overseas. Of the two dozen on-site research- 
ers who visited the library, a third were foreign visitors. The staff 
of the MSC branch conducted detailed, in-depth literature searches 
and produced reading lists on the topics in question for all these 
inquiries. The appointment of the msc branch librarian, Karen 
Preslock, as publications editor of the Newsletter of the American 
Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works was an 
acknowledgement of the growing role of the msc branch in support- 
ing research in conservation outside as well as within the Smith- 


The siL supports a number of scholarly outreach programs. During 
1984 these included seminars and lectures, exhibitions, and publica- 

The siL Seminars and Lectures Series opened its 1984 program 
on November 1, 1983, with a seminar on "Bibliography: Its Use, 
Abuse and Future." Speakers from the National Endowment for 
the Humanities, the Museum of Natural History, the National Air 
and Space Museum, and Lehigh University were featured in a 
panel discussion on the changing role of bibliography in scholar- 

The Research Libraries and New Technologies Annual Lecture 
was held on January 25, 1984. Ellen Hahn of the Library of Con- 
gress Optical Disk Pilot Program and Dana Bell of the National 

278 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Air and Space Museum Aviation History Archival Disks Manage- 
ment Office spoke on "Optical Disk Technology and Its Research 

A third program in the Seminars and Lectures Series, "sil Collec- 
tions and Preservation: Can We Save the Nineteenth Century?" 
was held on September 25, 1984, in the main auditorium of the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. A panel moderated by 
Nancy E. Gwinn, sil Assistant Director for Collections Manage- 
ment, featured as speakers Pamela W. Darling, Special Consultant 
to the Library of Congress National Preservation Program, Caro- 
lyn Clark Morrow, Conservation Librarian of Southern Illinois 
University and Project Director of the Midwest Cooperative Con- 
servation Program, and Dr. Margaret S. Child, sil Assistant Direc- 
tor for Research Services and Consultant to the Council on Library 

The SIL held an Open House in several of its branches on June 
11, 1984, for members of the American Association of Museums 
who were in town for their annual meeting. 

Of the seven sil exhibitions this year, the five held in the Dibner 
Library were: "History of Pharmacy, From the Fifteenth to the 
Nineteenth Century: Sources from the Squibb Deposit"; "Donor 
Exhibition: Gifts to the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, 1982"; 
"Binding: Styles and Conservation Practices"; "Sources for the 
History of Biology: An Exhibit"; and "Astronomy: Men and 
Letters." The National Air and Space Museum branch presented 
an exhibition on "Naval Aviation" in the spring of 1984 and the 
National Zoological Park branch featured "Animals in Color 
Plates: G. H. von Schubert's Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs 
(1897)" through 1984. 

Under the Publications Program, the sil announced a new cycle 
in its Translation Publishing Program in June 1984. This program 
to translate and publish scholarly works of enduring value was 
made possible by a sfcp grant of $300,000. The Libraries solicited 
from departments throughout the Institution proposals which will 
be evaluated by a Translation Publishing Review Committee. 
Members were chosen from nominations submitted by the Assis- 
tant Secretaries for Science and for History and Art. 

The SIL Publications Program also continued to administer the 
operation of the translation-publishing program which began in 
1959. Publications completed in fiscal year 1984 include N. N. 
Tsvelev's Grasses of the Soviet Union (2 volumes, 1983); A. I. 
Tolmachev's The Arctic Ocean and Its Coast in the Cenozoic Era 

Museum Programs I 279 

(1982); and G. A. Mchedlidze's Main Features of Paleobiological 
Features of Cetacea (1982). Further, four volumes of completed 
translations were received by the sil for technical editing prior to 
final editing for publication. 

The SIL appointed Dr. Nancy L. Matthews as its Publications 
Specialist in May 1984. Dr. Matthews has worked with two docu- 
mentary publishing projects and has taught at local universities. 

Sil publications in fiscal year 1984 included the The Aerospace 
Periodical Index 1973-1982, Smithsonian Institution Libraries Re- 
search Guide Number 3 (G. K. Hall, 1983), compiled by the staff 
of the National Air and Space Museum branch library. A library 
guide brochure for the new Museum Support Center branch was 
published, as was a Loan Policy Brochure, the latter designed to 
provide information to users on the sil's uniform loan policies. A 
catalogue for the Donor Exhibition was also published. 


The Planning and Administration Office (pao) was reorganized 
in June, and Mary A. Rosenfeld was appointed pao Manager in 
August. Ms. Rosenfeld also held the responsibility for the over- 
sight of renovations which began in Central Reference, in acquisi- 
tions and binding, and in supply services. The first phase of the 
planned renovation required the temporary storage of nearly 
40,000 volumes in a hall loaned by the Museum of Natural His- 
tory. The books and journals placed there will remain fully acces- 
sible to scholars. Future plans include a space reorganization 
which will place many centralized functions of the sil in one sec- 
tion of the Natural History Building and will more than double 
the capacity of the Natural History branch library. 

The PAO provides support for all sil programs and units through 
fiscal monitoring, management of supply services, personnel assis- 
tance, provision of travel and training information, and system- 
wide delivery. New adjustments this year included streamlined 
procedures and the development of specialized functions among 
staff members. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

The August 11, 1984, opening of Treasures from the Smithsonian 
Institution at the Edinburgh International Festival in Scotland 
capped an unusually productive year for the Smithsonian Institu- 

280 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service's The Art of Cameroon 
began its tour at the Evans Gallery, National Museum of Natural History, in 
February 1984. Featured in this photograph in the foreground is a memorial 
grave figure, the only freestanding life-size beaded figure known from Bamum. 

tion Traveling Exhibition Service (sites). Thirty new exhibitions 
opened, among them four of the most complex exhibitions ever 
organized by sites: The Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures from 
the Czechoslovak State Collections; The Art of Cameroon; Yester- 
day's Tomorrows: Past Visions of the American Future; and 
Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution. 

Sites was asked to organize the Smithsonian's special exhibition 
for the Edinburgh Festival and decided on the theme presented in 
the Smithsonian Institution Press's magnificent book Treasures 
from the Smithsonian. Sites worked closely with numerous Smith- 
sonian bureaus to orchestrate the exhibition and its associated 
events. The exhibition was the largest ever mounted by the Smith- 
sonian for tour abroad and the first to combine materials from all 
of the constituent museums — 260 objects in all. 

The opening at the Evans Gallery in November 1983 of The 
Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures from the Czechoslovak State 
Collections marked the culmination of lengthy international nego- 
tiations with Czechoslovakia and displayed shared scholarship 
and resources with museum colleagues in Prague. Sites worked 
closely with Project Judaica and with national corporate sponsor 
Philip Morris Incorporated; published a major catalogue, a chil- 
dren's book, four exhibition posters; and collaborated with the 
Smithsonian Museum Shops in their development of replicas and 
reproductions. During its seven- week showing at the National 
Museum of Natural History, The Precious Legacy was viewed by 
105,000 visitors. 

The Art of Cameroon began its United States tour at the Evans 
Gallery in January 1984. This first major exhibition of works from 
the Cameroon grasslands was sponsored by Mobil Oil Corpora- 
tion. Sites published the extensive catalogue and a brochure, and 
produced a 30-second television public service announcement. 

Yesterday's Tomorrows: Past Visions of the American Future 
opened in August 1984 at the National Museum of American 
History. Jointly organized by sites and the nmah, the exhibition 
was sponsored by Champion International Corporation. Sites co- 
published the exhibition book with Summit Books, and invented 
and produced a card game — "Futurevision" — to accompany the 

With funding support from the James Smithson Society, sites 
organized a special participatory exhibition. Sculpture: Exploring 3 
Dimensions. A number of sites exhibitions were developed jointly 
with other Smithsonian bureaus: with the National Museum of 

282 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

American History, In Touch: Printing and Writing for the BUnd 
in the 19th Century, Marconi, and Building Brooklyn Bridge; with 
the Renwick Gallery, Threads; with the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 
Matchsafes; with the Folklife Program, Family Folklore and South- 
eastern Potteries; and with the National Air and Space Museum, 
25 Years of Manned Space Flight. 

Other art exhibitions for fiscal year 1984 included Master Euro- 
pean Drawings from the Collection of the National Gallery of 
Ireland; The Biblical Paintings of J. James Tissot; and Edgar 
Chahine: La Vie Parisienne. Science and natural history exhibi- 
tions included A Flowering of Science; Native Harvests; People 
of the Forest; Early Flight; South of Winter; and Unfamiliar Fauna 
of the Open Sea. 

Two SITES exhibitions toured exclusively overseas. American 
Porcelain was shown in four countries in the Far East and also in 
India. Threads was shown in five countries in the Middle East. 
Both tours were organized jointly by the Renwick Gallery, sites, 
and the U.S. Information Agency. 

Among future major exhibitions in various stages of develop- 
ment were Hollywood: Legend and Reality, for which sites re- 
ceived substantial corporate support from Time, Inc.; From Ebla 
to Damascus, a collection of archeological treasures from Syria; 
and Renaissance Bronzes from the Kunsthistorische Museum, 
Vienna, which will begin its United States tour in 1986 at the 
National Gallery of Art. 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1984 

Number of bookings 419 

Number of states served 

(including Washington, D.C.) 47 

Estimated audience 7.5 million 

Exhibitions listed in last Update 

(catalogue of sites exhibitions) 117 

Exhibitions produced for tour during the year .... 31 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1984 

An Age of Gold: Three Centuries of Paintings from Old Ecuador 
America's City Halls 
The Art of Cameroon 

Museum Programs I 283 

Arte/Objeto: Sculpture from the Tane Silversmiths Collection 

The Artist and the Space Shuttle 

Beaumont Newhall: A Retrospective 

The Biblical Paintings of]. James Tissot 

Building Brooklyn Bridge 

Early Flight 

Edgar Chahine: La Vie Parisienne 

Family Folklore 

A Flowering of Science: Plants from Captain Cook's Voyage, 

In Touch: Printing and Writing for the Blind in the 19th Century 
Jacquard Textiles 

The Long Road Up the Hill: Blacks in Congress, 1870-1983 
Master European Drawings from the Collection of the National 

Gallery of Ireland 
Matchsafes: Striking Designs 
Native Harvests: Plants in American Indian Life 
People of the Forest: Photographs of the Chiapas Maya by 

Gertrude Blom 
The Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures from the Czechoslovak 

State Collections 
Radiance and Virtue: The R. N orris Shreve Collection of Chinese 

Sculpture: Exploring 3 Dimensions 
South of Winter: Scenes from Aransas Wildlife Refuge 
Threads: Seven American Artists and Their Miniature Textile 

Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution 
25 Years of Manned Space Flight 
Unfamiliar Fauna of the Open Sea 
World Print IV 
Yesterday's Tomorrows: Past Visions of the American Future 

Getting the Picture: The Growth of Television in America 

284 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Dolly Spencer, an Inupiaq Eskimo dollmaker from Homer, Alaska, displays 
three of her dolls at the 1984 Festival of American Folklife. She often fashions 
her dolls after people she admires. 

Office of Telecommunications producer Ann Carroll and cameraman John Hiller 
capture a behind-the-scenes moment in the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory's Discovery Room for "Here at the Smithsonian . . .," the office's series of 
short features for television. 

Smithsonian Year . 1P84 


International Center 

Secretary Ripley established the International Center as the or- 
ganizing unit of the Quadrangle in October 1983. Throughout 
the year, numerous individuals within and outside the Institution 
were consulted on both the philosophy behind the International 
Center and the possibility of undertaking collaborative research 
projects involving Smithsonian staff, other scholars and scientists, 
and experts from around the world. Foremost in all plans for the 
Center has been an interest in identifying and determining ways 
in which the Center may facilitate and enhance the research of 
Smithsonian scholars and scientists. It is anticipated that such 
research will lead to symposia, exhibitions, and various types of 
public programs which the Center will coordinate. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

A firm belief in the power of museum objects as educational re- 
sources is the guiding principle behind the activities and programs 
of the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (oese). With 
the conviction that it is equally important for students to learn to 


use works of art, natural history specimens, historical artifacts, 
and other museum objects as research tools, as it is for them to 
learn to use words and numbers, oese continues to serve the 
Smithsonian's education offices while working to meet a solid 
commitment to foster the educational uses of museums in the 
Washington, D.C., area and throughout the nation. 

For several years oese has offered a number of programs and 
publications to help teachers use museums and other community 
resources with their students. Oese continues to offer these ser- 
vices, proven successful by those who use them. Let's Co to the 
Smithsonian, a newsletter, informs local teachers of the ever- 
growing variety of Smithsonian services available to teachers and 
students. Multiple copies are sent free-of-charge to approximately 
twelve hundred schools in the Washington, D.C., area. Through 
Looking to Learning: The Museum Adventure serves as a guide- 
book for teachers to the various Smithsonian museums. Copies 
are sent free to all schools in the Washington metropolitan area 
as well as to any other schools planning a trip to Washington. 

For teachers nationally. Art to Zoo, a free, six-page publication 
to promote the use of community resources, reaches approximately 
fifty-five thousand classrooms. The Museum Idea, a slide/tape 
curriculum kit, helps fifth- and sixth-graders learn what museums 
are and what the students can do themselves to make a classroom 
museum. Of Kayaks and Ulus, a curriculum kit for high school 
students developed in conjunction with the Department of Anthro- 
pology, teaches young people how to use primary and secondary 
research materials while at the same time learning about the cul- 
ture of the Bering Sea Eskimo of one hundred years ago. These 
materials, all giving students the opportunity for first-hand learn- 
ing, have proven very popular. For example, one teacher com- 
mented about her use of Of Kayaks and Ulus, "It can be quite 
difficult to teach students to form good research habits (and to 
steer them away from copying out of encyclopedias!), but 1 think 
the organization and activities of this unit went a long way toward 
building such skills." 

Because of the popularity of these materials, oese is now pre- 
paring two new curriculum kits for teachers to use with students 
in grades five and six — one on using museums to teach critical and 
creative thinking skills and the other on using objects to teach 
writing. Similarly, in fiscal year 1984 oese in collaboration with the 
Office of Public Affairs developed a new publication to be piloted 
in 1985: Smithsonian Journeys is designed to bring the Institution, 

288 / Smithsonian Year 1984 







Stationed in the Smithsonian Institution Greenhouse, Melissa Pilant learned 
about careers in horticulture during the summer internship program offered by 
the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. (Photograph by Jon Dicus) 

its work, and its excitement to junior high school students across 
the United States. 

Special events during the year introduce school teachers and 
administrators to the educational possibilities of museums. For 
example, in December a conference on "Computers and Human 
Learning" was attended by more than three hundred school ad- 
ministrators. Cosponsored by the Office of Symposia and Sem- 
inars, this event explored the impact of computer technology on 
education. A videotape based on conference materials is now avail- 
able to help schools around the country better address ways of 
making computers useful in the classroom. Also in December oese 
again conducted a Holiday Reception for teachers, where partici- 
pants learned about the origin and meaning of the Afro-American 
harvest celebration, Kwanzaa, and about behind-the-scenes plan- 
ning for the Institution's annual Trees of Christmas exhibition. 
Then in April a special presentation in the Discovery Theater 
showed how the dramatic arts can be used to teach many disci- 
plines, including science and social studies. 

From June 25 through August 3, a series of five-day seminars 
provided professional training for Washington, D.C., area educa- 
tors. Close to two hundred teachers chose from one- and two-week 
courses on subjects such as "19th-century Architecture," "Rocks, 
Fossils, and Geologic Time," and "Insects in the Classroom." In 
addition, a three-credit graduate course on "Using Museums to 
Teach Writing" was offered to teachers from across the nation. 
Given in cooperation with the University of Virginia, this seminar 
brought teachers from as far away as Florida and Oregon to the 
Smithsonian to develop a variety of writing assignments that they 
could use with their own students. As a final project, the teachers 
were required to develop curriculum units based on the resources 
of their own communities. Comments from teachers attest to the 
value of oese's workshops, both local and national; as one of the 
participants wrote, the national seminar "has changed my life. I 
was considering leaving teaching because of the curriculum ruts 
one gets into, personally, as well as the terrible ruts created by 
department chairmen and administrators. Now I see that what I 
know instinctively about teaching writing and other things is really 
true. My students and I are going to have a marvelously good time 
learning this year!" 

Because of its commitment to assist teachers in the teaching of 
writing, oese this year became an affiliate member of the National 
Capital Area Writing Project. The project — based on the model of 

290 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

the National Writing Project — is a nonprofit organization of local 
educational institutions committed to the cooperative sharing of 
resources in an effort to improve vyriting instruction and student 
writing in all subject areas and at all grade levels (kindergarten 
through university). 

To assist school teachers and museum educators, oese has estab- 
hshed a Regional Workshop Program, providing Smithsonian sup- 
port and assistance to communities throughout the nation. At the 
invitation of a community's museums, oese will set up and help 
coordinate a one-day special event that will bring the community's 
teachers and museum people together, enabling them to find ways 
to work with each other productively long after the original pro- 
gram is over. In the first of its two pilot years, the Regional Work- 
shop Program held two events, serving a total of over eight hun- 
dred teachers — one in Tidewater Virginia (in October 1983) and 
the second in New Orleans, Louisiana (in March 1984). Regional 
Workshop programs have been scheduled for additional communi- 
ties for fiscal year 1985: Oakland, Cahfornia (in November 1984), 
Charleston, South Carolina (in November 1984), and Oak Ridge, 
Tennessee (in March 1985). 

In addition, oese continued its progress in making Smithsonian 
programs accessible to disabled visitors. The Office's Special Edu- 
cation Program maintained such services as providing sign lan- 
guage and oral interpreters for special events and regular program 
offerings, as well as giving sign language courses and "disability 
awareness" sessions to Smithsonian staff and volunteers. 

In addition, the program published a curriculum kit. Museums 
as Storytellers. Funded by a grant from the Women's Committee 
of the Smithsonian Associates, the kit will help teachers of hear- 
ing or deaf youngsters improve their students' language skills. 

The program also held two special events to assist disabled peo- 
ple. "To Photograph Is To See," cosponsored with the Polaroid 
Corporation, introduced visually impaired persons to photography 
as a tool for sight. As one participant wrote, "The presentations 
were interesting, the workshop materials useful and well done, and 
the experience was a very positive one. It's always nice to partici- 
pate in a program which emphasizes what visually impaired peo- 
ple CAN do, instead of CAN'T do." The other program, "Orien- 
teering: A New Route to Travel Skills," was offered in conjunc- 
tion with the National Park Service and the Administration of 
Developmental DisabiUties of the U.S. Department of Health and 
Human Services. The workshop taught parents, teachers, and 

Public Service I 291 

school administrators how to translate skills from the sport of 
orienteering to provide mentally retarded individuals with an 
enjoyable way to find their way around Washington and the 
Smithsonian museums. 

During the 1983-84 school year, oese expanded its programs 
that bring young people to the Institution. The Office's new Career 
Awareness Program (cap) worked with three District of Columbia 
public high schools to develop and teach a series of programs intro- 
ducing minority young people to career opportunities at the Smith- 
sonian. This school year, participants worked with staff members 
from the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the National 
Museum of Natural History, and the National Museum of Ameri- 
can History. In the museums, the students participated in a number 
of activities, including behind-the-scenes tours, career workshops, 
and special projects. The cap is directed to ninth- and tenth-graders, 
because most young people at these grade levels have not yet 
locked themselves into the kinds of curriculum decisions that ulti- 
mately determine career options and choices. To maintain the 
students' interest in museum careers, the cap follows up on its 
graduates, encouraging their continued planning for museum- 
related careers. 

"Exploring the Smithsonian," a program for seventh- and eighth- 
grade teachers and students in the District of Columbia public 
schools, brought more than thirty-five hundred youngsters to spe- 
cially developed, curriculum-related lessons in the Smithsonian 
museums. In addition, oese's annual high school summer internship 
program was opened to students from all fifty states and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. The thirty-four interns selected to participate 
this summer worked under the guidance of curatorial and technical 
staff members in various parts of the Institution, discovering new 
directions for collegiate study and for possible careers. As one 
intern wrote, "I'm so glad that I have been able to have such an 
experience. It has helped me in making a definite career choice and 
I now see all the opportunities that are here and the many univer- 
sities I will be able to attend. The program has helped me in making 
some major decisions that will affect my future. I loved it!" 

Through participation in national and regional conferences and 
workshops, oese staff members have helped expand the scope and 
understanding of teachers and professional museum educators. 
Oese staff members also helped to plan and teach seminars on 
museum / school relations and on museum interpretation offered 
by the Smithsonian's Office of Museum Programs. 

292 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Office of Folklife Programs 

Most Americans would agree that the richness of the nation's 
culture lies in the impressive diversity of its people and in their 
creative responses to historical conditions. Research, presentation, 
and preservation of this cultural wealth is the goal of the Office 
of Folklife Programs, an effort that entails, among other activities, 
the presentation of living folk traditions in the context of the 
national museum. Since its inception, the Office of Folklife Pro- 
grams has directed its attention to the identification and study of 
folk traditions and to the development of methods for presenting 
them in a national setting to general audiences. The Office of Folk- 
life Programs also cooperates with other Smithsonian bureaus in 
research and exhibit production; it publishes documentary and 
analytic studies; its staff undertakes both exhibition-oriented and 
publication-oriented research and may engage in teaching at Wash- 
ington area universities. 


The Office of Folklife Programs planned and produced the eigh- 
teenth annual Festival of American Folklife in fiscal year 1984. The 
festival was held on its original site on the National Mall outside 
the museums of American History and Natural History. It took 
place over a two-week period, June 27-July 1 and July 4-8, 1984. 
Alaskan folklife, the folklore of America's older generation, expres- 
sive traditional culture of urban Blacks from Philadelphia, and 
traditional foodways were all featured at this festival. 

On the occasion of Alaska's twenty-fifth anniversary of state- 
hood, ninety representatives of the state's ethnic, regional, and 
occupational communities brought their music, culinary traditions, 
work skills, dance, crafts, and lore to the National Mall. Native 
Alaskan basketry and doll making, wood and ivory carving, gold 
mining, logging, music, and dance were among the traditions from 
Alaska that were presented. 

"The Grand Generation: Folklore and Aging" program explored 
the role that older generations play in preserving and perpetuating 
America's traditional culture and identity. Among the traditions of 
the sixty participants were Hawaiian hula dancing, African-Ameri- 
can hymns, spirituals and work songs, quilting, hide tanning, and 
stone carving. A Learning Center provided thematic focus for the 
program with photo-text panels, elders' life review projects, and 
an oral history collecting project. 

Public Service I 293 

The program on "Black Urban Expressive Culture from Phila- 
delphia" presented performance traditions that demonstrated un- 
derlying aesthetic unities in several genres of Black American 
traditional cultural expression. Performances of the nearly sixty 
participants included tap and break dancing, collegiate stepping, 
street drills, blues, gospel and do-wop singing, rapping, and DJ 
"scratching" skills. 

For the first time in the festival's history, traditional foodways 
were presented in a unified program with a structured approach 
to research in and presentations of culinary traditions in the three 
festival areas. Demonstrations included Alaskan fish smoking, 
fishing boat cookery, and uses of seaweed and sourdough; tra- 
ditional ethnic recipes that have been passed down through gen- 
erations, such as Armenian stuffed grape leaves and fruit leathers; 
and Black American cuisine, which included fried chicken, biscuits, 
greens, and sweet potato pie. Food concession stands located ad- 
jacent to each demonstration area sold food prepared according to 
participants' recipes. 

The festival was cosponsored by the National Park Service, and 
the Smithsonian received funding support from the Music Per- 
formance Trust Funds, the American Association of Retired Per- 
sons, the Atlantic Richfield Foundation, the National Institute on 
Aging, the National Institutes of Health, the State of Alaska De- 
partment of Commerce and Economic Development through its 
Division of Tourism and the Alaska Seafood Institute, and other 
private and corporate donations from Alaska. 


In cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service (sites), the Office of Folklife Programs developed a 
traveling exhibition on the surviving traditional potteries in the 
southeastern United States entitled Southeastern Potteries. The re- 
search for this project was sponsored by the Office of Folklife Pro- 
grams and was conducted according to a model developed in previ- 
ous pottery research by the Office. The exhibition, which was 
mounted in the National Museum of Natural History from June 27 
through August 18, was accompanied by the publication of a book. 
Raised in Clay: The Southern Pottery Tradition, by Nancy Sweezy, 
a researcher for the Office and guest curator for the exhibition. 
Smithsonian Institution Press published the book, which serves 
also as a catalogue for the exhibition. 

294 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Collaborative work with the American Folklife Center at the 
Library of Congress began in the summer of 1979 on a project to 
preserve more than thirty-five hundred wax-cylinder recordings 
principally held by the Library of Congress. These contain Native 
American songs and stories recorded prior to 1930. The project 
involved the transfer of fragile cylinder recordings to magnetic 
tape, the preparation of accompanying written material, and the 
development of suitable means for the dissemination of these 
historical cultural documents. The project is nearing completion 
with the Library's publication in fiscal year 1984 of two of the ten 
volumes, entitled The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field 
Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies. 

Research and programming has also reached an advanced stage 
for an exhibition from India depicting an individual's cycle of life, 
with two thousand objects and forty traditional craftsmen and 
performing artists. The exhibition, entitled Aditi: A Celebration of 
Life, will be mounted in the Evans Gallery of the National Museum 
of Natural History from June 4 to July 28, 1985. 


Research, writing, and production have continued on five mono- 
graphs and accompanying films included in the Smithsonian Folk- 
life Studies Series. This series was established in 1978 to document, 
through monographs and films, folkways still practiced or still 
within living memory in a variety of traditional cultures. Drawing 
on more than a decade of research accruing from fieldwork con- 
ducted for the Office's annual Festival of American Folklife, the 
studies are unique in that each consists of a monograph and a film, 
conceived to complement each other. In fiscal year 1984, the docu- 
mentary film At Laskiainen: In Palo Everyone Is a Finn was com- 
pleted. This film grew out of research for a program held at the 
fourteenth annual Festival of American Folklife and documents a 
Finnish-American midwinter festival in Palo, Minnesota. 

In addition to the series, a film about the traditional craft of 
stone carving was completed during this past year. Entitled The 
Stone Carvers, the film had its genesis in a program organized for 
the 1978 and 1979 Festivals of American Folklife and was spon- 
sored by the Washington Area Film and Video League and was 
produced in cooperation with the Office of Folklife Programs. The 
film documents stone carving as practiced by the carvers at the 
Washington Cathedral, some of the last remaining stone carvers 
in America. 

Public Service I 295 

Office of International Activities 

From the earliest years, the Smithsonian Institution has followed 
the spirit of James Smithson, who was quoted by Founding Secre- 
tary Joseph Henry as having said of the man of science, "The world 
is his country — all men, his countrymen." Particularly in the sci- 
ences, but in important ways in the arts and cultural history, the 
Smithsonian Institution has traditionally carried its scholarly inter- 
ests to the whole world and beyond. The Office of International 
Activities (oia) was established almost twenty years ago to assist 
all levels of Smithsonian staff in the pursuit of international inter- 
ests. Oia does so by advising program managers; by maintaining 
liaison with the United States and foreign governments, with pri- 
vate institutions around the world, and with international organiza- 
tions; and by providing certain passport, visa, communications, 
information, and reception services. 

With the resignation of Assistant Secretary Perrot on January 
25, 1984, OIA was transferred from Museum Programs to Public 
Service. This reflected the placement of responsibility for the de- 
velopment of the International Center, as part of the Quadrangle 
project, with Assistant Secretary Rinzler. For 1984, much of the 
energies of oia were turned to the assistance of those members of 
the Smithsonian senior staff who were most concerned with the 
garnering of international support for the International Center, 
especially Secretary Ripley, Assistant Secretaries Perrot and Rinz- 
ler, and Membership and Development Director Symington. 

In 1984, oia has been compiling a profile of the Smithsonian's 
international activities. Preliminary data shows the Smithsonian 
active in 120 countries in the past two years, or something over 
two-thirds of the countries carried in our files. On the basis of 
numbers of Smithsonian contacts with these countries, our inter- 
ests have in recent years been (in descending order) highest in 
Great Britain, Panama, West Germany, France, India, Australia, 
Italy, Japan, and Mexico. Subjects of Smithsonian interest have 
been quite diverse, but natural history dominates activities with 
Australia, Mexico, and Panama (site of the Smithsonian's major 
tropical research facility, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute), and astrophysics is the major interest in Italy. Other interests 
include art and cultural history research, exchanges of museum 
objects, and exchanges of scholars. Major activities in Great Britain 

296 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


and West Germany were associated, respectively, with the Edin- 
burgh Festival and the German-American Tricentennial. 

In April 1984, oia organized and coordinated, in collaboration 
with the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Orga- 
nization (uNESco) and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, 
an international conference at the Smithsonian on historic preser- 
vation, "Why Preserve the Past?" The conference featured panel 
participants and speakers from many countries, and included the 
Director-General of unesco. The Proceedings will be published 
jointly by the Smithsonian and unesco through the Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

The office arranged major revisions in the Smithsonian exchange 
program to include certain categories of performing arts and to 
permit Smithsonian sponsorship of foreign exchange visits to other 
museums and similar institutions when Smithsonian interests are 

Oia services to Smithsonian bureaus during 1984 included ob- 
taining 95 official passports, and 923 foreign visas (this latter figure 
including considerable travel sponsored by the Smithsonian Foreign 
Currency Program). Oia handled 87 foreign students and exchange 
visitors during the year. Also during the year, oia performed an 
additional estimated 400 liaison services that included the facilita- 
tion of Smithsonian overseas research and exchanges, liaison with 
foreign affairs agencies, immigration problems, and the reception 
of foreign official visitors to the Smithsonian, for an overall total 
of 1,500 services of all types. This is almost double the figure for 

Among the many distinguished visitors received by oia during 
the year were the Dalai Lama and the President of Austria, who 
visited the Smithsonian and participated in Resident Associate 
programs on their respective cultures; and the Indonesian Minister 
of Culture, who signed a cooperation protocol with the Smith- 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

The Smithsonian's eighth international symposium, "The Road 
After 1984: High Technology and Human Freedom," dominated 
the year for the Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars. 

Public Service I 297 

Scheduled for December 1983 in anticipation of the OrwelHan 
Year, the symposium's design touched on warnings of Big Brother, 
totahtarian techniques, mind control, doublespeak, and other of 
the novel's forebodings. Attention, however, centered on the 
acceleration in scientific advancements revolutionizing technology 
and communications. 

Organized in cooperation with Wake Forest University on the 
occasion of its 150th anniversary and with the Center for the 
Humanities, University of Southern California, the meetings probed 
the overall social and political dynamics now at work in the world 
and attempted to identify both the blessings and the dangers in- 
herent in our new "high tech" society. An official activity of the 
World Communications Year, the calendar's activities were made 
possible by the financial support and participation of more than 
twenty-five American and foreign corporations and professional 
associations. Nearly one hundred scholars, government officials, 
and business representatives donned academic dress for a tradi- 
tional procession from the Castle across the Mall to the formal 
opening ceremony in the National Museum of Natural History. 
Against a musical background of the Ditchley Bells ringing from 
the Old Post Office tower, bagpipe peals en marche provided by 
the Washington Scottish Pipe Band, and an interlude played by 
the Century Brass, the Honorable J. William Fulbright, Regent 
Emeritus of the Smithsonian, welcomed symposium contributors, 
sponsors, official guests, and the public audience in Baird Audi- 
torium. Acting Secretary Phillip S. Hughes introduced the sym- 
posium's honorary chairman, T. R. Fyvel, close friend to Orwell 
and author of George Orwell: A Personal Memoir (New York, 
1982) and other distinguished participants. 

Included among the four-day program segments were: "Com- 
puters and Human Learning," "Significance of 1984 as a Universal 
Metaphor," "American Law and the Effects of Technology on 
Privacy," "Loose and Tight Controls: Techniques of Governance," 
"Learning the Responsibilities of Citizenship in an Open Society," 
"Can the Mass Media Control our Thoughts?" and "Can High 
Technology Be Managed for Human Freedom?" Wilton S. Dillon, 
director of Smithsonian symposia and seminars, and Eliot D. 
Chappie, a pioneer in anthropological studies of business, industry, 
and hospitals, and former editor of Human Organizations, journal 
of the Society for Applied Anthropology, were chief architects of 
the project. Lewis Lapham, editor of Harper's, is editor of the 

298 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Clare Boothe Luce raises a point during the Smithsonian's eighth international 
symposium, "The Road After 1984: High Technology and Human Freedom." 
Looking on is T. R. Fyvel, honorary chairman of the symposium organized by 
the Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars. 

volume to be published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 

On December 29, 1983, the office received the first deposit into 
the Barrick W. Groom Endowment Fund established to support its 
interdisciplinary activities. In accepting the $50,000 check on behalf 
of the Institution, Assistant Secretary for Administration John 
Jameson expressed sincere appreciation for Mr. Groom's long- 
standing contributions of time and energy, as well as for his gen- 
erous financial assistance. The Domestic Life of Thomas Jefferson 
(Charlottesville, 1979)— Groom is descended from Jefferson by 
marriage — was presented to him in return, along with a quill pen 
with which to write future checks, as whimsically noted by director 
Wilton Dillon. Mr. Groom, who has been associated with the 
Smithsonian for a number of years, lives in Upperville, Virginia. 

"Smithsonian's Prestige Boosts Durham Festival" headlined the 
May 1, 1984, Durham Morning Herald lead editorial. Cosponsored 
by the Smithsonian and the North Carolina Department of Cultural 
Resources, the British American Festival marked the 400th anni- 
versary of the arrival of the first British expedition to North Amer- 
ica, at what is now Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Celebrating 
the occasion with folklife programs, sports events, concerts, exhibi- 
tions, and a series of symposia held in Durham June 2 through 
June 16, attended by some 75,000 people, the festival also explored 
persisting cultural links between the United States and Great 
Britain. Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars associate 
director Carla Borden represented the Institution at the project's 
planning meetings, identified Smithsonian scholars and others who 
could contribute to the development of the festival, and served as 
liaison between the festival staff and concerned Smithsonian bu- 
reaus. As noted by Secretary Ripley in the official program, the 
commemoration provided an "occasion through which we come to 
a deeper understanding of our evolving traditions and our shared 
concerns for the future." 

The Edinburgh Festival of 1984 included director Dillon's chair- 
ing and speaking at several sessions of an international conference 
on "Art and the Human Environment," at which he drew upon 
earlier Smithsonian symposia related to the theme. Dillon carried 
the Smithsonian mace in a procession from Edinburgh's City 
Chamber of St. Giles's Church at a ceremony opening the Edin- 
burgh Festival, and later met with officials of the University of 
Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow to discuss long-term 
ways and means of encouraging scholarly cooperation between the 

300 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Smithsonian and Scottish universities and research centers. Such 
cooperation would include research on the Scottish Enlightenment 
as it related to the intellectual roots of the United States Constitu- 
tion and Bill of Rights, their 200th anniversary to be marked 
beginning in 1987. Liaison also was established with the University 
of Strathclyde, Glasgow, where important research is under way 
on artificial intelligence. Other areas of cooperation were explored, 
such as the centennial of the birth of James Audubon (whose folios 
were published in Edinburgh) and Scottish participation in future 
seminars on Patrick Geddes, naturalist and town planner (whose 
ideas have much influenced Lewis Mumford's work on urban 

As part of the Festival of India, the office will present on June 
21-25, 1985, an examination of "The Canvas of Culture: Redis- 
covery of the Past as Adaptation for the Future." This symposium 
will reflect concern with both natural and cultural conservation of 
scope corresponding to India's size and complexity, especially in 
relation to the Smithsonian's multifaceted activities in India rang- 
ing from the physical and natural sciences to the arts and humani- 
ties. The passing of time, migration of people, and variations in 
ecosystems affected by social change and developing technology 
have left indelible marks on traditional Indian cultures. Have some 
aspects been forgotten and lost entirely? Or are they latent and 
renewable in a contemporary context? Or are they replaced com- 
pletely? And if so, in what forms? Why is this re-creation process 
important and to what uses are its results put? Modern India's 
significant historical and current experience with such "amnesia," 
reacquisition, and adaptation offers a rich opportunity for analysis 
and speculation about her future civilization and identity. Cochair- 
ing the symposium are S. Dillon Ripley, also chairman of the 
American Committee for the Festival of India, and Pupul Jayakar, 
also chairman of the Indian Advisory Committee for the Festival. 

The office also regularly provides resource services to other 
Smithsonian bureaus and units and to outside specialists in plan- 
ning symposia and seminar programs. Its educational outreach 
helps link the humanities and sciences through interdisciplinary 
activities both in Washington and elsewhere. The Secretary of the 
Institution awarded Carla Borden a Fluid Research grant to study 
the experience of European refugee scholars who came to the 
United States and taught at black colleges in the 1930s and 1940s, 
an unexplored chapter of new dimension in our history. As a pan- 
Institution center, the office is working closely with others on the 

Public Service I 301 

1985 tricentennial of the births of Bach, Handel, and Scarlatti and 
on further cultural exchange of foreign scholars and artists, e.g., 
Eduardo Marturet, prominent Venezuelan composer and orchestral 
conductor. Emphasis is being given to the forthcoming Bicentennial 
of the Constitution and Bill of Rights; the office is designing a 
citizenship education program culminating in 1987 in the Smith- 
sonian's ninth international symposium tentatively titled "Our 
Constitutional Roots." 

The office had the benefit for nearly sixth months of two recent 
college graduates who served as consultants on a range of projects: 
Andrew Langhoff, Tufts University, and Craig Myers, Oberlin 
College, before pursuing graduate work at the University of Vir- 
ginia and Oxford University, respectively. 

Certificates of appreciation signed by the Secretary were pre- 
sented to staff members Dorothy Richardson, Carla M. Borden, 
and Helen F. Leavitt in recognition of service to the Institution. 
Director Wilton S. Dillon was awarded the "Chevalier de I'ordre 
des Arts et des Lettres" by the French government for personal 
contributions to Franco-American relations and for the office's 
work in bringing public attention to the Bicentennial of the Battle 
of Yorktown and the subsequent Peace of Paris formally ending the 
Revolutionary War, 

Office of Telecommunications 

The Office of Telecommunications (ore) extends the Institution's 
reach nationwide and abroad by bringing the museums to people 
through films, radio, and television programs. During fiscal year 
1984, the OTC expanded its role in reaching greater audiences 
through involvement in new broadcast and film ventures, through 
the significant growth of its ongoing programs, and through ser- 
vices to Smithsonian bureaus. 

This year, the ore broke new ground with a special four-part 
radio miniseries, "American Stories." Inspired, in part, by a Smith- 
sonian book. Celebration of American Folklife, this miniseries fea- 
tures true tales and tall tales from across America. Funded by the 
James Smithson Society, "American Stories" was the first radio 
series of this magnitude produced by the office. For nearly a year, 
the producers traveled from Maine to California recording the 

302 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

personal stories and remembrances of people they met along the 
way. From movie cowboy Gene Autry to the family around the 
corner, the stories told represent a cross section of American ex- 
periences and ideas. Production was completed in September 1984 
and the programs are being made available to all radio stations 
throughout the country as well as to schools and libraries. 

Ore's film producers were found working extensively in the field 
in Europe and in the Caribbean. Major shooting for The Work of 
Peace, a half-hour film which tells the story of the signing of the 
1783 Treaty of Paris, occurred on location at historic settings in 
Paris and London. This film is a follow-up on otc's productions 
relating to the Bicentennial of the United States. The Work of 
Peace premiered in Washington, D.C., on June 7, 1984, and will 
be distributed to high schools across the country. Plans are under- 
way for a nationwide telecast on pbs. Filming for The Sea: A Quest 
For Our Future, a one-hour documentary on the complex ecosys- 
tems of tropical coral reefs, took place throughout the Caribbean 
including the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, the British Colony of 
Turks and Caicos, and Belize. The film focuses on research projects 
conducted by the Smithsonian's Marine Systems Laboratory. The 
Sea: A Quest For Our Future was completed in September 1984. It 
is the first hour-long film produced by the oxc for pbs broadcast. 
We are working closely with commercial film distributors in order 
to market these films actively to educational and cultural institu- 

Still advancing in new directions, the oxc received a $23,000 
grant from the James Smithson Society to produce a pilot program 
of a potential television series geared for children aged nine to 
twelve. Going behind the public areas of the museums, the half- 
hour pilot will feature Smithsonian curators, scientists, or histori- 
ans sharing their areas of expertise. Based on a recent report which 
concludes that the electronic media are the "most important me- 
dium of informal learning today," this project has the potential to 
stimulate children and awaken an interest in science, art, and our 

The office's ongoing programs experienced unprecedented growth 
during 1984. "Radio Smithsonian," the nationally broadcast 30- 
minute weekly radio series, added eighteen new subscribing sta- 
tions to its roster, bringing the total to seventy-five radio stations 
throughout the country, including eight in the top ten markets. Its 
companion, "Smithsonian Galaxy," a series of 2*/2-minute radio 
features designed for commercial stations, celebrated its fifth anni- 

Public Service I 303 

versary on the air. This popular series continues to be broadcast 
on 230 stations in forty-eight states, Canada, New Zealand, and 
the Virgin Islands. The newest series is "Here at the Smithsoni- 
an . . .," an award-winning series of 2-minute features for televi- 
sion. After completing its third season, "Here at the Smithsoni- 
an . . ." boasts an impressive roster of seventy subscribing televi- 
sion stations here and abroad. These rapidly growing programs 
offer an effective and practical way of reaching millions of people. 

The office's standard of excellence and its commitment to quality 
broadcasts and films is evident not only from the comments and 
responses of stations, listeners, and viewers, but also from the 
broadcasting and filming industries. "Radio Smithsonian" and 
"Smithsonian Galaxy" each clinched a Gold Screen Award for 
excellence in the electronic media category from the National 
Association of Government Communicators in May 1984. "Here 
at the Smithsonian . . ." received a Gold Award for excellence in 
the television series category from the Houston International Film 
Festival also in May 1984. American Picture Palaces, ore's 22- 
minute film on the "golden age" of movie theaters of the 1920s and 
1930s, continued to receive major film awards during 1984, bring- 
ing the total to fourteen, including a Gold Award from the Inter- 
national Film and TV Festival of New York and a cine Golden 

To strengthen the coordination and effectiveness of film and 
video activities within the Institution, the otc provides regular 
support services to all bureaus. During 1984, the otc created many 
productions for other units, including a film to accompany an 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum's exhibition on Lou Stovall, a 
Smithsonian orientation film for the Visitor Information and Asso- 
ciates' Reception Center, an introductory film for the Museum 
Support Center, and a film to accompany a Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition on the future. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

The past year has been an important one in the growth of the 
Smithsonian Institution Press (sip) as a major publisher of both 
scholarly and popular books and records that reflect on a lasting 
basis the research interests, collections, and activities of the Insti- 
tution. Publishing activity continues to increase in quality and 

304 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Vincent MacDonnell, Nancy Mottershaw, and Gail Grella set up the Smithson- 
ian Institution Press display booth at the Washington Convention Center in 
preparation for the May 1984 American Booksellers' Association convention. 

quantity as the three principal divisions of the Press meld into a 
unified and complementing organization. 

Production during the year reached a total of 300 "jobs" — 192 
of these federally funded — including catalogs, journals, scholarly 
monographs, brochures, museum and exhibition guides, the annual 
report of the Institution, and miscellaneous productions. The bal- 
ance of 108 works were published with nongovernment funds — 
books, records, newsletters, annual reports, and smaller publica- 
tions. The high quality of the Press's publishing effort was evident 
in the sixteen awards for editorial and design excellence received 
during the year from six different organizations (ranging from the 
Blue Pencil Competition of the National Association of Govern- 
ment Communicators to the publications competition of the Avia- 
tion/Space Writers Association) as well as a continuing series of 
highly favorable book reviews in leading literary and scholarly 
magazines and journals. 

Further evidence of the Press's continued growth in publishing 
and marketing important books was demonstrated by sales figures 
for the year. Gross sales totaled $7.5 million compared to less than 
$6 million in fiscal year 1983 and $4 million the previous year. 
The most noteworthy productions were Smithsonian Books' Trea- 
sures of the Smithsonian, which is being reprinted after the entire 
first printing of 70,000 copies sold out, and the Recordings divi- 
sion's album Big Band Jazz: From the Beginnings to the Fifties, 
sales of which have also exceeded 70,000 in its first year. (The 
performance of the Recordings division in the marketing area was 
especially impressive, net sales for the year having exceeded 
$3,500,000.) While scholarly books never reach comparable mar- 
kets, sales of University Press division books totaled over 100,000 
copies during the year, achieving a record gross sales income figure 
in excess of $1 million. 

A major highlight of the Press's year occurred in the production 
area with increasing use of automatic data processing techniques 
and equipment in manuscript preparation. Word processing ter- 
minals have been installed at the Press for editorial use with suit- 
able manuscripts. Each of the Series Publications editors has had 
an opportunity to learn the process of editing on these terminals, 
and the contract typesetter for Series Publications has been refining 
its programming of the manuscripts produced this way. Results 
have been so satisfactory in terms of both time and costs of pro- 
duction that the Press is now strongly encouraging all Institution 
authors to prepare their manuscripts for the Contributions and 

306 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Studies series for this process. In addition to the Press's advances 
in practical use of automatic data processing. Series Pubhcations 
Supervisor, Barbara Spann, and Production Manager, Lawrence 
Long, have coauthored a manual, SI Press Instructions for Word 
Processing to Typesetting, which has been widely distributed both 
within and outside of the Smithsonian Institution, and throughout 
the year they conducted seminars on this procedure for authors, 
publications coordinators, and support staffs at a number of Smith- 
sonian museums. 

The three publishing divisions of the Press were fully integrated 
during the year under centralized direction, business and adminis- 
trative management, production, and marketing. The Press has 
functioned smoothly despite the challenge early in the year of 
having to move principal operations from the Arts and Industries 
Building to new quarters in L'Enfant Plaza while former offices 
undergo major restoration. There are still a few rough spots in the 
areas of warehousing, order fulfillment, and control of the three 
widely separated inventories of popular books (17 titles with an 
inventory of 148,746 copies), scholarly books (332 titles with 
306,248 copies in inventory), and records (50 titles with a stock 
of over 35,000 records and cassettes), but these areas are receiving 
priority attention. An additional challenge to management stems 
from the fact that the new quarters are not large enough to accom- 
modate either the editorial and design staffs of Smithsonian Books 
division or the distribution and order fufillment division. 

Finally, the Press took on a new role commensurate with its 
growing image and reputation when it organized and acted as host, 
representative of all book-publishing elements of the Institution, 
at a Smithsonian Institution booth at the American Booksellers 
Association convention in the Washington Convention Center in 
May. In addition, the Press was selected by the Association of 
American University Presses to act as host and program organizer 
for the annual regional meeting of the aaup held in Washington 
from September 29 through October 2. 

Smithsonian Magazine 

Fiscal year 1984 was a very successful year for Smithsonian maga- 
zine. During the year the magazine exceeded 2,000,000 in circu- 
lation. Advertising was better than in 1983 and along with in- 

Public Service I 307 

creased membership contributed to the greatest surplus in the 
magazine's history. Once again the magazine made a significant 
contribution to the unrestricted funds of the Institution. 

During this growth the magazine passed on to other divisions, 
by the transfer process, members who became Contributing Mem- 
bers, Resident Associates, and Cooper-Hewitt Associates. The sys- 
tem works well: it introduces people to Smithsonian membership 
through the National Associates, then for the course of their 
National Associates membership tells them about other member- 
ship opportunities within the Smithsonian. 

The Smithsonian is an institution of marvelous variety: Smith- 
sonian magazine is a generalist publication which reflects, for the 
layman, that variety. But nearly every person has a special interest 
also, and the Smithsonian can satisfy those special interests as well 
as the general interests of the educated lay person. 

The Resident Associates Program affords Washington area resi- 
dents the chance to participate in programs of the Smithsonian 
itself; the Cooper-Hewitt offers the same opportunities for New 
Yorkers. The Contributing Membership Program, geared to a 
nationwide constituency, enables a person to have a deeper connec- 
tion with the Smithsonian. Whatever decision an individual makes, 
Smithsonian magazine goes to all members and it is through 
Smithsonian magazine that the initial contact is made with the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Among the year's editorial highlights was a two-part series on 
Antarctica with special emphasis on scientific research and re- 
sources. The author, Michael Parfit, spent more than four months 
on the continent, not only visiting McMurdo Sound and the South 
Pole station, but also visiting American and foreign bases on the 
Palmer Peninsula, and traveling the offshore waters on American 
research vessels. Also in 1984, a major effort from the previous 
year — James Trefil's two-part series on the universe — was recog- 
nized with the A.A.A.S.-Westinghouse award for science journal- 

Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 

This was an exceedingly busy and productive year for the Visitor 
Information and Associates' Reception Center (viarc). Newer pro- 
grams made significant progress toward project goals, while a 

308 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

number of enhancements enabled established activities more fully 
to serve the needs of the public. Associate members, and Smith- 
sonian staff, volunteers, and interns. 

A limited amount of additional office space eased crowded work- 
ing conditions for several viarc units while displacement from the 
South Tower Room due to construction projects posed an unantici- 
pated challenge for others. Thanks, to the cooperation and effi- 
ciency of the Institution's Communications and Transportation 
Services Division, the relocation of the Seven-Day Information 
Units' Telephone Information Program to temporary accommoda- 
tions in the west range of the Castle was accomplished without 
missing a call. This program gained twelve new telephone volun- 
teers and a weekend program assistant to aid in the task of re- 
sponding to some 320,000 phone inquiries. Telephone traffic esca- 
lated to an all-time high during The Precious Legacy exhibition 
when a record 1,300 calls were received on December 26. As in 
the past, the Washington Craft Show, the Festival of American 
Folklife, and nasm special events also generated considerable tele- 
phone inquiries. 

The Museum Information Desk Program, serving fourteen desks 
in eight museums, added fifty-seven new volunteers to the Infor- 
mation Specialist corps; extended desk services to the National 
Portrait Gallery for the duration of the exhibition Masterpieces 
from Versailles: Three Centuries of Portraiture; aided in the de- 
sign and implementation of a crowd control system at the National 
Museum of Natural History for The Precious Legacy exhibition; 
staffed the National Air and Space information desk for fourteen 
hours during a day-long symposium and the "Lunar Landing 
Party" which followed it. Information Specialists were also called 
upon to greet and direct guests at the installation ceremony of the 
Institution's Secretary Robert McCormick Adams. 

Achievements of viarc's Information Outreach Program, estab- 
lished in fiscal year 1983 to increase the Institution's capability to 
inform and orient prospective visitors and to promote Associate 
membership, were perhaps the most broadly based. Participation 
in local, national, and international tour and travel industry 
marketplaces, including World Travel Market, provided an oppor- 
tunity to disseminate trip planning information and to identify 
the Institution as a complex of museums rather than a single 
museum on the Mall, for some twenty thousand journalists, travel 
writers, and tour trade representatives. The booklet Planning a 
Smithsonian Visit: A Guide for Croups was produced specifically 

Public Service I 309 

Summer visitors get a head start on planning their day at the Smithsonian by 
attending a 9:30 a.m. slide/lecture orientation presented by the Visitor Informa- 
tion and Associates' Reception Center. Some 6,000 visitors were able to attend 
the early morning sessions after temporary space was assigned in the Great Hall 
of the Castle for such presentations. 

to meet the needs of group travel planners. With the permission of 
Smithsonian Books, the colorful graphics on the dust jacket for 
The Smithsonian Experience were incorporated into the design of 
a collapsible display unit and presentation folder used at travel 
industry functions. An orientation videocassette was produced in 
cooperation with the Office of Telecommunications for use at 
tourist sites, including four Mall museums, and travel market- 
places. Other cooperative ventures included participation in the 
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education's Regional Events 
programs to promote previsit trip planning and the use of Smith- 
sonian magazine as a classroom resource, and, with Smithsonian 
magazine, the design of a tote bag embellished with a montage of 
magazine covers, for use as a membership marketing tool. A cam- 
paign to promote the sale of National Associate memberships 
throughout the Institution resulted in a 600 percent increase in 
these sales, primarily in the Museum Shops. 

Another important accomplishment under the aegis of the Infor- 
mation Outreach Program was completion of a design study by 
the George Washington University Department of Urban and 
Regional Planning. Titled The Smithsonian: Enhancing the Visi- 
tor's Experience, the study made recommendations for an exterior 
graphic information system to assist visitors in locating the Smith- 
sonian, understanding its scope, and making informed use of their 
time in the museums. 

A tremendous boost was given Group Information Services, 
another component of the Information Outreach Unit, with the 
temporary assignment of much needed public orientation space 
in the Great Hall of the Smithsonian Institution Building. For the 
first time the Castle was opened at 9:15 a.m. to admit some six 
thousand visitors to the early morning presentations. Regular 
access to this space netted an overall 75 percent increase in visitor 
attendance at the daily 30-minute slide/lecture overviews of the 
Institution. A 20-minute variation of this presentation for young 
visitors was inaugurated in the fall. The Castle Docent Program 
conducted 112 behind-the-scenes tours for National Associates 
participating in the "Washington Anytime Weekend," and addi- 
tional tours for participants of other special programs. The Mobile 
Information Program's units were redesigned to make them easier 
to maneuver on the walkways outside Mall museums. Operating 
during the peak visitation period between Memorial Day and 
Labor Day, their assistance to visitors complemented viarc Infor- 
mation Desk services within the museums. 

Public Service I 311 

The Staff/Volunteer/Intern Service Unit (svis), another princi- 
pal viARC component, undertook a major new responsibihty with 
the initiation of the Intern Information/Registration Program. In 
its first year of operation, the Program compiled a central registry 
of 379 interns, 26 of whom began their internships prior to the 
beginning of the fiscal year. An analysis of year-end figures 
showed that 310 interns were United States citizens while 43 were 
foreign-born; 241 were females and 112 were males; the largest 
contingent of interns, 55 percent, was in residence from June to 
August. In addition, the Program produced new printed materials, 
including a Handbook for Smithsonian Interns and Housing Infor- 
mation for Interns and Fellows. 

One of svis's established programs, the Independent Volunteer 
Placement Service (ivps), registered an all-time high of 964 behind- 
the-scenes volunteers, a 14 percent increase over fiscal year 1983, 
and responded to 184 staff requests for qualified volunteers to 
assist in curatorial and technical projects. In answer to an increas- 
ing demand for foreign language proficiency, a Translation Ser- 
vices group was formed. During the annual reception honoring 
behind-the-scenes volunteers, twenty-four individuals were recog- 
nized for ten or more years of continuous service. 

The annual Institution-wide survey of volunteer involvement, 
also a svis responsibility, showed that 5,648 individuals contrib- 
uted 449,933 hours. 

An additional svis function, the Special Magazine Files — the cen- 
tral fulfillment center for reduced-rate staff and volunteer National 
Associate memberships — included the processing of 1,496 appli- 
cations, and conversion of the Courtesy Mailing List, consisting 
of 885 records, to an automated system. 

The Public Inquiry Mail Service (pims), vi arc's central research, 
response, and referral point for the Institution's unsolicited mail, 
handled more than 42,000 letters, an increase of 13.5 percent over 
last year. In cooperation with other bureaus and offices, pims pro- 
duced 172 new and updated fact sheets, bibliographies, and pre- 
printed pieces to aid in responding to mail inquiries. Pims was 
designated as the clearinghouse for the mail resulting from the 
"Smithsonian World" television series and prepared, in coopera- 
tion with the series research staff, nineteen bibliographies for these 
mail inquiries alone. This viarc unit again conducted an Institu- 
tion-wide mail survey and continued to update regularly and pro- 
duce a master Institution-wide reference list of sales merchandise. 

ViARc's Information Resources Division continued to compile 

312 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

the variety of reference and information aids used by museum and 
telephone Information Specialists in answering questions about 
the Smithsonian. In addition. Guide to the Nation's Capital and 
the Smithsonian Institution was updated and reprinted in coopera- 
tion with Smithsonian magazine. Two new maps were created: 
one, in cooperation with the Office of Public Affairs, shows the 
location of Smithsonian museums in Washington, and the other, 
a regional map, indicates major highway arteries into the capital. 
The addition of a Metrorail subway map in color was among the 
refinements made in a new edition of Planning Your Smithsonian 
Visit, one of the numerous brochures and flyers produced by the 
division to support viarc programs. 

No summary of the year would be complete without mention 
of the involvement of viarc in the 1984 annual meeting of the 
American Association of Museums in Washington, D.C. The des- 
ignation of viARc's director as Volunteer/Hospitality Chairman 
saw the enlistment of several viarc and other Smithsonian staff 
members to work with museums and cultural institutions city- 
wide to coordinate the recruitment, training, and scheduling of 
some six hundred volunteers for assistance at special events and 
regular sessions of the four-day gathering. 

Public Service I 313 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 

The administrative, technical, and other central support services 
work behind the scenes to help assure the effectiveness and effi- 
ciency of the Institution's research, collections management, and 
public programs. These organization units include accounting and 
financial services, audits, congressional liaison, contracts, equal 
opportunity, facilities services, grants and risk management, infor- 
mation resource management, general counsel, management anal- 
ysis, personnel administration, printing and photographic services, 
programming and budget, special events, supply services, and 
travel services. The costs of these central services are controlled 
tightly and consequently amount in total to only about 8 percent 
of the Institution's total operating expenditures exclusive of the 
expenses of maintenance, operation, and protection of facilities. 

As described in greater detail in the following sections, progress 
in administrative support was made in a number of areas. Com- 
puter and word processing technology were increasingly extended 
to bibliographic, collections management, financial management, 
and office automation applications. Important progress was made 
on construction projects, energy conservation, communications 
management, security, and employee health services. Affirmative 
action efforts showed results. Internal controls were assessed and 
photographic services programs were strengthened. 

The International Exchange Service continued to serve as a 
transshipment point for books and journals being sent by United 
States educational and cultural organizations to foreign institu- 
tions and for similar materials coming to institutions in this coun- 
try from abroad. 


Administrative and Support Activities 


Planning and budgeting activities continued to receive much atten- 
tion during the year in a coordinated effort to identify, present, 
and meet the Institution's goals and objectives. The Five-Year 
Prospectus, FY 1985-1989, was approved by the Board of Regents 
at its January 23, 1984, meeting. This planning document pre- 
sented future year building requirements and described directions 
in research, education, and other public service activities as well as 
requirements to improve information handling, security, and main- 
tenance of collections and facilities. Preparation of the plan in- 
volved staff in all areas of the Institution. Subsequent to Regents' 
approval, work started on the next cycle of preparation resulting 
in a draft prospectus for fiscal years 1986-1990 submitted for 
Regents' review at the September 17, 1984, meeting. The Office 
of Programming and Budget (opb) concentrated on expanding the 
application of automated systems to the budget process, both in 
budget analysis and monitoring and in budget presentation. In 
addition, the opb improved its capability to transmit federal budget 
schedule data directly into the Office of Management and Budget's 
computer system. The fourth Budget Formulation Workshop, held 
in December 1983, attended by over fifty Smithsonian staff at 
the middle management level, addressed the budget formulation 
process from the submission of bureau requests through the dy- 
namics of the congressional hearing. Other workshops sponsored 
by the office provided bureaus with a better understanding of trust 
fund budget procedures and federal budget execution. Work con- 
tinued on the development and preparation of a Smithsonian 
budget procedures handbook. 

The Office of Information Resource Management (oirm) began 
to implement elements of its forward plan aimed at improving 
access to information systems, services, and sources. The existing 
computer communications network was extended, a new broad- 
band network capable of carrying data, images, and voice was 
introduced, and plans were made for the extension of these net- 
works through an Institution-wide communications pathway over 
the next five years. A new mainframe computer was selected on 
the basis of requirements for user access to Institution data bases. 
An information center was established to provide support and 
training to staff throughout the Institution who were making 

316 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

direct use of microcomputer-based systems and lir\kages to the 
mainframe to support program objectives. Institutional licenses 
were negotiated to some widely utilized microcomputer software 
packages and on-line tutorial and video courses were acquired to 
train staff in the use of this and other software. 

OiRM initiated a program to support integration of specialized 
systems to meet the particular requirements of the Institution's 
research and collections inventory management. A workstation to 
satisfy a wide range of scientific automation requirements, includ- 
ing automated acquisition and analysis of data, was introduced. 
Funds were provided to assist the National Air and Space Museum 
in the development of an optical digital videodisc system for arch- 
ival recording and retrieval of texts and images. Technical assis- 
tance was provided to test and implement an automated security 

The first major Institution-wide Bibliographic Information Sys- 
tem was installed to support access to and control over information 
in libraries, archives, and research files throughout the Institution. 
During the first several months of its operation, the system held 
over 300,000 records with on-line access from over one hundred 
terminals. Work continued on definition of a Collections Informa- 
tion System to provide access to information about the Institution's 
object collections and the exhibitions, tours, courses, and public 
programs which interpret them. Some of the software integral to 
the Collections Information System was acquired, including an 
institutional data dictionary/directory package. The full system, 
which will become operational in 1985, ultimately will provide 
potential access to over 100 million artifacts and specimens in the 
Institution and make possible staff and public exploration of the 
vast holdings of the Smithsonian. 

OiRM provided guidance to offices throughout the Institution in 
the selection and acquisition of automated equipment. It set direc- 
tions for office automation and microcomputer systems' integration 
predicated on integration with the new mainframe hardware. It 
established a plan and a schedule for transition to the new main- 
frame which will result in converting and upgrading all in-house 
developed software over the next two years. 

In a statement of its mission, oirm placed an equal emphasis on 
its policy development, planning, data administration, and informa- 
tion services roles alongside its traditional systems development 
and computer operations function. A reorganization of the office 
was initiated to achieve the stated balance. 

Administration / 317 

Highlights for the Office of FaciHties Services and its com- 
ponents included planning and development of a major food fa- 
cility at the National Air and Space Museum (where construction 
is projected to start in early fiscal year 1985), and completing of 
the exterior foundation wall, excavation, and mat foundation on 
the Smithsonian Quadrangle project. Construction of the Quad- 
rangle is expected to be completed in early 1986. Other activity 
during the year, under the direction of the Office of Design and 
Construction, included continuation of major exterior restoration 
of the Arts and Industries Building and of the Renwick Gallery 
facade. Work also continued on major fire protection projects in 
the Museums of American History and Natural History. In addi- 
tion, work started on master facilities plans for the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute and the Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center. Major energy improvements were also made in 
the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems at the Mu- 
seum of American History. Also at the Museum of American His- 
tory, other major construction activity during the year included 
the completion and opening of the ice cream parlor and the mu- 
seum shop / bookstore. 

Major activity in the Office of Plant Services included a reorga- 
nization of the Crafts Service Division to strengthen internal 
management controls, and initiation of a program that combined 
physical plant inspections with gathering Smithsonian real property 
data for over three hundred and fifty buildings and structures. 
Energy conservation efforts this year focused on greater controls 
over the use of lighting throughout the buildings. Efforts in reduc- 
ing long-distance telephone calls continued to be successful, as 
evidenced by usage reductions of about 16 percent during the year. 
Further savings in communications expenses will be realized in 
1985 and beyond through the purchase of telephone equipment. 
The office has also developed a pilot vehicle-replacement program 
that when fully implemented will provide for planned, phased 
replacement of over three hundred Smithsonian vehicles. 

Significant progress was made in the Office of Protection Services 
during the past year. As part of the comprehensive occupational 
health services program for the staff, employee assistance counsel- 
ing was expanded to a full-time basis. Health Services Division 
has assumed full responsibility for health programs at the National 
Zoo, expanding the number of services available to Zoo employees. 
To allow nurses to concentrate on occupational health programs, 
emergency medical technicians have been appointed to provide 

318 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

first aid services. Employee medical records are now being auto- 
mated along with safety and industrial hygiene records. 

The Safety Division continued its phased program to control or 
abate asbestos throughout the Institution's facilities and learned 
through an independent study that its program was one of the best 
of its type in the country. Safety committees have been established 
wherever required to keep employees involved in the effort to 
maintain safe and healthy work places. A major program to train 
supervisors and managers in occupational safety and health re- 
quirements has begun, and presentation of the first classes is 
expected in mid-1985. Development of fire protection master plans 
concentrated on the installation of automatic sprinkler protection 
and smoke detection in nine facilities. 

The security system designed for the Institution was placed into 
operation at the Museum Support Center and at the central control 
station in the Smithsonian Institution Building. The system will 
next be extended to the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
with work expected to begin in June 1985. More than sixty projects 
to upgrade security devices throughout the Institution were begun, 
and twenty-six projects were programmed for fiscal year 1984 in 
an upgrade program that is projected for completion in fiscal year 
1987. As always, the Smithsonian's guard force continued its effec- 
tive service to the visiting public and to the security of buildings 
and collections. 

Other administrative services continued their strong support for 
the Institution's programs. The Office of Personnel Administration 
took a number of steps to strengthen its recruitment efforts espe- 
cially for minority persons. Information on employment opportuni- 
ties was presented at twelve job fairs and the office completed work 
on a number of pamphlets describing particular categories of 
employment. Efforts at community contacts and networking with 
the historically Black colleges and universities continued. In order 
to achieve improved control and reduce costs to the Institution, the 
personnel office contracted for the management of unemployment 
insurance claims. The labor relations program was active with the 
renewal of a contract with the National Maritime Union and the 
initiation of negotiations with the United Food and Commercial 
Workers Union. 

The Office of Equal Opportunity emphasized special recruitment 
of minority professional candidates with some improvements in the 
representation of minority persons and women in professional jobs 
and in upper grades. Program and facility accessibility for disabled 

Administration I 319 

persons continues to improve. Accessibility self-assessment surveys 
were completed by the bureaus and evaluated by the Equal Oppor- 
tunity staff. Preliminary analysis of the data showed many com- 
pleted and ongoing program and facility accessibility projects. 
Nevertheless, data was further developed into four major areas of 
concern: publicity and publications; exhibitions, programs, and 
activities; Smithsonian staff education; and exhibit labels. Next, 
task forces composed of bureau personnel were established to make 
recommendations in their respective area of concern. Outreach 
efforts to minority and women's organizations and communities 
continued with equal opportunity exhibition displays at conferences 
held by the National Council of Negro Women, National Associ- 
ation for Equal Opportunities in Higher Education, Federally Em- 
ployed Women, LaRaza, and the President's Committee on Employ- 
ment of the Handicapped. In addition equal employment messages 
were placed with four major minority and women's publications 
that reach an audience of approximately one million people. 

During 1984 key projects in the Office of Printing and Photo- 
graphic Services centered on archival storage of photographs, 
expanding and improving services, sponsoring photographic edu- 
cation programs and exhibitions, and supporting the continuing 
collections management priorities of the Institution. 

The office's cold storage room for processed film was improved 
with backup systems for both cooling and humidity control. The 
office's 35mm color slides from 1977 to 1984 were placed on video- 
disc for reference use. This disc also contains test subjects from 
black and white files and a variety of files from other Smithsonian 
bureaus. During the year a new branch office was opened at the 
Museum Support Center and a new office was established and 
staffed at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The office 
cosponsored for the sixth year a free photographic seminar for 
students with the White House News Photographers Association. 
The office also conducted a training program for museum profes- 
sionals through the Office of Museum Programs. In addition, for 
the first time the office proposed the development of a photo 
exhibition based on its photodocumentary work. The exhibition, 
covering twenty years of activities on the Mall, opened in August. 
The office also continued the management of the photodocumentary 
project in Numismatics, and also continued support of inventory 
projects in several bureaus. 

The Management Analysis Office (mao) continued its program of 
regularly scheduled and special reviews and analyses of manage- 

320 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

ment and organization problems. It also continued its program, 
begun in 1979, of bringing to the Smithsonian for the summer 
small numbers of carefully selected students in graduate schools of 
business administration to work on management projects of inter- 
est to Smithsonian offices for which an education in business 
administration is particularly appropriate. In 1984 three such 
graduate students worked in the Office of Audits, the Office of 
Fellowships and Grants, and the Museum Shops bringing the total 
since 1979 to twenty-four. The Office of Audits played a key role 
in the planning, development, training, and implementation of an 
internal control assessment program spanning all organization 
units and their functions and involving managers at all levels. 
Oversight of the program was made the responsibility of the mao 
and results of the assessment and a plan for necessary strengthen- 
ing actions was prepared for the management of the Institution and 
for Board of Regents' review. 

The Office of Supply Services took prompt action to implement 
the new Federal Acquisition Regulations which govern federal 
fund purchases and contracts. This office also exceeded its high 
goals for procurement and contracts with small and minority busi- 
ness. The Travel Services Office provided an unusual level of 
support for programs including arrangements for Folklife Festival 
participants from remote areas of Alaska and for the Institution's 
scholarly, exhibition, and performance programs at the Edinburgh 

Financial Management Activities 

On November 23, 1983, Mr. Christian C. Hohenlohe resigned as 
Treasurer, having directed the Institution's investment, accounting, 
and business management activities with thoughtfulness and out- 
standing achievement for over five years. Mr. John F. Jameson, 
the Assistant Secretary for Administration, served additionally as 
Acting Treasurer until the Board of Regents' appointment of 
Ms. Ann R. Leven. Formerly an officer of the Chase Manhattan 
Bank and Treasurer of the Metropolitan Museum, Ms. Leven joined 
the Smithsonian staff on August 1, 1984. 

The expanded use of computers and related equipment during 
the past year has enabled major progress in the management and 
analysis of the Institution's financial resources. Through develop- 

Administration I 321 

ment of an innovative software and communications systems 
design, the Accounting Office can update financial files on a daily 
basis and disseminate information electronically to selected other 
offices. Introduction of microcomputers into the Office of Account- 
ing and Financial Services, along with an intensive training pro- 
gram on their use and capabilities, has resulted in improved 
financial reports and the elimination of much manual preparation. 
Cash forecasts are now more comprehensive and timely owing to 
the use of the microcomputer in tracking and analyzing cash flow 
and investments; electronic monitoring of banking transactions has 
contributed to an increase in current fund investments income. 

A new training course was developed on accounting policies and 
procedures for secretarial, administrative, and clerical personnel. 
Courses were also given jointly with the Travel Services Office on 
travel regulations and requirements. These courses were designed 
to enhance staff understanding of the financial management system 
and to improve the processing of related financial documents. 

Staff training was also a focus of the Office of Grants and Risk 
Management, which continued its efforts to improve grant adminis- 
tration with the development of a new seminar format and creation 
of a grants administration handbook. Efforts to increase awareness 
of risk management concepts by Smithsonian staff, as well as the 
museum community, continued as a priority. Reviews of con- 
tractual requirements such as loan agreements and vehicle leasing 
resulted in eliminating or reducing risks and administrative burden. 

Following a comprehensive study and management review, the 
Smithsonian-managed food service operations in the National Air 
and Space Museum building and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden were restored to concession management, effective in 
October 1983. During the past year, a proposal to improve sig- 
nificantly the quality of all Smithsonian food services was devel- 
oped. Approval of plans to construct a new restaurant at the east 
end of the National Air and Space Museum was requested and 
received from the National Capital Planning Commission and the 
Commission of Fine Arts. Work was also initiated on plans to 
renovate and upgrade other Smithsonian restaurant facilities. 

Sales in the museum shops and through the mail order catalogues 
were exceptionally strong this past year, reflecting wide acceptance 
of Smithsonian merchandise. A greatly expanded and modernized 
museum shop was opened in the Museum of American History. 
The shop in the Museum of American Art was renovated as were 
the theater and spacearium shops in the Air and Space Museum. 

322 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

New electronic cash registers were installed in all shops, greatly 
facilitating inventory and cash control. Major improvements were 
made in the mail order fulfillment facilities to expedite the delivery 
of merchandise. Increased emphasis on extending the Institution's 
outreach through the licensing of reproductions and other products 
closely related to the Smithsonian's collections led to new agree- 
ments with several manufacturers. Revised parking guidelines and 
administration resulted in improved parking availability for both 
the public and employees. 

Smithsonian Institution Women's Council 


The newly elected Council began its two-year term in October, 
1983, and continued efforts to identify and study the concerns of 
employees, serve as an advisory group on women's issues to the 
Secretary and administration, and work for the general advance- 
ment and improvement of conditions for employees. 

The Council's standing committees reflect its major areas of 
concern: Day Care (Katherine Sprague, chairperson). Newsletter 
(Susan Jewett), Information Processing (Victoria Hershiser), Ser- 
vices and Benefits (Susanne Owens Koenig), and Training (Mar- 
gery Gordon). The Training Committee sponsored its annual 
two-part tax preparation seminar for employees. The Day Care 
Committee focused its efforts on the location of an appropriate 
space for a center. The 4 Star newsletter adopted a quarterly for- 
mat. Its issues on professionalism among museum support staff 
and the M*A*S*H exhibition received the most positive and 
supportive responses. 

The Council reviewed and organized the Council's papers and 
materials presently housed in the Smithsonian Institution Archives. 
A senior advisory group of eight women in upper management 
was formed to advise the Council on special issues. In a departure 
from its annual Women's Week in September, the Council is recog- 
nizing March as Women's History Month at the Smithsonian. It 
will publicize exhibitions and activities presented throughout the 
Institution in conjunction with this theme. The Council is also 
working on plans for a two-day conference about women in 
museums to be cosponsored with the Office of Museum Programs. 

Administration I 323 

Mary Ripley, Barbara Bush, and Jane Hart, chairman 1983-84 of the Women's 
Committee of the Smithsonian Associates, are shown at a coffee at the Vice- 
President's Residence honoring Mrs. Ripley as founder of the committee. 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 



Office of Development 

The capital campaign to raise $37.5 million for the Quadrangle's 
construction was successfully completed June 30, 1984. Major 
credit for this achievement can be ascribed to the National Board 
of the Smithsonian Associates and, in particular, to William S. 
Anderson, former board chairman, who served as chairman of the 
Quadrangle Campaign. Directly, through members' individual 
contributions, and indirectly, through members' corporate relation- 
ships, nearly $4 million in contributions is to be attributed to the 
National Board of the Smithsonian Associates with the able leader- 
ship of Mr. Anderson and Board Chairman W. L. Hadley Griffin. 
Mr. Anderson, in addition to his capable management of the 
Quadrangle Campaign, generously made available the NCR Cor- 
poration's Tokyo office as headquarters for the Friends of the 
Smithsonian Institution in Japan Committee, which generated 
sizable contributions to the Quadrangle from corporations and 
foundations in Japan. 

With the construction of the Quadrangle now assured, and in 
recognition of ever more competition in the philanthropic field, the 
Development Office staff is being increased in size and restructured 
so as to provide closer and more effective cooperation with the 
bureaus and offices of the Institution. Individual development offi- 
cers have been assigned to specific Smithsonian units, to work 
more intimately with their respective directors, curators, and 
scientists. A third research associate has joined the staff, and 
Ilene Rubin has been appointed development officer at the Archives 


of American Art in New York City. Yet another development 
officer is soon to be added to the Washington staff, together with 
a fourth secretary for the office. 

A new development brochure is about to be published, and 
this, together with the outstanding brochure on Smithsonian 
science activities produced by the Office of Public Affairs, will be 
especially useful in generating private support for the Institution. 

With the enlargement of the development staff, there is now an 
opportunity to place new emphasis on such deferred giving pro- 
grams as the Smithsonian Pooled Income Fund, Unitrusts and 
Annuity Trusts. Additional efforts will be made to encourage 
friends of the Smithsonian to consider bequests and gifts of life 
insurance to the Institution. 

The new museums of the Quadrangle can be expected to require 
substantial funds to support their exhibition programs in the 
years ahead, adding to like needs of the Evans Gallery of the 
National Museum of Natural History, temporary exhibitions of 
the other Smithsonian museums, and sites's traveling exhibitions. 
Corporate sponsorship of such programs is essential. At the same 
time, the demands upon corporate contributions committees have 
intensified, especially from human services organizations in their 
own headquarters and plant communities. Recognizing these new 
developments, the Smithsonian has created a Major Exhibitions 
Fund, from which financial support can be drawn, in whole or in 
part, for specially selected exhibitions. This will be of the greatest 
assistance to the Development Office as it seeks corporate spon- 
sorships, making possible appeals for corporate contributions to 
match the Smithsonian's own funds and permitting such sponsor- 
ships at lower corporate expenditures. 

As international educational and research activities of the Smith- 
sonian take form and substance, it is expected that they will be 
attractive to leading national foundations. New focus on world 
peace by the Council on Foundations suggests that this is a strong 
possibility, and appropriate measures are planned for 1985 and 
beyond, under the leadership of Secretary Adams. 

National Board of the Smithsonian Associates 

This board remained under the able leadership of W. L. Hadley 
Griffin, in his final year as chairman. Board members' interest in 

326 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

the Institution and most especially in the Associate programs con- 
tinues strong. 

The close association between the National Associate Board and 
the Board of Regents continues with Chairman Griffin having 
attended the Regents' meetings. 

New members elected to the board in 1984 were Frank Cary, 
Charles Dickey, Jr., Mrs. Robert Donner, Jr., Howard Love, Alex- 
ander McLanahan, and Charles Murphy, Jr. 

The board met in St. Louis in spring 1984 and, as usual, in 
Washington in the autumn of 1984. The board at its autumn 
meeting elected Seymour Knox to assume the chairmanship as of 
January 1, 1985. The Executive Committee of the board, subsequent 
to the meeting, proposed they meet with Secretary Adams in 
October to explore areas in which the board could help the 

Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates 

The Women's Committee supports a major objective of the Smith- 
sonian Associates by assisting the Smithsonian Institution through 
volunteer service. The committee was able to award $70,414 to 
twenty-five different programs throughout the Institution as a 
result of the extremely successful 1984 Washington Craft Show 
and the 1984 Christmas Dance. From these two fundraisers, the 
committee provided funds in amounts varying from $1500 to 
$6000 for the following: five anthropological films of Ivory Coast 
tribes for the National Museum of African Art's education pro- 
gram; seed money for satellite photographs of the Niger Delta for 
the National Air and Space Museum; 2,000 slides of works by 
American artists for the National Museum of American Art; 
"America on Film: A Free Film Theater" which is coordinated with 
the National Museum of American History; the reprinting of 
Space for Women for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; 
the producing of video documentaries on the Maser atomic clock 
from the outtakes of the television program. Here at the Smith- 
sonian . . .; the complete microfiche archive of Christie's Auction 
Catalogues for the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts 
and Design; kits of Museums as Storytellers for the Office of 

Membership and Development I 327 

Elementary and Secondary Education; the producing of a slide 
show, brochures, and signs for the Discovery Trail at the Smith- 
sonian Environmental Research Center; the developing of a 
prototype educational packet on India entitled: Aditi — A Celebra- 
tion of Life; the cataloguing of scientific manuscripts and entering 
of data into computerized library files for the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Libraries; exhibition and slide show on conservation of con- 
temporary works of art at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden; the developing of an exhibition on the Golden Age of 
Radio at the National Portrait Gallery; the conserving of thirty-six 
paintings of outstanding Black Americans for the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service exhibition. Portraits in 
Black; the producing of a deforestation poster in Panama for the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; a set of color transparen- 
cies for the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center's 
introduction to the Smithsonian Institution; and the assisting of 
the Wilson Center to obtain a collection of four hundred Russian 
books written in English from 1669 to 1917. 

Additionally, funding was provided to the National Museum of 
Natural History for entering taxonomic information on recent and 
fossilized remains in its computer system, completion of a research 
project on riffle beetles, purchase of the Whirligig beetle collection 
and Australian and New Zealand beetle collection, and underwater 
artwork and illustrations for ecological study of coral reef and 
mangrove islands in Belize. The National Zoological Park received 
funds to purchase a spotting scope to be used for the study of 
Californian sea otters, equipment to establish a bird hand-rearing 
lab, development of a bibliography of zoological films, and stipends 
for three research students to study reproduction in zoological 

The second annual Washington Craft Show was held April 27- 
29, 1984, in the Departmental Auditorium. One hundred craft 
artists were chosen by a distinguished jury composed of Michael 
Monroe, curator at the Renwick Gallery; Ed Rossbach, Professor 
Emeritus of Design at the University of California at Berkeley; 
Gerry Williams, potter and editor of Studio Potter; James Carpen- 
ter, glass artist from New York City; and Jackie Chalkley, ceramist 
and gallery owner. Nearly 10,000 people attended the exhibition 
and sale during the three-day event which is now recognized as one 
of the finest craft shows in the nation. In addition to a fundraising 
preview party, a Young Collectors Evening and a Designers Lunch- 

328 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

eon were held. "Crafts Today- — The 1984 National Forun\ on 20th 
Century American Glass/' held concurrently, was sponsored by 
the National Associates Travel Program, the Resident Associate 
Program, and the James Renwick Collectors Alliance. The forum 
offered three days of lectures, tours of galleries, studios, and 
private collections in addition to the Craft Show preview party. 

In the spring, members of the Women's Committee extended 
the hospitahty of their homes with dinner parties for a special 
Contributing Members weekend in Washington. 

In December, Mrs. George Bush held a coffee at the Vice-Presi- 
dent's residence for the Women's Committee membership to honor 
Mrs. Ripley as founder of the Women's Committee by giving 
recognition to her active interest and gracious support of the 
committee and conferring on her the title of honorary life member. 

The year ended with a tribute from Mr. and Mrs. Ripley to the 
Women's Committee, at the Fourth of July celebration held on the 
rooftop of the National Museum of American History, acknowledg- 
ing the committee's hard work and successful support of the Insti- 
tution over the past eighteen years. 

James Smithson Society 

Since the inception of the James Smithson Society in 1977 as the 
highest level of the Contributing Membership of the Smithsonian 
Associates, the society has granted more than $1,300,000 in sup- 
port of Smithsonian projects and acquisitions. This year, through 
the contributions of Annual Members, the society made the follow- 
ing awards: To the Archives of American Art in support of the 
republication of From Reliable Sources; to the National Museum 
of African Art for the acquisition of a "Mwadi" headdress by the 
Tetela Peoples of Zaire; to the National Zoological Park, in coop- 
eration with the National Museum of Natural History, toward the 
publication of a book on discovery rooms and learning labs; to the 
National Anthropological Archives for an adjunct symposium on 
the Wilkes Expedition; to the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute for the project Management of the Green Iguana: Alterna- 
tives to Destruction; to the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service for the proposed educational publication. Move 

Membership and Development I 329 

It!; to the Office of Telecommunications to create a pilot program 
for a Smithsonian television series targeted at children; and finally, 
to the Office of Horticulture to purchase a book collection on 
American Landscape Architecture. The Smithsonian Institution 
gratefully acknowledges the generous support of the James Smith- 
son Society. 

The annual weekend for members of the society, held every 
year in conjunction with the autumn meeting of the National Board 
of the Smithsonian Associates, was scheduled September 15-16 
this year in order to honor Secretary Ripley prior to his retirement 
on September 17. At a formal dinner held at the National Museum 
of American History, National Board Chairman W. L. Hadley 
Griffin announced the 1984 Smithson Society grants. The next 
morning, a behind-the-scenes tour of the National Air and Space 
Museum offered members a private showing of unedited imax film 
footage photographed by astronauts for the upcoming film The 
Dream Is Alive; a preview of the exhibition The Art of Robert 
McCall; and demonstrations of innovative computer technology 
designed by nasm staff. Following the tour. Ambassador and 
Lady Wright of Great Britain invited Smithson Society and Na- 
tional Board members to a luncheon in their honor at the British 
Embassy residence. 

Smithsonian National Associate Program 

The Smithsonian National Associate Program (snap) was estab- 
lished in 1970 in conjunction with Smithsonian magazine. The 
program provides educational and cultural activities for Smith- 
sonian Associates across the nation and around the world through 
seminars, workshops, films, and lectures in the arts, sciences, and 
humanities — both live and through cable television. Domestic and 
international study tours are arranged with premier educators on 
all continents. In addition, the program's fundraising activities 
have resulted in a significant source of revenue for the Institution's 
unrestricted funds. 


The Contributing Membership of the National Associate Program 
provides unrestricted funds for Smithsonian research and educa- 

330 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Contributing members of the National Associates study archeological treasures 
at the opening of Ban Chiang: Discovery of a Lost Bronze Age at the National 
Museum of Natural History, November 1, 1984. 

tion programs through six levels of annual memberships: Sup- 
porting ($50), available only to members living outside the greater 
Washington, D.C., metropolitan area; Donor ($100); Sponsoring 
($250); Sustaining ($500); Patron ($1,000); and the James Smith- 
son Society ($1,500). 

Membership in the program continues its steady expansion. The 
20 percent growth experienced in fiscal year 1984 brought to over 
27,500 the total number of Contributing Members participating in 
and encouraging the work of the Smithsonian. Income from these 
members amounted to $2,700,000 in 1984, a 25 percent increase 
over fiscal year 1983. This total includes more than $225,000 from 
members who responded to special appeals from Secretary Ripley 
for additional contributions, over and above their annual mem- 
bership dues. Also included are corporate matching gifts, which 
increased 25 percent over last year, to $50,000. 

Eleven complimentary special events were offered as benefits for 
Contributing Members during the year. These included an opening 
night reception and visit to the Golden Age of Flight Gallery at 
the National Air and Space Museum; an after-hours visit to the 
National Zoological Park for a picnic and special demonstrations of 
animal training; and an exclusive evening viewing of the new 
exhibition James McNeill Whistler at the Freer Gallery of Art and 
an elegant courtyard reception. An exhibition of eighteenth- 
century painted French fans at the Renwick Gallery provided the 
theme for the annual membership ball. French Ambassador and 
Mrs. Vernier-Pailliez served with Secretary and Mrs. Ripley as 
cohosts of the gala evening. 

For the first time. Contributing Membership worked with the 
Associates Travel Program to plan a special behind-the-scenes 
weekend at the Smithsonian exclusively for Contributing Members. 
The tour offered a unique series of special experiences: candlelit 
dinner in the Commons, with Secretary Ripley and Edwards Park 
welcoming members to the Smithsonian; after-hours tours of and 
dinners in the Air and Space Museum and National Portrait Gal- 
lery; and access to other areas of museums normally off-limits to 
visitors. Enthusiastic participant response suggests that this tour 
will become an annual event, enforcing even more these members' 
special relationship with the Institution. 

Through careful selection of other benefits for Contributing 
Members, the program works to assist other Smithsonian bureaus. 
The commitment to purchase catalogues of the traveling exhibition 
Treasures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art 

332 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

proved a significant element in the funding for that show, which 
concluded its successful United States tour at the National Museum 
of Natural History. Members within the Washington metropolitan 
area are automatically enrolled in the Resident Associate Program, 
supporting its monthly newsletter and classes. Those outside the 
area receive "Research Reports/' published three times a year by 
the Office of Public Affairs to highlight special research and educa- 
tional projects underway throughout the Institution. 

Contributing Members have for some years received priority in 
registering when Regional Events Programs visit their home com- 
munities. In 1984, Contributing Members were offered compli- 
mentary tickets to one lecture and an invitation to an informal 
gathering planned in conjunction with the lecture. Such special 
treatment reinforces the message that these members are important 
to the Smithsonian, and increases their participation in the Regional 
Events offerings. 


Since 1975 the Regional Events Program has served Associates and 
the American public living beyond the Washington, D.C., area by 
presenting lectures, seminars, and performances in their home 
communities. In 1984 Smithsonian curators and scientists discussed 
their current research activities in Princeton, Trenton, Hopewell, 
Roanoke, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Midland, Winston-Salem, 
Spokane, Fargo, Moorehead, Rapid City, Sioux Falls, Albuquerque, 
Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, and Pullman. Nearly two hun- 
dred events were offered to approximately 300,000 Associates and 
members of 106 cosponsoring groups. 

Examples of recent programs include: "Adventurous Pursuits: 
Americans and the China Trade" with Margaret Christman, Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery (npg); "The Golden Age of Flight" presented 
by Claudia Oakes, National Air and Space Museum (nasm), which 
highlighted the museum's newest exhibition gallery that opened 
in April 1984; Richard Fiske, National Museum of Natural History 
(nmnh), described the cataclysmic eruption of Krakatau in an 
illustrated lecture; Mark and Diane Littler (nmnh) offered seminars 
on marine plant communities of the tropics; Charles Millard, 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (hmsg), presented an 
in-depth seminar on the paintings of Friedel Dzubas. 

During the past year, the Regional Events Program has continued 
to expand its audience by working with national cosponsors who 

Membership and Development I 333 

invite their chapter members to participate in the program. In 1984 
the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. and Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research 
Society, joined as national cosponsors. Several corporations — 
United Airlines, Piedmont Airlines, the Kroger Company, the 
Hertz Corporation, and Hilton Hotels — demonstrated their con- 
cern for public education by assisting the program with in-kind 

College and universities continue to play a major role in the 
cosponsorship of the Regional Events Program. The University of 
Texas Institute of Texan Culture at San Antonio, Wake Forest 
University (Winston-Salem), Case Western Reserve University 
(Cleveland), and Washington State University (Pullman) served 
as primary cosponsors for the programs held in their communities. 

The Regional Events Program drew salutatory notice from the 
press with more than 120 feature articles. Speakers were also in- 
vited to describe their research interests on sixty-seven television 
and radio broadcasts. 

Over the past nine years the Regional Events Program has re- 
ceived many invitations to return to host cities. In 1984 the pro- 
gram returned to five cities: San Antonio, Spokane, Cincinnati, 
Cleveland, and Columbus. New topics were introduced during each 
return visit and for the first time, the program offered extended 
seminars which were fully subscribed. 


Selected Studies, an intensive education program of snap, conduct- 
ed fifteen week-long seminars in fiscal year 1984. Drawing upon 
the collections and expert staff of the Smithsonian, as well as visit- 
ing scholars and scientific and cultural authorities, the programs 
combined illustrated lectures, films, special behind-the-scenes tours, 
and field trips to offer National Associates comprehensive courses 
on a wide variety of topics in the arts, humanities, and sciences. 

Responding to demand and the necessity of limiting enrollment 
to assure a personal seminar atmosphere, some seminars were re- 
peated. Among these were "Genealogical Research: How To" 
taught by leading genealogists, and "Aircraft Restoration: How 
To" which featured hands-on workshops with the master crafts- 
men who restore pieces for the outstanding collection of the Na- 
tional Air and Space Museum. In the seminar "Connoisseurship of 
American Antique Furniture, 1650-1840," participants learned 
through direct contact with the collection of the National Museum 

334 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

of American History. The "Masterpieces of American Painting" 
seminare was developed to use the Corcoran Gallery of Art exhibi- 
tion of that title while "French Impressionist Painting" was linked 
with the collection at the National Gallery of Art. 

Two sessions of "The New Astronomies" were held at the Smith- 
sonian's Whipple Observatory in Tucson, Arizona, where partici- 
pants toured the world's greatest concentration of observatories 
with the directors and scientists who shared their latest research. 

Lectures and creative workshops enabled Associates to learn 
the "secrets of success" from Edwards Park in a new course, "Irre- 
sistible Magazine Writing." Other new courses included "Lost 
America: Myth and Reality" which featured the American anthro- 
pological exhibitions at the National Museum of Natural History, 
and "Connoisseurship of Rugs" cosponsored with the Textile Mu- 
seum, The special summer exhibition at the National Gallery of 
Art, which brought many of Watteau's famous paintings to the 
United States for the first time, was the focus of the unique pro- 
gram, "18th Century French Art: Age of Extravagance" taught by 
William Kloss. 

In late 1984, the Selected Studies seminars and the Regional 
Events Program were combined to form the National Associates 
Lecture and Seminar Program. 


The Associates Travel Program presents educational study tours 
that mirror the interests and concerns of the Institution. Tours are 
designed for members who are particularly interested in the work 
of the national museum and the subjects in Smithsonian magazine. 
The educational content of both foreign and domestic tours is 
enhanced by study leaders; each trip is led by one or more Smith- 
sonian staff. Since 1975, more than 47,000 Associates have partici- 
pated in study tours throughout the world; in 1984, 3,600 members 
traveled on one hundred tours. 

In 1984, Associates chose from forty-six Domestic Study Tours — 
to all parts of the United States — to experience first-hand the 
natural wonders and regional heritage of America. The Colorado 
Rockies was the setting for a week-long program on geology. 
David Steadman (nmnh) led two camping trips to the Hawaiian 
Islands where he was conducting research on bird fossils. In Cortez, 
Colorado, Associates joined archeologists in the field to dig for 
artifacts at an Anasazi Indian site. Other Associates visited the 

Membership and Development I 335 

Hopi and Navajo reservations to see traditional dances. The Crow 
and Sioux Indian tribes were featured on a trip led by Herman 
Viola, Director of the National Anthropological Archives. 

Tours in private homes of the period were offered on trips fea- 
turing architecture and decorative arts in Charleston and Savannah, 
Philadelphia, and Boston. Out west. Associates relived the excite- 
ment of the gold rush era en route from San Francisco to Sacra- 
mento. Railroad buffs traveled to Colorado to ride the historic 
steam trains with local historians who related the history of Colo- 
rado's silver mines. 

Special programs were also offered for Associates at the Smith- 
sonian. The twelfth annual Christmas weekend featured the trim- 
ming of the Associates' Christmas tree and children ages 7 to 14 
attended a special family weekend. A glass seminar was planned 
in conjunction with the second annual Washington Craft Show, 
and for the first time, a program was designed especially for Con- 
tributing Members to visit with museum directors and curators. 

Foreign Study Tours included a variety of activities and a num- 
ber of new destinations. The residential countryside program was 
expanded to include Lenk, Switzerland, as well as the towns in 
Austria, France, and England. Tours were based on art history and 
museums in Belgium and the Netherlands and on churches and 
castles along the Rhine River. Associates lived in a villa and 
monastery while studying the art and history of Florence. Others 
returned to England for our sixth annual Oxford/Smithsonian 
Seminar. Donald Lopez (nasm) led aviation enthusiasts on a study 
tour of airfields and air museums in England, Germany, and Swit- 

The China series expanded with a tour studying decorative arts 
led by Julia Murray (fga), and an overland journey traveling to 
China's more remote areas by train. Train buffs also enjoyed 
traveling east to west across the Soviet Union on the Trans-Si- 
berian Express. Associates studied archeological sites in and around 
Mexico City and El Tajin on a new program in the Mexico series, 
and learned about geology and indigenous plant and animal life 
in Iceland. They photographed animal migrations in Kenya and 
visited Berber villages in Morocco. 

Study voyages allowed Associates to visit archeological sites 
along the Nile, to study the countries bordering the Baltic Sea, 
and to circumnavigate the British lies. Clyde Roper (nmnh) led a 
group of adventurous sailors on a two-week Atlantic Crossing, 
studying marine biology and maritime history while sailing from 

336 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Spain to the Caribbean aboard the tall ship Sea Cloud. Members 
visited sites of historical importance in Egypt, Jordan, Israel, and 
Greece, and participated in the Smithsonian's first India and Sri 
Lanka study voyage. In New Delhi, the late Prime Minister Indira 
Gandhi welcomed the group to her home and led a discussion of 
India's current politics and economics. 

More than 3,400 Associates participated in the "Washington 
Anytime Weekend," designed to give members an opportunity to 
visit the nation's capital and the Smithsonian any weekend during 
the year. The program is executed in cooperation with the Visitors 
Information and Associates' Reception Center, which provides a 
behind-the-scenes tour of the Castle and is available for informa- 
tion and guidance during the weekend. 

Smithsonian Resident Associate Program 

The Smithsonian Resident Associate Program — the private, cul- 
tural, continuing education, membership, and outreach arm of the 
Smithsonian Institution for metropolitan Washington, D.C. — is 
considered a model for museum membership and educational pro- 
grams both nationally and internationally. Established in 1965 by 
Secretary Ripley to provide opportunities for residents of the 
Washington area to participate actively in the life of the Smith- 
sonian, the program offers an extensive range of innovative, high 
quality, and timely activities that complement and enhance the 
exhibitions, collections, and research of the Institution. 

The Resident Associate Program (rap) draws its membership 
from the District of Columbia, Northern Virginia, and Maryland. 
Membership has grown from 8,000 with a retention rate of about 
50 percent in 1972 to 56,000 (up 1,000 from 1983) in 1984, with 
a retention rate of 81 percent in fiscal year 1984 (up 2 percent from 
1983). During fiscal year 1984, the more than 2,000 on-site activi- 
ties offered — many with multiple sections — were attended by more 
than 272,300 persons, a substantial increase in number of both 
events and participants from the previous year. Many hundreds 
of thousands more persons heard and/or saw courses through 
audio-bridge or television broadcasts of lectures. 

Self-supporting, except for Discovery Theater and performing 
arts, with occasional small grants to help fund special outreach 
events, the program reimburses the Institution for office space 

Membership and Development I 337 

rental, computer and audiovisual support, labor and guard service, 
and administrative support. 

In fiscal year 1984, the Resident Associate Program instituted 
or assimilated seven new programs: pan-Smithsonian ticketed per- 
forming arts; Discovery Theater; Discover Graphics; foreign lan- 
guage courses; Tuesday Mornings at the Smithsonian; "The Cut- 
ting Edge of Science"; computer courses; and telecommunication 
outreach. These new projects, combined with the ongoing scholar- 
ships for inner-city children and adults, the collaboration with area 
national and international cultural and educational institutions, and 
the commissioning of works of art have broadened the Resident 
Associate Program's mission considerably. While membership con- 
tinues to be a vital component, service to the community and en- 
abling new audiences to enjoy Smithsonian resources are equally 
strong commitments. 


A primary focus of the program continues to be planning activi- 
ties that enhance popular appreciation of Smithsonian exhibitions, 
collections, and curatorial research. This year's collaborations with 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden included the Octo- 
ber "Anniversary!" lecture by art critic Frank Getlein, organized 
as a preliminary event for the museum's tenth anniversary. The 
extraordinary conceptual artist Christo attracted a sell-out audience 
in May, marking the conclusion of the exhibition Drawings 1974- 
1984, and inaugurating the anniversary festivities. Accenting the 
German Expressionist Sculpture exhibition, the noted Brecht/Weill 
singer Martha Schlamme's "Cabaret-Concert" was also a sell-out. 
In connection with the Resident Associate course, "Italy Today 
and Tomorrow," an exhibition was organized by Hirshhorn Direc- 
tor Abram Lerner, Art from Italy: A Selection from the Museum's 
Collection. Students in the course attended the exhibition opening, 
which was also attended by His Excellency Rinaldo Petrignani, 
Ambassador of Italy, and Secretary Ripley. The Resident Associate 
Program joined the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in 
presenting one of the country's leading interpreters of contempo- 
rary music, the Twentieth Century Consort, in a series of four 

Among the many courses, lectures, seminars, and special events 
organized in cooperation with the National Museum of Natural 
History was the gala celebration in April of the one-hundredth 

338 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

anniversary of the National Gem Collection, "Baubles, Bangles, 
and Beads!", featuring a concert, reception, and viewing of the 
collection, and an all-day seminar, "Gemstones and Jewels: Mas- 
terpieces of the Mineral World," introduced by nmnh Director 
Fiske. The exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History 
honoring the fiftieth anniversary of Roger Tory Peterson's A Field 
Guide to the Birds was marked by the program's sold-out lecture 
by Peterson, cosponsored with the National Museum of Natural 
History, the Audubon Naturalist Society, and Friends of the Na- 
tional Zoo. Popular Young Associate classes, such as "Mammal 
Lab" and "Summer Nature Diaries," were conducted in the Nat- 
uralist Center, as were a number of adult courses, including 
"Everything You Wanted to Know about Trilobites" and "Collect- 
ing Rocks and Minerals." A seminar on evolution in March and a 
series of lectures by National Museum of Natural History curators 
on research conducted with the scanning electron microscope 
drew an enthusiastic audience in April, May, and June. Lectures, a 
gala opening, a concert, studio art classes, and courses were or- 
ganized by the Resident Associate Program to complement the 
National Museum of Natural History's Treasures from the Shang- 
hai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art. 

Guest curator Rene Bravmann drew a sizable, enthusiastic audi- 
ence to his lecture, "African Islam," cosponsored with the National 
Museum of African Art. Newly reinstalled exhibition halls at the 
National Museum of American Art were discussed in a fine slide- 
illustrated lecture in July by Director Charles Eldredge. An all-day 
seminar, "Glorious Glass," tracing the history of twentieth-century 
American glass, was organized this spring in conjunction with the 
James Renwick Collectors Alliance, the Smithsonian National As- 
sociate Program, and the Women's Committee of the Smithsonian 

The Smithsonian Chamber Orchestra, led by renowned Dutch 
violinist Jaap Schroeder, performing on authentic instruments from 
the National Museum of American History collections, and the 
Smithsonian Chamber Players series held in the museum's Hall of 
Musical Instruments were cosponsored by the program and the 
National Museum of American History. "Portraits in Motion 
Showcase" and "Portraits in Song," cosponsored with the National 
Portrait Gallery, included virtuoso performances of "An Inde- 
pendent Woman" by gifted actress Peggy Cowles and "Clarence 
Darrow Lives!" by David Fendrick. 

Many cooperative programs were held with the National Air 

Membership and Development I 339 

and Space Museum during the year and included a tour of the 
Golden Age of Flight in a new exhibition gallery in April, "Space 
Shuttle Flight Films" augmented by a slide lecture by Gregory 
Kennedy, Assistant Curator, and two lectures by prolific author 
and NASM Director Walter Boyne. This year, rap and nasm began 
an ongoing cosponsorship of a series of concerts in the Albert 
Einstein Sky Theater. 

Among the several events planned in conjunction with the 
National Zoological Park were "Last of the Giants: Saving the 
Elephants," an engrossing lecture by Curator of Mammals Edwin 
Gould, and art classes and projects conducted on site at the zoo 
for studio arts and Young Associate Summer Camp participants. 
Each summer several thousand Resident Associates enjoy "Sum- 
mer Evenings at the Zoo," featuring live music and an opportunity 
to view the animals at sunset. 

Enhancing the Freer Gallery of Art exhibition of James McNeill 
Whistler's work, curator of the exhibition David Park Curry lec- 
tured on the artist's achievements and association with Charles 
Lang Freer. The course, "James McNeill Whistler and the Expa- 
triates," presented in a series of distinguished lectures, attracted a 
sizable group of students in July. Freer Gallery of Art Director 
Thomas Lawton lectured for "Tuesday Mornings at the Smith- 
sonian" on "Beginnings of Western Connoisseurship of Chinese 
Art" in September. 

Programs organized in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson 
International Center for Scholars' Kennan Institute for Advanced 
Russian Studies included "Russia After Andropov: The Future of 
U.S.-Soviet Relations" and "Recent Russian Films." In coopera- 
tion with the center's Latin American Program, experts discussed 
"The United States and the Crises in Latin America and the 
Caribbean" in a stimulating fall course. Thomas A. Sebeok, Re- 
gents Fellow and Woodrow Wilson International Center for 
Scholars Fellow as well, taught "Introduction to Semiotics: The 
Science of Signs and Symbols" in the spring. 

The Resident Associate Program responded to the Smithsonian's 
request to participate in the celebration of the Harry S Truman 
Centennial with many activities — all very popular and well re- 
ceived — including a video portrayal of Truman by consummate 
character actor James Whitmore, an all-day seminar with dis- 
tinguished Truman scholars, a film series, a course, performances 
featuring music of the Truman years, and The Buck Stops Here!, 
an original musical based on the life of Harry S Truman, first pro- 

340 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

duced in New York, which drew capacity crowds to five perfor- 
mances in September and received critical acclaim. 

Twice each year the Resident Associate Program offers its mem- 
bers private viewings of major exhibitions. In November, approxi- 
mately 6,000 members enjoyed Masterpieces from Versailles: 
Three Centuries of French Portraiture at the National Portrait 
Gallery and The Capital Image: Painters in Washington, 1800- 
1915 at the National Museum of American Art, In August, ap- 
proximately 9,000 members attended six gala openings of Trea- 
sures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art 
at the National Museum of Natural History. 

The program conducted its tenth annual photography contest 
for Resident Associates, young and old. Subjects of the entries are 
Smithsonian-related (museum buildings, objects in the collections, 
or people at the Smithsonian), and the winning photographs are 
displayed in the Associates Court and published in the Associate 

The program continued to commission original works of art to 
commemorate Smithsonian events. The latest work, commissioned 
in the fall, is a panoramic view of Smithsonian museums on the 
Mall by the well-known New York artist Richard Haas, whose 
work will be featured in the new Quadrangle. 


The Resident Associate Program works closely with civic, cul- 
tural, and educational institutions in the Washington area to offer 
activities that are open to the public as well as to members, and, 
through scholarships and special interest projects, seeks to expand 
its accessibility to all segments of the public. The objective is to 
reach the community at large and to increase public awareness of 
both the quantity and the quality of programming. 

Discover Graphics 

Discover Graphics is a free program providing talented high school 
students and their teachers opportunities to study etching and 
lithography. A master printmaker conducts student and teacher 
workshops at the Union Printmakers Atelier in the Lansburgh 
Cultural Center. 

During the first full year of operation under the aegis of the 
Resident Associate Program, over 150 secondary school students 
and their art teachers from the District of Columbia, Maryland, 
and Virginia received studio and seminar training in this lively 

Membership and Development I 341 

program, and several have been awarded major art school scholar- 
ships and national prizes, based on their portfolios assembled in 
Discover Graphics. A student exhibition of selected prints, juried 
by curators from three Smithsonian museums, was held at the 
National Museum of American History May 12 through July 5. 
A new term began in fall 1984, and is fully subscribed. 


For the twelfth consecutive year, tuition-free scholarships to 
Young Associate courses were awarded to inner-city youngsters in 
the District of Columbia schools. Adults also received scholarships 
through the District of Columbia public schools, as well as high 
school students attending the Ellington School for the Arts, the 
Gifted and Talented Program, and the School Without Walls, for 
adult courses. This year 154 adult scholarships were awarded, and 
in addition, in fall 1983, thirteen teachers from the District of 
Columbia public schools received scholarships to attend the spe- 
cial course "Basic Computer Literacy." Fifty-eight scholarship stu- 
dents from the District of Columbia public schools attended Young 
Associate classes in 1983-84. 

The Cutting Edge of Science 

This lecture series, conducted by eminent Smithsonian and uni- 
versity scholars, was offered free to area high school students 
proficient in science who were recommended by their science 
teachers. The series attracted over 3,000 students for five monthly 
lectures on such current and controversial topics as "Life in the 
Universe," "Genetic Engineering," and "The Continental Puzzle," 
This kind of outreach will be repeated. 

Smithsonian Kite Festival 

The eighteenth annual festival open to members and the general 
public took place in April with hundreds of participants entering 
colorful kites of all sizes and shapes and representing countries 
from as far away as New Zealand — and thousands of interested 

Tuesday Mornings at the Smithsonian 

This inexpensive ticket fee series of twelve weekly lectures, sched- 
uled three times a year — spring, summer, and fall — is presented 

342 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Performers of the Central Traditional Orchestra of China 
presented a rare evening of Chinese classical and folk music 
in a program to complement the exhibition Treasures from 
the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art, in the 
Evans Gallery, National Museum of Natural History. The 
troupe was the first traditional orchestra to visit the United 
States from the People's Republic of China. (Photograph by 
Robert de Milt) 




■ i ' 





A local high school student listens to the answer to his ques- 
tion at a lecture on space technology delivered by Kerry Joels, 
of the Office of Research Support, National Air and Space 
Museum. The lecture was part of "The Cutting Edge of Sci- 
ence," a free series open to highly motivated area students 
recommended by their high school science teachers. (Photo- 
graph by Lillian O'Connell) 

by Smithsonian scholars, and preceded by comphmentary coffee, 
tea, and rolls. Specifically designed to engage the interest of older 
citizens during daytime hours, the series is planned for all who are 
interested in learning more about art, science, history, foreign cul- 
tures, and politics. The lectures each attract between 250 and 
400 people. This year a total of 11,600 attended. 

Minority Focus 

The Resident Associate Program observed Black History Month 
by presenting "Langston Lives!," a program honoring poet Lang- 
ston Hughes, specially assembled by the Rod Rogers Dance Com- 
pany and guest artists and cosponsored by the Office of the Mayor 
of the District of Columbia and the D.C. Commission on the Arts 
and Humanities. Geoffrey Holder (described below) also per- 
formed. Discovery Theater opened its fall season with bilingual 
productions of Journey to Dodoland, presented in Spanish and 
English to accommodate Washington's population of Hispanic stu- 
dents. Discovery Theater also offered two productions to com- 
memorate Black History Month: Boley, a new play by D.C. play- 
wright Karen L. B. Evans, and Critter Chat, an enchanting per- 
formance of animal tales from Africa, the West Indies, and black 


The Smithsonian Educational Outreach Program contributed fund- 
ing to performances by Samul-Nori, Korean dance-drummers; 
Kapelye, a revivalist klezmer band specializing in East European 
music (in conjunction with Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures from 
the Czechoslovak State Collections mounted at the National Mu- 
seum of Natural History); and "Bamboo and Silk: The Music of 
China," a concert by the Central Traditional Orchestra of China 
and introduced by the Deputy Chief of Mission to the Chinese 
Embassy, with a welcome and greetings from President Reagan 
conveyed by the Ambassador-at-Large for Cultural Affairs, Daniel 
James Terra. This concert, a Washington premiere, attracted a 
capacity audience with a sizable number from the Washington 
Chinese-American community. 

Collaboration with Community and Regional Organizations 

For the second year, a five-evening subscription to the Folger 
Theatre's season of fine plays, embellished by special pre- and 

344 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

post-performance events, was arranged for Resident Associates. 
Folger Shakespeare Library Director O. B. Hardison inaugurated 
the season with a distinguished lecture on Shakespeare as person 
and artist. 

For the eleventh consecutive year, the Resident Associate Pro- 
gram cosponsored the nine monthly Audubon Lecture series with 
the Audubon NaturaUst Society and the Friends of the National 
Zoo. This year's series attracted more than 615 subscribers and 
over 7,200 persons for all the lectures. 

Architectural Design Seminars 

In March, the Washington Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects, the Resident Associate Program, and the Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute and State University's Washington-Alexandria 
Center of the College of Architecture and Urban Studies joined to 
present the third in an annual series of architectural design sem- 
inars. These provide a forum for the study and application of 
basic design principles for professionals and students of a specific 
site in the Washington area. This year's focus was the "Portal" 
area, located at the 14th Street Bridge entrance to the city. Among 
the guest lecturers were eminent architects Kevin Lynch and 
Peter Cook. 


In an innovative outreach effort, "The Telecommunications Revo- 
lution" fall course was linked by audio-bridge to several campuses 
of the California State University system each week for the dura- 
tion of the course. The audio-bridge enabled the students to inter- 
act directly with instructors and students in Washington. A spec- 
tacular highlight of the summer term, "Toward 2001: Visions of 
America's Future," in collaboration with the American Society for 
Personnel Administration, was broadcast nationwide almost in its 
entirety by the C-Span television network, and this exposure re- 
sulted in hundreds of requests for transcripts and videotapes of 
individual lectures by such experts as Jeffrey Hallet and S. Norman 


The Resident Associate Program received two awards from the 
National University Continuing Education Association, Region 
II, for its fiscal year 1984 programs "Architectural Design Sem- 

Membership and Development I 345 

inar: The Portal" and "The Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures 
from the Czechoslovak State Collections." The latter included a 
course, lecture, performance, and exhibition tours. 


The Resident Associate Program was active in a variety of interna- 
tional arenas during the year. The President of Austria spoke at a 
reception during the course, "Vienna at the Turn of the Century" 
in February. As part of the Institution-wide celebration of the 
two-hundredth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris 
in 1783, the course "The American Revolution: New Insights and 
Revisions" was offered in the fall, as was "Britain's Best," a six- 
week series of double-feature films of the past fifty years; a sem- 
inar; free film; and a concert. The Treaty of Paris commemorative 
poster was made available for purchase to Resident Associate 

The Resident Associate Program hosted an "Oktoberfest" eve- 
ning of music and dance at the Embassy of the Federal Republic 
of Germany as the final element of its celebration of the German- 
American Tricentennial. Director Janet Solinger received the Offi- 
cer's Cross of the Order of Merit from the government of the 
Federal Republic of Germany in February. In September, His Holi- 
ness the fourteenth Dalai Lama, spiritual and temporal leader of 
the Tibetan people, inaugurated the course "Tibetan Buddhism: 
Living Heart of the Land of Snow" in a special evening lecture; he 
was welcomed and introduced by Secretary Adams. 

Thirty courses, lectures, seminars, films, and film series were 
cosponsored with embassies or the Woodrow Wilson International 
Center for Scholars and/or featured international speakers. Six 
performances starred international performing artists or troupes. 


The lively and provocative curriculum of arts, sciences, humani- 
ties, and studio arts for educated adults — offered four terms per 
year — provides opportunities for serious study with Smithsonian 
and visiting scholars during evenings, noontimes, mornings, and 
weekends. In 1983-84, 173 lecture courses were offered, and at- 
tendance reached 57,100. 

Among the best attended fall courses were "The Listener's Art," 
which focused on guided interpretations of classical music; "The 
Precious Legacy: Jewish Life and Art in Czechoslovakia," held in 

346 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

conjunction with the exhibition installed at the Evans Gallery of 
the National Museum of Natural History, organized by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. "Frank Lloyd 
Wright: America's Master Builder," a course in which many 
schools of architecture cooperated, featured noted guest lecturer 
Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, Director of the Archives of the Frank Lloyd 
Wright Foundation, and Roger Kennedy, Director of the National 
Museum of American History, and drew accolades in the winter 
term. Best-selling author Paul Starr lectured for the course "The 
Face of American Medicine," planned in conjunction with the Na- 
tional Museum of American History exhibition Pain and Its Relief. 
The year's outstanding guest lecturers included world-class photog- 
raphers Jay Maisel and Barry Seidman; philosopher and author 
John Searle; Truman scholars Robert Donovan, Walter LaFeber, 
and Harold Saunders; and noted constitutional authorities Max 
Isenbergh and Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. New courses explored facets of 
computer literacy and computer animation. A Foreign Language 
Program was launched, featuring classes in Spanish, French, and 


The studio arts program seeks to enhance appreciation of age-old 
crafts, keeping alive techniques now rapidly disappearing from 
the modern world, as well as introducing contemporary arts and 
crafts. Courses and intensive workshops in such areas as draw- 
ing, sculpture, photography, and needlework were offered seven 
days a week, morning, noon, and evening. The program was the 
recipient of assistance from the Hechinger Foundation given for 
the purpose of enriching the studio arts curriculum in the area of 
fine carpentry and woodworking. 

An expanded selection of workshops and courses were offered 
in fiscal year 1984, including sessions on bookbinding, using a 
newly acquired turn-of-the-century bookbinding press; archival 
matting and framing, a highly specialized area of archival studies 
taught by the head of exhibition matting and framing at the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art; the art of perfumery; Ikebana, Japanese 
flower arranging; and several open studio classes in etching and 
figure drawing. 

A special lecture/demonstration by master jewelry designers 
in October, cosponsored with the Embassy of Belgium and aug- 
mented by a private viewing of the exhibition, Belgium Jewels 

Membership and Development I 347 

Today at the Inter-American Development Bank, filled quickly. 
Another successful workshop, "The Quick Self Portrait," was 
offered in March in conjunction with the National Portrait Gallery 
exhibition. Artists By Themselves. In all, 220 programs were pre- 
sented throughout the year, with an attendance of 13,500. 


Single lectures, intensive one- and two-day seminars, and schol- 
arly symposia led by distinguished authorities addressed a wide 
range of cultural topics during the year. Individual films and film 
series featuring foreign cultures, saluting well-known artists, or 
highlighting different techniques were an expanding feature of 
the program. 


Notable speakers and guest artists included computer animation 
expert Judson Rosebush; Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the 
Seychelles Islands Foundation Maxime Ferrari; author and ad- 
venturer Arlene Blum; Professor of the Year Peter Beidler (co- 
sponsored by the Council for Advancement and Support of Edu- 
cation); Director of the National Museum of Natural History 
Richard Fiske; and choreographer, artist, designer, and actor Geof- 
frey Holder. "A Video Visit with Dumas Malone and Thomas 
Jefferson" was the occasion for the Resident Associate Program's 
first public use of the new Novabeam video projector. More than 
28,600 persons attended 106 Resident Associate Program lectures 
in fiscal year 1984. 

Seminars and Symposia 

Nineteen intensive seminars and symposia enabled 2,200 partici- 
pants to examine a rich selection of subjects in depth. Eminent 
scholars and professionals discussed the history of the Roman 
emperors, fashion design, the rise and fall of the Aztecs, the social 
and scientific implications of advances in artificial intelligence, the 
genetics revolution, gemstones and jewels, and Harry S Truman: 
"The Man and His Years." 


Berlin Alexander platz, a two-day film marathon, was screened for 
a sell-out audience in December and received critical accolades as 

348 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Washington film coup of the year. Memories of Old Beijing, a 
Chinese-produced international award winner, was also extremely 
well received. The Washington premiere of the new opera film, 
Parsifal, was introduced to a full house by former Washington Post 
music critic Octavio Roco. A riveting Australian documentary 
about a remote highland area in New Guinea in the 1930s, First 
Contact, was introduced by the filmmakers. January audiences 
enjoyed a double booking of an eloquent film tribute to Marc 
Chagall, Homage to Chagall. Nadine Gordimer's South Africa, the 
Washington premiere of seven new films based on Gordimer's 
stories, attracted capacity crowds. Mel Blanc, creator of Bugs 
Bunny's voice, drew over 1,200 participants to the Departmental 
Auditorium, as he reminisced about his fifty-year career; Blanc's 
appearance was included in a "Smithsonian World" feature aired 
in fall 1984. In the spring, actor William Powell was commemorat- 
ed in a series of classic films in which he starred. In conjunction 
with the twenty-fifth anniversary of Alaska's statehood, a new 
documentary on Alaska's Denali National Park, where Mt. Mc- 
Kinley looms above the wilderness, was screened. Simone de 
Beauvoir, a cine-portrait, provided a fascinating glimpse into the 
mind and thoughts of the famous author and philosopher. Films 
shot from the space shuttle thrilled December audiences. Amadeus, 
the spectacular film version of the stage hit, was screened in 70mm 
on the iMAX screen at the National Air and Space Museum in a 
benefit premiere in September. Over eighty film showings attracted 
22,500 people — members and the general public. 


An outstanding season of theater, music, and dance was presented 
in the first year the Resident Associate Program took over the 
majority of Smithsonian performing arts events requiring tickets. 
Many were held in conjunction with Smithsonian museums; others 
were selected for special quality and popular appeal. The noho 
Theatre Group of Japan appeared in March, cosponsored with the 
Japan-American Society of Washington, and the Gewandhaus Bach 
Orchestra of Leipzig, a virtuoso ensemble drawn from the ranks 
of the famous Gewandhaus Orchestra in its first North American 
visit, appeared in February. 

The Emerson String Quartet played to full houses in a series of 
memorable concerts held in the Grand Salon, Renwick Gallery, 
the first season under the aegis of the Resident Associate Program. 

Membership and Development I 349 

Smithsonian Salutes Washington Dance, a series of performances 
celebrating the vitality of the Washington dance scene, culminated 
in "Dancers' Choice," in which established stars selected the new 

Summer outdoor concerts in the courtyard of the National Mu- 
seum of American Art / National Portrait Gallery featured out- 
standing jazz, classical, bluegrass, and ragtime music and attracted 
capacity audiences, as did fall and winter brunch concerts held in 
the National Museum of American History. John Eaton performed 
the compositions of Porter, Arlen, Gershwin, and Ellington in eight 
informative and entertaining concerts, his sixth season of jazz 
piano for the Resident Associate Program. In the 1983-84 season, 
S9 performances were presented, with more than 26,000 members 
and the general public in attendance. 


On-site learning experiences are organized for small groups in the 
fields of art, architecture, archeology, history, industry, and science, 
lasting from one hour to three days. Tours are designed to appeal 
to a wide variety of age groups, financial circumstances, and inter- 
ests, and range in content from Virginia winemaking to the Balti- 
more Museum of Art's fall session, to Tall Ship cruises on the 
Chesapeake Bay. Art and architecture continue to be among the 
most popular subjects, with specialized science tours gaining 

For the first time, members attended the Spoleto Festival in 
Charleston, South Carolina, a tour featuring concerts, lectures, 
and local history. An overnight art study tour to New York's Soho 
and Wall Street and one tour led by six architects commenting at 
the sites of their own work were filled. Tours to historic areas 
included a survey of Baltimore markets, regional counties, and 
Civil War sites. An enthusiastic group attended "Visually Impaired 
in the Seeing World" led by the Washington Ear Radio Reading 
Service. In a joint venture with the National Air and Space Mu- 
seum, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Space Telescope 
Science Institute at Johns Hopkins University, space telescope 
facilities were toured, and, on a rare occasion, participants — led by 
National Air and Space Museum staff— traveled to southern Vir- 
ginia to witness the solar eclipse in May. Natural history tours, 
especially those on birding and botany, were quite popular. Free 

350 / Smithsonian "Year 1984 

tours, most led by museum docents, attracted over 6,500 partici- 
pants during the year. In 1983-84, 724 tours took place, with total 
attendance by more than 27,300 people. 


Through Young Associate and Family Activities, the Smithsonian's 
resources are enhanced for young people, ages four to fifteen, and 
their parents. Classes, workshops, monthly free films for families, 
tours, and performances exploring history, art, science, and studio 
arts are tailored to their ages and interests. Innovative parent-child 
classes and workshops enable parents and children to work to- 
gether on projects of mutual interest, as in the class "Urban Nature 
Study" held on the Mall; "Geology Close-Up," taught by a geolo- 
gist in the Naturalist Center of the National Museum of Natural 
History; and "Scissor Art," a workshop in producing paper-cut art 
for Hanukkah. 

In November, the first Resident Associate Program event exclu- 
sively for teens was well received — "Science Fiction Writers Tell 
All: Meet the Authors," and the first grandparent-child event, 
"Granny's Kitchen," also drew enthusiastic participation. "Renais- 
sance Sampler," a parent-child tour planned in collaboration with 
the Folger Shakespeare Library, incorporated history, drama, dance/ 
movement, and music into a behind-the-scenes theater class. 

For the second season. Summer Camp classes met all morning, 
every weekday for one, two, or three weeks, in July and August. 
Classes were team taught, combining the talents of teachers of 
different disciplines. One outstanding example was "TV Smith- 
sonian: The Quad," in which a video production expert and a 
painter/designer/sculptor teamed for a class mural painting project. 
The mural was painted on the construction barricade surrounding 
the Quadrangle's future Center for African, Near Eastern, and 
Asian Cultures, the process being filmed by class members. The 
story of the completed project was aired on a Metromedia television 
news program. In 1984, over 180 Young Associate and Family 
programs attracted an attendance of more than 12,900 individuals. 

Discovery Theater 

Discovery Theater, presenting entertainment and educational ex- 
periences for young people and their families, conducted its first 

Membership and Development I 351 

full season under the auspices of the Resident Associate Program 
from October through June. Two performances a day were present- 
ed, Wednesday through Sunday. The series theme for 1983-84 
was "Myths, Fables, Legends, and Tales." Ten performing groups 
demonstrated the full spectrum of theatrical styles, including mime, 
puppetry, dance, music, storytelling, and original plays. Among 
the highlights were a live stage performance by the local Children's 
Radio Theatre, a marionette version of Hansel and Gretel by David 
Syrotiak's National Marionette Theatre, and performances by two 
acclaimed Canadian companies — Kaleidoscope Theatre and Theatre 
Beyond Words. In order to facilitate an educational as well as 
entertainment experience for young people. Learning Guides, which 
include information about performances, suggestions for classroom 
activities, a listing of resources, and other Smithsonian activities, 
were produced by Smithsonian staff and furnished free of charge 
to all leaders who brought groups to the theater. Over 47,300 indi- 
viduals attended the 369 performances during the season; approxi- 
mately 75 percent consisted of groups from local school systems. 


A total of 425 volunteers provided invaluable assistance to the 
program, monitoring films, special events, lectures, courses, and 
tours, and performing vital office duties. The 94 volunteer office 
workers represent the equivalent of six full-time staff members, 
and the hours contributed by monitor volunteers amount to the 
work of six full-time staff members. Office volunteers were honored 
at a luncheon on May 3, and all volunteers were feted at a special 
reception at the Arts and Industries Building Rotunda on Septem- 
ber 20. 


Fiscal year 1985 marks the Resident Associate Program's twentieth 
anniversary. During the coming year, many observances are 
planned that will lend special enhancement to the program. In 
addition the program will continue to present museum-quality 
educational and cultural activities and add new projects as it is 
able, with consideration of staff size, Smithsonian facilities, and 
budget. The Resident Associate Program will continue to endeavor 

352 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

to reach new audiences, to increase membership by emphasizing 
modest growth, keeping service to members at a premium, and to 
increase income without sacrificing quaUty. The program will also 
continue its outreach activities for the Washington area community. 

Membership and Development I 353 

Two dozen youngsters, gathered around Uncle Beazley, the popular dinosaur 
model, served as the supporting cast for actress Sandy Duncan during the film- 
ing of a Smithsonian television public service announcement produced by the 
Office of Public Affairs. 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 



Office of Public Affairs 

The Office of Public Affairs (opa) participated in and helped coor- 
dinate publicity for several historic events during the year, includ- 
ing the announcement of Robert McC. Adams's selection as the 
Smithsonian's ninth Secretary and the subsequent installation cere- 
monies, the observance of Secretary Ripley's twentieth anniversary 
at the Institution, the launching of the Smithsonian's first major 
venture in public television, and Institution participation in the 
1984 Edinburgh Festival, the world's oldest and largest annual 
cultural festival. 

The Board of Regents unanimously elected Dr. Adams as the 
Smithsonian's ninth Secretary on January 23, 1984. Following the 
vote, the Office of Public Affairs organized a news conference, 
which was attended by representatives of the Board of Regents 
and the Search Committee, Secretary Ripley, Secretary-designate 
Adams and reporters and photographers from the national, inter- 
national, and local media. 

In February, Secretary Ripley celebrated his twentieth anni- 
versary at the Smithsonian with a reception for the entire Smith- 
sonian staff at the National Museum of Natural History. To com- 
memorate the anniversary, public affairs staff members produced 
a special six-page supplement on the events and accomplishments 
of the Ripley years for the February issue of The Torch, the 


monthly newspaper for employees and friends of the Smithsonian, 
and prepared a chronology of the Ripley years for the media. 

The Office of Public Affairs planned and implemented a public 
relations program for the ceremonies marking the installation of 
the ninth Secretary September 17 on the National Mall. The his- 
toric event was given broad coverage in the media and resulted as 
well in major articles in the national press on Secretary Ripley 
and the new Secretary. In addition, the opa produced an expanded 
issue of the monthly staff newspaper to commemorate the occasion. 

The Smithsonian's new television series, "Smithsonian World," 
coproduced with the Washington, D.C., public television station 
WETA-TV with a $3.5 million grant from the James S. McDonnell 
Foundation, premiered in January to positive reviews from the 
media and the public. Public affairs staff members provided 
"Smithsonian World" staff with background materials and infor- 
mation and coordinated for the Institution the extensive publicity 
and advertising campaign that accompanied the series. 

A major new project began in the opa with a grant from the 
Educational Outreach Fund to encourage visits to the Smithsonian 
by members of minority communities. Emphasizing the theme 
"Explore Your Heritage," the opa staff produced both an illustrated 
brochure and a 30-second public service announcement (psa) for 
television, featuring areas of the Institution of particular signif- 
icance to members of the Black community as the first effort in 
the project. The brochure was distributed to schools, churches, and 
civic organizations in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, 
to tourists at the information desks of the museums, and in re- 
sponse to requests generated by the television announcement. 
Colonel Guion "Guy" Bluford, the first Black American astronaut 
in space, appeared as narrator in the psa. 

As part of the outreach project, advertisements were placed 
throughout the year in Washington/Baltimore Afro-American 
newspapers calling attention to special exhibitions and activities 
related to Black History Month and holiday seasons and to pro- 
mote a performance sponsored by the National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art to benefit a future Black History Festival. The latter adver- 
tisement also appeared in the Washington Post. 

As part of the office's continuing mission to encourage visits to 
the Smithsonian, the opa produced a television public service an- 
nouncement package (a 30-second psa and a 20-second psa) aimed 
specifically at showing the Institution's exhibits that children can 
touch and participate in. Noted television and stage actress Sandy 

356 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Duncan became a real-life Smithsonian Peter Pan as forty children, 
ranging in age from 3 to 17, followed her lead in the filming. The 
hard-working cast labored from dawn to dusk just as any Holly- 
wood crew would do to complete the tv announcements, which 
were distributed to the three hundred largest television stations in 
the country, reaching every state. 

Public affairs staff members also produced and placed advertise- 
ments in the Washington Post every two weeks during the summer 
calling attention to the Smithsonian's extended summer hours and 
encouraging visitors to "Spend an Evening" at the Smithsonian 
during those relatively uncrowded times. Ads also appeared during 
one week of extended hours in April. Attendance at the Smith- 
sonian in April 1984 increased by more than 15 percent over 1983, 
and overall attendance for the year was expected to break last 
year's all-time record high. 

The Office of Public Affairs is the central Smithsonian clearing- 
house for reporters from newspapers, magazines, television, and 
radio. In fiscal year 1984, the opa issued more than five hundred 
news releases on Smithsonian exhibitions, events, and activities; 
staff members answered hundreds of phone calls from members of 
the print and electronic media and arranged dozens of interviews 
with Smithsonian officials, scholars, scientists, and curators. The 
office also provided assistance to other Smithsonian bureaus and 
offices in the planning and implementation of major publicity pro- 
grams. To publicize the Edinburgh Festival, which included the 
exhibition Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution as well as 
32 concerts given by nine performing groups and individual artists, 
the Office of Public Affairs cooperated with the Office of the As- 
sistant Secretary for Public Service in a media campaign that 
resulted in international media coverage for the Smithsonian's 
Edinburgh programs. 

Articles covering Smithsonian programs in Edinburgh appeared 
in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Christian Sci- 
ence Monitor, the Times and the Sunday Times (London), the 
Glasgow Herald, The Scotsman (Edinburgh), and the International 
Herald Tribune. Smithsonian representatives also were interviewed 
on BBC radio and television and on local media outlets in Scotland, 
as well as by the national television and radio networks of Aus- 
tralia, Ireland, and South Africa. 

In an effort to reach a more diverse audience than those at past 
Edinburgh Festivals, the Smithsonian participated in an experiment 
that took Festival concerts to the Scottish city's housing projects 

Public Information I 2>57 

and working-class neighborhoods; publicity of this effort by an 
on-site opa staff nnember helped to offset criticism by the Edin- 
burgh city government that the Festival was too "elitist." 

Other major publicity campaigns planned and conducted by the 
OPA in conjunction with other Smithsonian bureaus during the year 
focused on the exhibition James McNeill Whistler at the Freer 
Gallery of Art, an exhibition organized in celebration of the one 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Whistler's birth; the Eighteenth 
Annual Festival of American Folklife; and the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Traveling Exhibition Service exhibition. The Precious Legacy: 
Judaic Treasures from the Czechoslovak State Collections. The of- 
fice also planned workshops on public relations and organized and 
helped coordinate publicity for the American Association of Mu- 
seums annual meeting, which was held in June in Washington, D.C. 

The office assisted with the media arrangements for an April 
conference for North American journalists on "The Challenge to 
Our Cultural Heritage: Why Preserve the Past?" The conference 
was sponsored by unesco and the Smithsonian with cooperation 
from the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the United 
States Committee of the International Council on Monuments and 
Sites. The conference was covered widely by the media, including 
the Christian Science Monitor, the Boston Globe, Newsweek, and 
United Press International. 

The Smithsonian News Service, a free monthly feature-story ser- 
vice produced by the opa for daily and weekly newspapers nation- 
wide, completed its fifth successful year of operation. In fiscal year 
1984, 1,554 newspapers (808 dailies and 746 weeklies) in all fifty 
states and the District of Columbia regularly used the News Ser- 
vice's monthly articles covering Smithsonian activities in the arts, 
sciences, and history. These papers have a total combined circula- 
tion of 40 million and a potential readership of 100 million. The 
prestigious Los Angeles Times joined the list of Smithsonian News 
Service subscribers, as did smaller newspapers such as the Trouble- 
some Creek Times in Hindman, Kentucky, and a number of major 
newspapers, such as the St. Louis Post Dispatch, began using color 
artwork with the stories on a regular basis. International usage of 
the News Service expanded with the addition to the subscriber list 
of the Japan Times of Tokyo. The News Service continued to in- 
crease its efforts to reach out to special constituencies in a number 
of ways: The Braille Institute of Los Angeles began featuring News 
Service stories in the magazine that it distributes free of charge to 
visually handicapped United States citizens, and stories on design 

358 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

for disabled individuals and on Black scientists highlighted the 
"Decade of Disabled Persons" and Black History Month, respec- 

During the year, the News Service distributed forty-eight fea- 
tures covering such major newsworthy and timely subjects as the 
four-hundredth anniversary of the first manned balloon flight; the 
preservation of Aldabra, a tiny tropical island and natural labora- 
tory in the Indian Ocean; the space telescope; presidential elections 
and campaigns; the one-hundredth anniversaries of the birth of 
Harry 5 Truman and of the Statue of Liberty; the Olympic Games; 
and American folk art. 

Recognizing the outstanding quality of the News Service, the 
National Association of Government Communicators awarded the 
first, second, and third prizes in the "feature" category of its na- 
tionwide "Blue Pencil Contest" to News Service stories. The Smith- 
sonian monthly staff newspaper. The Torch, also received a first 
place in the same contest in the in-house newspaper category; 
Research Reports, a three-times-a-year periodical describing Insti- 
tution-related research in the arts, history, and science, received 
second place in the newsletter category. These publications, as well 
as others produced by the opa, also won major awards in writing 
and design contests sponsored by the American Association of 
Museums and the Society for Technical Communications. 

In addition to the new Explore Your Heritage brochure, the office 
produced a new 32-page publication, titled Science at the Smith- 
sonian, which describes the process and benefits of the Institution's 
scientific research programs. The Smithsonian's general information 
Welcome brochure was revised in a new format with an easy-to- 
read map, and the Guide to the Smithsonian for Disabled Visitors 
was also updated. To aid journalists covering Smithsonian activi- 
ties, the office revised the publication The Smithsonian Institu- 
tion — Yesterday and Today, a 100-page general reference booklet 
on the history, organization, and programs of the Institution. 

As construction proceeds on the Center for African, Near East- 
ern, and Asian Cultures, the Office of Public Affairs continues to 
work with other bureaus at the Institution to formulate public 
relations programs and policies and to publicize noteworthy events 
connected with the center. 

Public Information I 359 

Art Buchwald, the noted humorist, was master of ceremonies at festivities mark- 
ing RIF (Reading Is Fundamental) Week. (Photograph by Rick Reinhard) 


Smithsonian Year . 1984 



Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. (rif), a private nonprofit organiza- 
tion, celebrated its eighteenth anniversary in 1984 as the nation's 
largest reading motivation program. Since 1966, when rif was 
founded by the late Mrs. Robert McNamara, this program has put 
more than 58 million books into the hands of young people. Today 
there are 3,000 rif programs, each staffed by volunteers, in all 
fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Is- 
lands, and Guam. 

Reading Is Fundamental addresses an urgent problem — the fact 
that record numbers of young people are not learning to read and 
that many more, who can decipher words, simply do not choose 
to read. There is evidence that rif is altering the reading habits 
of America's children. In a 1983 survey of rif projects, local project 
leaders reported that the program has significant long-term effects 
on children's interest in reading. Several other benefits of the rif 
program were also reported: rif improves children's self-image, 
increases children's use of the library, improves attitudes toward 
school, helps teachers motivate children to read, and increases 
parent involvement in the school. 

The rif Method 

Two principles underlie the rif method of motivating youngsters 
to read. The first is that each child be allowed to choose his own 
book — a factor that inclines him to take the pains to read it. Sec- 
ond, each child gets to keep the book he chooses, to reread and 
ponder and share with family and friends. Book ownership has 


multiplied rif's impact by drawing the entire family into the act 
of reading. Study after study has shown the significant relationship 
between reading achievement and books in the home. 

In addition, rif relies on its volunteers — some 96,000 at last 
count — to lead children into successful reading experiences. These 
local citizens volunteer millions of manhours to choose and order 
those books likely to appeal to local children, raise money to pay 
the project's operating expenses and some or all of book costs, and 
devise intriguing ways to tempt youngsters to read more. 

The Diversity of the rif Program 

The rif program is vitally heterogeneous. On the plains of Kansas, 
rural schoolchildren hold a rif young authors' conference where 
they write, illustrate, and bind their own books. On the floor of the 
Grand Canyon, the children of the Havasupai tribe hear a story- 
teller chant ancient legends of earth and sky, as part of a rif book 
distribution. In the drab, gray surroundings of Los Angeles' Skid 
Row, youngsters discover the enchantment of children's books 
through a rif project at a child development center. In an intensive 
care unit of a New York Medical Center, the mother of a seven- 
year-old child finds what she describes as "something active and 
positive" to do for her son — reading aloud his rif book while the 
boy undergoes kidney dialysis. 

Rif books are especially treasured by the children of migrant 
farm workers. In seventy projects from Maine to Florida, some 
71,242 children carry their books from town to town as their 
parents follow the harvest. An added bonus: semiliterate mothers 
and fathers who discover the magic world of reading through their 
children's rif books. In short, the rif program serves children at 
more than 10,000 sites — public and private schools, libraries, In- 
dian reservations, hospitals, schools for the handicapped, trauma 
centers, housing projects, boys' ranches, migrant worker camps, 
and juvenile detention centers. 

Rif: A Public/Private Partnership 

The basis for rif's rapid growth over the last eighteen years is the 
broad support the organization has received from both public and 
private sectors. In 1976 Congress created the Inexpensive Book 
Distribution Program, modelling it on rif. Reading Is Fundamental 
continues to operate this program under a grant from the Depart- 
ment of Education. Since the Ford Foundation gave rif its start 
with a sizable grant, the private sector has been generous to this 
grassroots reading motivation program. Today, some 6,200 busi- 

362 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

nesses and organizations support rif projects. 

To stretch its resources further, rif has formed partnerships 
with corporations, foundations, the media, book pubHshers, and 
civic and youth groups. Over the past thirteen years, the broad- 
cast and print media have given more than $20 milUon in free 
time and space to rif's campaign to promote reading. Many of 
rif's pubHcations for volunteers and parents have been under- 
written by corporations and foundations. For example, rif's highly 
popular pamphlet for parents on how to promote reading in the 
home was published under a grant from a children's clothing man- 
ufacturer. General Sportwear. More than a million parents have 
used this guide to lead their preschoolers and school children into 
enjoyable reading experiences. 

Recognizing the importance of rif in encouraging children to 
read, some 350 booksellers and publishers give rif's local programs 
the best possible discounts and services, advise rif on trends in 
juvenile literature, and donate books for special occasions. 

Rif's chairman, president, and board members regularly speak 
before a variety of audiences on the importance of creating a lit- 
erate citizenry. On International Literacy Day, rif chairman Mrs. 
Elliot Richardson joined Secretary of Education Terrel Bell and 
former U.S. Senator James Symington as keynote speaker at a 
Jefferson Memorial ceremony, where she told listeners: "We need 
to motivate children to want to learn. For unless a child wants to 
learn the most adept teaching techniques will run into a stone 

Since 1969 all U.S. Commissioners of Education and a host of 
service, literacy, education and youth organizations have endorsed 
the RIF program. Included among those organizations are the 
American Association of School Administrators, the Association 
for Library Services to Children of the American Library Asso- 
ciation, the National Catholic Education Association, the National 
Association of Elementary School Principals, and youth clubs such 
as the Boy's Club of America, Girl Scouts of America, and Camp- 
fire Girls, Inc. 

Highhghts of 1984 

In May 1984 rif held a national celebration of reading called 
"Reading Is Fun Week." Young authors' conferences, reading com- 
petitions, book fairs, and many other special events took place in 
local RIF projects across the country. For their work in promot- 
ing literacy, thousands of local citizens and organizations were 
honored with the Margaret McNamara Certificate of Merit, com- 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. I 363 

memorating rif's founder. To cap the week, rif held a book dis- 
tribution for 600 children at the Washington, D.C., convention 
center, as part of the American Booksellers Association conven- 
tion, the largest English-language book convention in the world. 
Art Buchwald, humorist and syndicated columnist, presided over 
the event and thirty book publishers donated 1,500 books for the 

The children were entertained by Sesame Street's Kermit Love; 
authors and illustrators Ashley Bryan, John Langstaff, and Nor- 
man Bridwell; a Ringling Brothers clown; mimes; and the surprise 
of the day, television star "Mr. T.," who urged the children to 
stay in school and "read, read, read." 

In 1984 New American Library (nal) established a donation 
program with rif to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of nal's 
Signet Classics imprint. For every Signet Classic sold in 1984, one 
cent was earmarked to rif. The publisher inaugurated the program 
with an initial donation of $25,000, presented to rif at the Ameri- 
can Booksellers Association convention. Moreover, nal encour- 
aged booksellers to donate one cent for every Signet Classic sold 
at the retail level, and agreed to match each penny with an addi- 
tional penny. Since more than 250 Signet Classic titles are in 
print, including George Orwell's 1984, this contribution is ex- 
pected to be significant. 

During the year, rif expanded its efforts to involve parents in 
their children's learning and reading. This parent outreach fol- 
lowed naturally from the fact that some 36 percent of rif's volun- 
teers are parents. 

A grant from the MacArthur Foundation enabled rif to pubHsh 
a guide. Books to Crow On, tailored to meet needs cited by par- 
ents in an earlier survey conducted by rif. In 1984, the General 
Electric Foundation provided rif with funds to hold a series of six 
parent workshops. Conducted by educators, authors, and chil- 
dren's literature experts, these workshops are being held in six 
cities nationwide and address such topics as how to read aloud 
to a child, reading activities for families to share, and how to 
match books to children's ages and interests. 

A RIF puppet show, produced by Sesame Street's Kermit Love 
and underwritten by Lever Brothers, toured three major cities — 
Chicago, St. Louis, and Kansas City — reaching nearly 2,000 chil- 
dren. The show featured Love's latest creation. Snuggle the Bear, 
a bear who reads and cares about reading. Love, who also created 
Sesame Street muppets Big Bird, Mr. Snuffleupagus, and Oscar 
the Grouch, left the children with this message: "Reading is fun 

364 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

and it's not hard. It's as easy as making instant soup. All you add 
is imagination." 

At a Parents' Rally held at the International Reading Associa- 
tion's (ira) annual convention, rif held a special book distribu- 
tion and offered a workshop for parents, entitled "The rif Experi- 
ence." The event culminated in a play produced by youngsters 
from RIF projects. 

Last year, rif was selected to receive the Valley Forge Certifi- 
cate for Excellence in Community Programs from the Valley Forge 
Freedoms Foundation. During the last eighteen years, rif and 
members of its staff have won dozens of private and government 
awards, including the highest civilian award made by the Presi- 
dent of the United States to rif's founder, Margaret McNamara, 
for her work in promoting literacy. 

In 1984, a Boston corporation started a new kind of rif project. 
The company — fmr Corp., of Fidelity Investments — donated funds 
to hold a spotlight distribution for the children of its 2,000 em- 
ployees. Corporate executives and Harvard University adminis- 
trators viewed the event with an eye to replicating it. 

Keeping America's Young People Reading 

In 1984 RIF was featured in two widely read pubhcations and one 
syndicated column. As a result, thousands of parents and con- 
cerned citizens from all walks of life wrote rif headquarters ask- 
ing how they could ensure that their youngsters became avid 
readers. A "Frustrated Mother" from Connecticut had written Ann 
Landers about her two children. Though they were "bright," she 
confided, "reading a book would never occur to them." Landers, 
in her reply, referred to rif as an "organization that speaks to 
your needs exactly." Shortly thereafter, rif was deluged with mail 
from parents whose children had also turned their backs on books. 
Articles about rif in Parade magazine and the Mini Page, a news- 
paper insert for young people, also resulted in a barrage of mail 
from parents and from groups seeking information on how to 
start reading motivation programs. 

Over the coming year, rif will continue to forge new coalitions 
to ensure that America's young people keep reading. As Ruth 
Graves, rif president, said in a speech to the book division of the 
International Periodical Distributors Association (ipda): "Despite 
the dismal statistics on literacy, children are demonstrating daily 
that they are interested in acquiring knowledge and skills if the 
process is fun." 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. I 365 

Jimmy Carter came to the Wilson Center March 5, 1984, for an evening dialogue 
on the modern presidency. Shown here with the former President are Senator 
Mark Hatfield (left), who moderated the discussion, and Jack Walker, professor 
of political science at the University of Michigan. 

Smithsonian Year . 1984. 





The Wilson Center — with the Kennedy Center for the Performing 
Arts and the National Gallery of Art — is one of three institutions 
with mixed trust/public funding created by the Congress within 
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., fulfilling a na- 
tional mission under a board appointed by the President of the 
United States. The Wilson Center is an active workshop and 
switchboard for scholarship at the highest levels. Since its opening 
fourteen years ago this fall, it has gained widespread recognition 
for the work of its fellows in mining the scholarly riches of Wash- 
ington, for its many meetings that bring together the world of 
affairs and the world of ideas, and for its democratic openness to 
all comers through its annual fellowship competition. 

Each year, some fifty fellows are brought in through open inter- 
national competition involving ever-increasing numbers of appli- 
cants from a wide range of backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and 
nations. A broad spectrum of ideas is, in turn, shared with a non- 
specialized national audience through The Wilson Quarterly, which 
has more subscribers than any other scholarly quarterly journal 
in the English-speaking world. 

The Wilson Center seeks to render a service to the world and to 
the Washington, D.C., community by throwing open its core 
fellowship program to all interested individuals. Fellows are selected 
for the promise, importance, and appropriateness of their projects 
on the recommendation of broadly based academic panels outside 


the center. The fellows come for limited periods, not only in the 
broadly inclusive program entitled History, Culture, and Society, 
but also in special programs in Russian and Soviet studies (the 
Kennan Institute), Latin American studies, international security 
studies, Asia studies, a program in American society and politics, 
and a European program. Each program is directed by a scholar 
on the staff. 

Following its mandate to symbolize and strengthen the fruitful 
relation between the worlds of learning and of public affairs, the 
center sponsors conferences and seminars on topics of special cur- 
rent interest to both worlds. In 1984, for example, the center 
brought together scholars from many different disciplines, mem- 
bers of Congress, representatives of the executive branch, busi- 
nessmen, journalists, military experts, writers, politicians, educa- 
tors, and diplomats to consider a variety of issues, examine current 
questions, enjoy celebrations, and participate in evaluative discus- 

Increasingly, people from different regions of America meet and 
interact with foreign scholars and the growing intellectual commu- 
nity of Washington itself. In January 1984 the center sponsored 
a major conference in cooperation with the Folger Shakespeare 
Library on "The Treaty of Paris in a Changing States System." 
Speakers included Claude Fohlen, professor of American history, 
Sorbonne, and former Wilson Center Fellow, on "A French View 
of the Treaty of 1783"; A. P. W. Malcolmson, of the Public 
Record office of Northern Ireland on "Irish Responses to the 
Treaty"; Peggy Liss on "The Impact of the Treaty on the Spanish 
Empire"; and Alison Olson, professor of history. University of 
Maryland, on "Later British Responses to the Treaty." 

At an all-day workshop on "Cinema and Society in the Devel- 
oping World," organized by the center's Latin American and His- 
tory Culture and Society programs, film critics considered the im- 
pact of the popular cinema on national identity in Third World 
countries as well as the powerful outside influence of Hollywood. 
Speakers were Pat Aufderheide, freelance film critic; Mbye Cham, 
professor of African-Studies, Harvard University; and film critics 
Luis Francis and Chidananda Das Gupta, Wilson Center Fellow. 

The center's Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies 
organized a major conference on "U.S.-Soviet Exchanges," assess- 
ing the variety of exchanges that have continued between the two 
countries despite continuing tensions. Joining foundations and 
government officers were administrators of scholarly exchanges, of 

368 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

bilateral science and technology exchanges, of programs that pro- 
mote dialogue between United States and Soviet citizens, and of 
Russian language programs. President Reagan, speaking to the 
group in the White House, praised the efforts of the conference 
and supported the continuation of exchanges between the two 

One hundred specialists in Southeast Asia met at the center in 
March 1984 to evaluate changes in research over the last decade, 
and to make plans for more practical results. Participants included 
Leonard Unger, former U.S. ambassador to Laos, Thailand, and 
Taiwan, now professor of diplomacy at the Fletcher School; 
Benedict Anderson, associate director of the Southeast Asia Pro- 
gram, Cornell University; and William Frederick, professor of 
history, Ohio University. 

A two-day conference on "Policy Dialogue on the United States 
and Colombia in the 1980's" brought together a cross-section of 
high-level opinion leaders from the United States and Colombia 
including: Honorable Alvaro Gomez Hurtado, vice-president and 
ambassador of Colombia; Rodrigo Botero Montoya, editor of 
Estrategia; Howard Howe, vice-president, Wharton Econometrics; 
Gabriel Melo Guevara, director. El Siglio; Frederick D. Seeley, 
senior vice-president, J. Henry Schroder's Bank; Honorable Viron 
P. Vaky, Research Professor in Diplomacy, Georgetown Univer- 
sity; Honorable Michael D. Barnes, United States Representative 
from Maryland; Fernando Cepeda Ulloa, dean of the Law Faculty, 
Universidad de los Andes; Bruce M. Bagley, associate director, 
Latin American Program, Johns Hopkins University; and Marco 
Polacios Rozo, cultural adviser. Banco Popular. 

As an intellectual contribution to the various events celebrating 
the "Harry S Truman Centennial," the center held a two-day 
symposium in cooperation with the National Museum of American 
History. Among the speakers and commentators were Robert 
Griffith, professor of history. University of Massachusetts; Alonzo 
L. Hamby, professor of history, Ohio University; Craufurd D. 
Goodwin, dean of the Graduate School, Duke University; Nelson 
Lichtenstein, professor of history. Catholic University; William 
H. Chafe, professor of history, Duke University; Paul Boyer, pro- 
fessor of history. University of Wisconsin; David Rosenberg, Na- 
tion Defense University, Washington, D.C.; Bruce Kuniholm, In- 
stitute of Policy Studies, Duke University; Robert McMahon, pro- 
fessor of history. University of Florida; John Gaddis, professor of 
history, Ohio University, Athens; Charles Maier, professor of his- 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 369 

tory. Harvard University; John W. Dower, professor of history. 
University of Wisconsin; Barton Bernstein, professor of history, 
Stanford University; Clark CUfford, former personal adviser to 
President Truman; Robert Donovan, former Wilson Center Fel- 
low and author of Conflict and Crisis and Tumultuous Years, both 
on the Truman presidency; and I. F. Stone, journalist and author 
of The Truman Era. 

In addition to these large conferences and workshops, the center 
sponsors small, informal discussions that bring together states- 
men and scholars — an evening on "The Modern Presidency" with 
former President Jimmy Carter and a small dinner for the incom- 
ing president of Panama, Nicolas Ardito Barletta, who had previ- 
ously participated in many events at the center. 

The center's fellows continue to come from all over the world, 
from many disciplines, and from many areas of the United States. 
Among its 1984 fellows and guest scholars were Persio Arrida, 
professor of economics, Pontifica Universidade Catolica de Rio de 
Janeiro; Shlomo Avineri, Herbert Samuel Professor of Political 
Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Warner Bement Bert- 
hoff, professor of English and American literature. Harvard Uni- 
versity; Mary Brown Bullock, director of the Committee on Schol- 
arly Communication with the People's Republic of China's Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences; Betsy Erkkila, assistant professor of 
history. University of Notre Dame; Mario Garcia, associate pro- 
fessor of history and Chicano Studies, University of California, 
Santa Barbara; Michael Howard, Regius Professor of Modern His- 
tory, Oxford University; Samuel Huntington, Frank G. Thompson 
Professor of Government, Harvard University; Byong-ik Koh, pro- 
fessor of history, Hanlim College, Ch'unch'on, Korea; William 
Young Smith, usaf (Ret), former deputy commander in chief, U.S. 
European Command; Peter B. Reddaway, senior lecturer in politi- 
cal science, London School of Economics; Massimo Salvadori, pro- 
fessor of contemporary history. University of Torino, Italy; and 
Robert C. Tucker, director of the Russian Studies Program, Prince- 
ton University. 

The result of this broad and heterogeneous mix of fellows is an 
intellectual life greater than the sum of its parts: the collegial 
atmosphere provides an opportunity for learning and communi- 
cation that transcends national and academic boundaries for the 
benefit of all. 

370 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Smiihsonian Year • 1984 



The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, organized 
by an Act of Congress in 1958 as a self-sustaining bureau of the 
Smithsonian Institution, is both a presidential memorial under the 
aegis of the Department of the Interior and a performing arts 
center directed by a board of trustees whose citizen members are 
appointed by the President of the United States. Six members of 
Congress and nine designated ex officio representatives of the 
executive branch complete the roster of forty-five members. This 
annual report of the center's activities encompasses all the pro- 
gramming presented in its five theaters by the National Symphony 
Orchestra, the Washington Opera, Washington Performing Arts 
Society, and American Film Institute, as well as by the Kennedy 
Center itself. 

During its 1983-84 season, the Kennedy Center observed a 
number of milestones in its programming, its theater operations, 
and its legislative history. The renovation of the Opera House was 
completed at a cost of $2 million, raised entirely from private 
sources. After thirteen years of continuous use by the world's 
leading artists and companies, the Opera House that had been 
inaugurated with Mass was rededicated by another Leonard Bern- 
stein premiere — A Quiet Place and Trouble in Tahiti. Immediately 
following this American premiere, the brilliant Vienna Volksoper 
continued the tradition of outstanding companies from abroad 
that have been presented to America at the Kennedy Center. 


The observance of the twentieth anniversary of the death of 
President John F. Kennedy was marked by a moving memorial 
concert on November 22, 1983. Not only was the late President 
actively involved in fundraising on behalf of the National Cultural 
Center before his death, but Congress also chose to designate the 
center as a "living memorial" in his honor. When Congress unani- 
mously voted in 1964 to rename the center for John F. Kennedy, 
it reaffirmed the specific performing arts and public service pro- 
gramming mandate under which the center continues to operate. 

Unlike other regional performing arts centers, the Kennedy 
Center is specifically directed by its authorizing legislation to pre- 
sent a broad array of performing arts programming, including 
theater, music, opera, ballet, and dance, and to sponsor educational 
and public-service activities in order to provide the broadest pos- 
sible public access. The center must, however, annually seek mil- 
lions of dollars in private contributions in order to meet these 
goals since no direct federal appropriations are provided to fulfill 
this mandate of Congress. 

The Ninety-Eighth Congress enacted legislation restructuring 
the center's original construction debt. When, in 1964, Congress 
created the Kennedy Center, it specifically provided for federal 
funding to be comingled with voluntary contributions to assist in 
its construction. Ultimately, the center's trustees raised $34.5 mil- 
lion from the private sector and foreign governments to exceed the 
the federal matching requirement of $23 million. The Secretary of 
the Treasury was authorized to issue $20.4 million in revenue bonds 
to help complete the substructure. 

While the principal of the bonds thus issued was not due for 
payment until 2017-2019, rapidly accumulating federal compound 
interest on them has adversely affected private fundraising. The 
1984 amendments to the Kennedy Center Act waive past and 
future interest while requiring the center to begin early repayment 
of the principal beginning in 1987. This important congressional 
action, carried out with the full support of the executive branch, 
will significantly improve the center's financial stability and enable 
it to launch a long-delayed endowment drive. Thus the center's 
operation as a performing arts center will continue to be firmly 
rooted in private sector support. With a total of 50 million visitors, 
the Kennedy Center remains one of the most popular tourist sites 
in the Nation's Capital. 

372 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Performing Arts Programming 

The 1983-84 season at Kennedy Center was attended by 1.2 mil- 
lion people in the Eisenhower and Terrace Theaters, Opera House, 
and Concert Hall. Programming highlights are described in the 
sections that follow. 


The theatrical season at the Kennedy Center addressed, as it has 
in previous seasons, the past as well as the future. Twenty produc- 
tions — revues, lavish musicals, one-person shows, farce, tragedy, 
premieres, and revivals — featured such diverse artists as Elizabeth 
Ashley, Lauren Bacall, Anthony Quinn, Carol Channing, Dustin 
Hoffman, and Jack Klugman in an extraordinarily diverse array of 
theatrical offerings: Agnes of God, Woman of the Year, Zorha, 
Jerry's Girls, Death of a Salesman, Lyndon. 

New plays were well represented: Arthur Kopit's End of the 
World, the American premieres of Michael Frayn's hilarious com- 
edy Noises Off, David Pownall's Master Class, Vinnette Carroll's 
When Hell Freezes Over, I'll Skate, and A. R. Gurney, Jr.'s The 
Golden Age, starring Irene Worth. 

Consistent with its efforts to assist mainstream programming 
reflecting this country's ethnic diversity, the Kennedy Center's 
National Committee on Cultural Diversity provided significant 
financial support for the presentation and audience development 
of When Hell Freezes Over, I'll Skate. 

This past year also marked box office records for the Terrace 
Theater and Opera House. Anthony Quinn in Zorha broke all 
previous one-week box office totals in the Opera House, and the 
Denver Center Theater Company production of Quilters set new 
Terrace Theater records for attendance as well as receipts. 

Finally, on the international scene, the Kennedy Center land- 
mark revival of Rodgers and Hart's On Your Toes began a long, 
successful London engagement with the production's original star 
and Tony Award winner, ballerina Natalia Makarova. The ac- 
claimed Vienna Volksoper, making its premier American tour, 
presented The Merry Widow, The Gypsy Princess, and Die Fleder- 
maus, following in the path of earlier seasons' enthusiastic audience 
reception for the Vienna Staatsoper and Vienna Philharmonic. The 
Concert Hall housed one of its rare theatrical offerings when the 
National Theater of Greece presented its contemporary staging of 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 373 

Oedipus Rex, directly following the company's appearance at the 
Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival. 


During the 1983-84 season, the Kennedy Center once again offered 
a ballet and dance series that brought outstanding American repre- 
sentatives of this art form to the Nation's Capital. An exciting 
first engagement by the John Curry Skating Company offered a 
unique blend of ballet choreography and championship ice skating. 

Opening the season was the Kennedy Center debut of one of 
the country's outstanding regional companies, the Houston Ballet, 
under the artistic direction of Ben Stevenson; works offered in- 
cluded a lavish and highly praised new full-length production of 
Sleeping Beauty. 

American Ballet Theatre made its annual Kennedy Center 
appearance during the December holiday season. For the first time 
in many years, the company did not dance its famed Nutcracker; 
rather, the center offered abt's world premier of Mikhail Baryshni- 
kov's new production of the full-length Prokofiev ballet Cinderella, 
choreographed by Baryshnikov and Peter Anastos. The work was 
an immediate audience hit — sold out for sixteen performances — 
and captured press coverage across the country. Also widely 
acclaimed were the world premiere of Twyla Tharp's Partita, as 
well as appearances by Mikhail Baryshnikov in several Tharp 
works, including Sinatra Suite, first danced in Washington at the 
1983 Kennedy Center Honors. 

The New York City Ballet offered a critically acclaimed two- 
week engagement beginning in February. It was the company's 
first Washington appearance under the leadership of its new 
co-ballet masters in chief, Peter Martins and Jerome Robbins, 
following the death of the company's founder, George Balanchine. 
Robbins offered the world premiere of his new work. Antique 
Epigraphs, as well as Washington premieres of his Glass Pieces 
and the remarkable I'm Old Fashioned, fusing a dance sequence 
from an Astaire-Rogers film with live dancers. Also praised was 
Peter Martin's new work A Schuhertiad. The Balanchine legacy 
was represented by a large number of works ranging from his first 
American-created ballet. Serenade, to one of his last masterpieces, 
Vienna Waltzes. 

Dance Theatre of Harlem, under the leadership of artistic 
director Arthur Mitchell, made its annual appearance under the 

374 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Triple-medal-winner John Curry brought his company of exceptional skaters 
and a blend of ballet choreography and ice skating to the Kennedy Center for 
a critically acclaimed and sold-out engagement. 

sponsorship of the Washington Performing Arts Society, offering 
the Washington premiere of its production of Agnes de Mille's 
study of Lizzie Borden, Fall River Legend, as well as Sioan Lake, 
Act II and the company's always popular production of Firebird. 
Also in the repertory was Geoffrey Holder's intense "voodoo" 
ballet, Dougla. 

The Joffrey Ballet closed the season with a challenging and 
exciting repertory including William Forsythe's acid study of con- 
temporary male-female relationships. Love Songs; Gerald Arpino's 
sunny Italian Suite; and Jiri Kylian's sophisticated homily to folk 
dancing. Dream Dances. 

Modern dance was well represented in the Terrace Theater, 
with sold-out performances by the Joyce Trisler Danscompany, 
Crowsnest and Elisa Monte, all included in the Dance America 
series, which is cosponsored by Kennedy Center and the Washing- 
ton Performing Arts Society. The latter organization also spon- 
sored a week-long engagement of the Paul Taylor Dance Company 
in the Eisenhower Theater. 

Many choreographers familiar to Washington's ballet and dance 
patrons — Twyla Tharp, Laura Dean, Peter Martins, Lar Lubo- 
vitch — contributed to the astonishing repertoire of the John Curry 
Skating Company. The stage of the Opera House — and backstage 
areas — were literally frozen to create a vast surface for the com- 
pany, led by triple medal-winner John Curry. Hailed as "the 
supreme artist on ice," Curry led the company, which featured 
Jo Jo Starbuck, David Santee, and special guest artist Dorothy 
Hamill, to enthusiastic reviews and sold-out performances. 

The magnificent Spanish dancer Maria Benitez and her company 
were presented in the Terrace Theater for two sold-out evenings, 
and the remarkable Hungarian State Folk Ensemble for an evening 
in the Concert Hall. 

Finally, an unusual special attraction was offered for one week 
in the Opera House: the Antologia de la Zarzuela, from Spain. 


After its creation as a "living memorial" to John F. Kennedy in 
1964, the Kennedy Center opened its doors in 1971 with Leonard 
Bernstein's Mass, a theatrical work with music and dance com- 
missioned by the late President's widow. 

The 1984 musical season at Kennedy Center paid heed to the 
past, even as it continued to encourage young concert artists of the 

376 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

future. A moving musical tribute commemorating the twentieth 
anniversary of the death of President Kennedy on November 22, 
1983, was a gift to the pubhc from the Kennedy Center and the 
Kennedy family. Artists from all over the world donated their 
appearances, including soprano Grace Bumbry and accompanist 
Jonathan Morris; the chamber trio of Eugene Istomin, Isaac Stern, 
and the late Leonard Rose; cellist Mstislav Rostropovich; actor 
Cliff Robertson; baritone Stephen Dickson and flutist Priscilla 
Fritter, with the Norman Scribner Choir. A capacity audience filled 
the Concert Hall and an overflow audience was able to watch and 
hear the concert from the Grand Foyer via large-screen sound and 
video relay. 

A new operatic work by Leonard Bernstein, A Quiet Place and 
Trouble in Tahiti, reopened the Kennedy Center Opera House 
after its extensive renovation. Commissioned jointly by the Ken- 
nedy Center, the Houston Grand Opera, and Milan's Teatro alia 
Scala, the work significantly revised and extended Bernstein's 
one-act opera of the early 1950s, Trouble in Tahiti. First presented 
in Houston, the new opera was then substantially reworked prior 
to its triumphant world premiere at La Scala. It made its East Coast 
debut at the Kennedy Center in July. 

Audiences for the 1983-84 Terrace Concerts were larger than 
ever before. Twenty-seven concerts were offered, including the 
first five concerts in the Fortas Chamber Music Series, an endowed 
series in memory of the late Justice Abe Fortas, a trustee of the 
Kennedy Center with a lifelong commitment to chamber music. 
Performing in the Fortas series were clarinetist Richard Stoltzman; 
Jody Gatwood and Friends; the Brandenburg Ensemble conducted 
by Alexander Schneider, with Peter Serkin; the Guarneri String 
Quartet; and Tashi, featuring musicians Richard Stoltzman, Ida 
Kavafian, Fred Sherry, Theodore Arm, and Toby Appel. There 
were also performances by pianists Shura Cherkassky, Byron 
Janis, Paul Badura-Skoda, and Jean Bernard Pommier; chamber 
music concerts by the Lausanne Orchestra; a Brahms cycle of three 
concerts by the Kalichstein-Laredo-Robinson Trio; flutist Paul 
Robison and pianist Ruth Laredo; song recitals by Judith Blegen, 
Barbara Hendricks, Lucia Popp, and Peter Schreier. The American 
Composers Series honored EHiott Carter, Morton Feldman, Conlon 
Nancarrow, Laurie Anderson, and Gunther Schuller. 

For the fourth summer, the Kennedy Center also presented the 
Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, under the direction of Pinchas 
Zukerman, and Lincoln Center's Mostly Mozart Festival. Appear- 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 2>77 

ing with the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra were soloists Ralph 
Kirshbaum (cello), Kathryn Greenbank (oboe), and Rudolf Fir- 
kusny (piano). 

In addition, Zukerman was the viola soloist in Hindemith's 
"Trauermusik" and violin soloist in Bach's Concerto in C Minor for 
Oboe and Violin and Vivaldi's "The Four Seasons." The Mostly 
Mozart Festival Orchestra performed five concerts, including five 
preconcert recitals, with soloists Misha Dichter (piano), Elmar 
Oliveira (violin), Young-Uck Kim (violin), Phihppe Entremont 
(piano), Richard Stoltzman (clarinet), Lillian Kallir (piano), Mena- 
hem Pressler (piano), and Janos Starker (cello). Conducting the 
orchestra this year were Gerard Schwarz and Eduardo Mata. One 
of the five concerts was an entire program by the Tokyo String 

The Friedheim Awards, which recognize American composition 
in symphonic and chamber music in alternating years, awarded 
first prize for 1983 in the category of chamber music to Thomas 
Oboe Lee for his Third String Quartet. Second place was awarded 
to George Perle for "Sonata A Quattro," and third place to Karel 
Husa for "Recollections." 

Theater Chamber Players, Young Concert Artists, and the 
Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center returned for their annual 
concert series in the Terrace Theater and Concert Hall. The 
Handel Festival for 1983 featured the Washington premieres of 
the opera Orlando and oratorio Alexander Balus and the third 
annual Hallelujah Handel concert. The latter is one of the season's 
most popular music events and this year included an appearance 
by the well-known soprano Roberta Peters. 

The National Symphony Orchestra, under music director Msti- 
slav Rostropovich, presented a full thirty-seven-week season in 
1983-84, with soloists and guest conductors and new works. The 
Washington Opera season in the Opera House and Terrace Theater 
offered seven productions, including Rigoletto, Cosi Fan Tutte, and 

The Metropolitan Opera, celebrating its Centennial Season, 
returned for two weeks to the Kennedy Center for its fifth con- 
secutive engagement. Highlights included Placido Domingo and 
Renata Scotto in Tosca and Francesca da Rimini, Jon Vickers and 
Johanna Meier in Peter Grimes and Die Walkiire, Leona Mitchell, 
Sherrill Milnes, and Ermanno Mauro in Ernani, Gail Robinson and 
David Rendell in The Abduction from the Seraglio, and Marilyn 
Home and Benita Valente in Rinaldo. The performances were 

378 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

conducted by James Levine, David Atherton, Mario Bernardi, and 
Thomas Fulton. 

One of the highlights of the annual Kennedy Center Christmas 
Festival was a "kick-off" celebration for the holidays during which 
tickets to the ever-popular free "Messiah Sing-Along" were 
distributed to the thousands of people who stand in hne every 
year to receive them. While "Sing-Along" tickets were being 
distributed, entertainment was provided, and leading arts figures 
awarded additional tickets to other popular Holiday Festival pro- 

As in previous years, there were many free public performances 
in the Grand Foyer, attended by more than 10,000 people. There 
were also performances by the New York String Orchestra under 
the baton of Alexander Schneider. A Night in Old Vienna was 
once again a tremendous success, with waltzing in the Grand Foyer 
on New Year's Eve to the music of Alexander Schneider and 
Friends following their customary holiday concert in the Concert 


Through a series of national programs emanating from its offices 
at the Kennedy Center, as well as from its campus in Los Angeles, 
the American Film Institute (afi) serves as the single national 
institution devoted to the advancement and preservation of film, 
television, and the related media arts. Established as an indepen- 
dent, nonprofit organization in 1967 by the National Endowment 
for the Arts, the Film Institute strives to increase recognition and 
understanding of the moving image as an art form, to assure 
preservation of that art form, and to identify, develop, and encour- 
age new talent. 

In its 224-seat theater at the Kennedy Center, the American 
Film Institute has, since 1973, presented 7,500 motion pictures to 
a total audience of more than one million people. Classic films, 
independent features, foreign films, and contemporary video works 
comprise the daily programming, often accompanied by guest 
artists and lecturers. The Exhibition Services division at AFI this 
past year toured a variety of special services to selected sites around 
the country, featuring such diverse programming as Arab films, 
British independent features, and the films of China. 

In addition to the afi Theater, the Kennedy Center also houses 
the offices of the Film Institute and the AFI Resource Center, one 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 379 






Scaffolding filled the Kennedy Center Opera House during the spring and sum- 
mer of 1984 as the hall underwent a $2 million renovation, which was made 
possible through private fundraising. 

of the area's leading libraries and information clearinghouses on 
the media arts. The afi staff in Washington publishes American 
Film: The Magazine of the Film and Television Arts, a monthly 
magazine with a circulation of more than 140,000, and further 
serves the national membership through the Membership Services 
division, which publishes the afi newsletter Close-Up. 

During the past year, the afi Special Events program hosted a 
number of fundraising benefits and premieres at the Kennedy 
Center and elsewhere in Washington. Highlights included the 
world premiere of The Right Stuff in the Eisenhower Theater and 
the first annual afi ball last spring, honoring dancer and actress 
Ginger Rogers. 

Professional conservatory training for film and videomakers is 
provided at the Center for Advanced Film Studies on the afi 
campus in Los Angeles. Also operating from its Los Angeles 
offices are the institute's Public Service program, which conducts 
film and video workshops and seminars across the country, and 
the Education Services program. The institute also administers 
NEA funds for production grants to independent filmmakers; con- 
ducts the Directing Workshop for Women; coordinates an intern 
placement program with major film directors; and annually pre- 
sents the afi Life Achievement Award to an individual "whose 
talent has in a fundamental way advanced the filmmaking art . . . 
and whose work has stood the test of time." The 1984 award was 
presented in March to pioneer film actress Lillian Gish and was 
televised nationally on CBS. 

Working with the National Endowment for the Arts, the insti- 
tute has created the National Center for Film and Video Preser- 
vation to preserve film and videotape and to coordinate a compre- 
hensive preservation effort serving film archives around the coun- 
try. Included in these preservation activities is the continuation of 
the AFI catalog project, which, when completed, will provide a 
comprehensive listing of American films made since 1893. 

Public-Service Programming 

The Kennedy Center is specifically directed by Congress to carry 
out a broad range of educational and public service programs, in 
addition to its principal performing arts-programming responsibil- 
ities. These congressionally mandated broad social purposes remain 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 381 

unfunded by the federal government, except for partial Depart- 
ment of Education funding of three national education programs. 
During 1984, therefore, the board of trustees once again raised 
private contributions to fulfill its Section 4 mandate as stated in 
the Kennedy Center Act, to support the national education pro- 
grams, cultural diversity activities, and the privately subsidized 
presentation of theater, music, and dance. Five million dollars was 
allocated from contributions by individuals, foundations, and 
corporations during 1984 for these purposes, including 450 free 
and low-admission performances and events enjoyed by 400,000 
people in Washington, D.C., and in cities around the country. 


Since it opened in September 1971, the Kennedy Center has main- 
tained a Specially Priced Ticket Program through which tickets 
to center-produced and presented attractions are made available 
at half price to students, handicapped persons, senior citizens over 
sixty-five, low-income groups, and military personnel in grades 
E-1 through E-4. The attendant costs, in terms of reduced revenue 
potential and administrative overhead, are borne by the center 
itself and are viewed as a part of its educational/public service 

During the twelve-month period ending September 30, 1984, 
69,167 tickets for attractions produced and presented by the center 
were sold at half price. The sale of these tickets at full price would 
have resulted in additional gross income to the center of $714,791. 
Independent producers are also required to participate in the pro- 
gram by making a percentage of their tickets available for sale at 
half price. During the twelve-month period ending September 30, 
1984, combined half-price tickets sales totalled 89,490. The sale 
of these tickets at full price would have resulted in a total addi- 
tional gross income of $1,167,790 to the center and the inde- 
pendent producers. 

Education Programming 

Section 4 of the Kennedy Center Act directs the board of trustees 
to develop programs for children and youth in the performing 
arts. The center's Education Program, designed toward this end, 
provides national leadership in arts education through educational 

382 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

networks across the country, through cooperative programming 
with regional performing-arts centers, and through the presenta- 
tion of performances for young audiences. During 1984, 3.5 mil- 
lion students, their families, and teachers were involved in the 
three primary components of the Education Program: the Ameri- 
can College Theatre Festival (actf). Programs for Children and 
Youth (pcy), and the Alliance for Arts Education (aae). 

The United States Department of Education provided $675,000 
in funding for national outreach components that was matched 
overall by $1.6M in-kind support. Additional matching contri- 
butions, in excess of the federal support provided, are provided 
principally through the Kennedy Center Corporate Fund, with ad- 
ditional assistance from corporations, foundations, and individuals. 
At both the state and national levels, the Kennedy Center Educa- 
tion Program seeks to promote the incorporation of the arts into 
the education of every child by identifying and supporting exem- 
plary arts education projects. As part of this commitment, the 
Kennedy Center works closely with the National Committee, Arts 
with the Handicapped, and the National Information Center, Arts 
Education and Americans. 


The Alliance for Arts Education (aae) is an information network 
comprising fifty-three state and territorial committees, funded in 
part by the Kennedy Center Education Program, that attempts to 
identify, develop, promote, and maintain quaUty arts education 
programs throughout the nation. It is the only such national net- 
work that speaks for all the arts for every student. Each aae com- 
mittee is unique, reflecting local conditions. The national aae, 
therefore, has allowed for flexibility in the structure and operation 
of these committees, within established guidelines. On the national 
level, the aae serves as an information exchange; identifies and 
spotlights notable achievements of the aae committees and exem- 
plary local arts programs and individuals; provides technical assis- 
tance; develops arts education advocacy materials for use at state 
and local levels; oversees the management and leadership of the 
entire aae network; and develops and conducts programs of na- 
tional significance. Aae committee members are artists, educators, 
parents, and administrators affiliated with professional arts edu- 
cation associations, state departments of education, state and local 
arts agencies, university and college arts departments, cultural 
arts centers, and public school systems. A major thrust for many 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 383 

of these state committees has been the development and implemen- 
tation of Comprehensive State Arts Curriculum Plans. 

Through awards and recognition, the aae brings visibility to 
outstanding educators and quality programs in arts education. The 
Summer Fellowships for Outstanding Teachers of the Arts Pro- 
gram is a method, begun this year, of rewarding excellence in 
teaching, while allowing arts teachers to further pursue their 
artistic areas. Teachers selected from applicants nationwide re- 
ceived a stipend and a three-week residency in Washington, D.C., 
to work, exhibit, and perform. Recognition awards are also given 
to elementary school principals and other individuals for excel- 
lence of effort in fostering the arts in their schools. National recog- 
nition of talent in youth is also an important concern of the aae. 
The national office coproduces, with the annual Presidential Schol- 
ars Commission and the National Foundation for Advancement in 
the Arts, the Presidential Scholars in the Arts Showcase perfor- 
mance in the Kennedy Center Concert Hall. Twenty outstanding 
high school seniors, representing dance, music, creative writing, 
and the visual arts, are selected from throughout the nation and 
are brought to Washington for a week of activities, highlighted 
by their performances at the center. 

The AAE is primarily an information exchange network with 
various means of distribution. Interchange is a bimonthly publica- 
tion — made available upon request, free of charge — that provides 
information on arts education activities and events that may be of 
interest and assistance to various educators and organizations 
across the country. Other publications on a variety of arts educa- 
tion topics are made available from the national office through the 
National Information Center, located at the Kennedy Center. 

Town Meetings on Arts Education are produced twice a year 
at the Kennedy Center by the aae. This gathering of arts educa- 
tors and arts education association directors addresses topics of 
mutual interest outside the educational framework. Other special 
projects and services provided by the aae include the coordina- 
tion and planning of conferences and meetings. 

In short, the aae serves as a bond between the arts and arts 
education; between government and the private sector; between 
arts associations and institutions; and between professional arts 
education organizations and educational associations. It has estab- 
lished a wide network of people working toward the development 
of the arts and arts education as basic to the cultural vitality of 
their communities. 

384 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


The commitment of the Education Program to quality performing- 
arts programming for young people is clearly expressed through 
the work of the Programs for Children and Youth (pcy), which is 
committed to developing new performing works for young people 
and accompanying materials for teachers and others, to help inte- 
grate performance into the student's overall education. 

During the past season, pcy presented nearly 500 free perfor- 
mances and related events to audiences of more than 400,000 in 
Washington, D.C., and cities around the country. An ongoing 
series of programs for young people are produced at the Kennedy 
Center by pcy, which is resident in the center's Theater Lab. 
Events include a Fall Series of performances, a special Holiday 
Show with a cast of young performers, the Cultural Diversity 
Festival, and — the highlight of each year — imagination celebra- 

Imagination celebration, an annual national children's arts 
festival at the Kennedy Center, is produced by pcy, and key ele- 
ments are replicated in selected cities throughout the United States 
in outreach imagination celebration festivals. This program not 
only provides a model for performing-arts festivals for young peo- 
ple but enables the center to contribute to the development of new 
works, to involve noted artists in programming for young people, 
and to serve as a catalyst for the development of programs for 
young people at performing-arts centers throughout the country. 

Programs for Children and Youth provides technical assistance 
and core professional productions for each outreach festival, featur- 
ing such well-known artists as Sarah Caldwell, Jacques d'Amboise, 
Leon Bibb, and Gian Carlo Menotti. Each year at the imagination 
celebration Gala held at Kennedy Center, an Award for Excel- 
lence is presented to an outstanding artist or individual for his or 
her contribution to young people and the arts. The recipient of 
this year's award was Fred Rogers of the popular and long-running 
public television program, "Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood." Pcy also 
offers an Arts Education Workshop series to Washington area 
elementary and secondary teachers. The workshops are offered 
annually in the fall and spring and were created to provide greater 
awareness and appreciation of all art forms, thus enhancing 
teacher commitment to the arts in education. A series of drama 
classes for young people is also offered. Children aged five to 
eighteen may register for classes taught by professional actor/ 
teachers on Saturdays at the Kennedy Center. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 385 

Nineteen eighty-four marked the eighth programming year for 
PCY. In that time more than 3,000 performances have been pre- 
sented to more than 1.4 milHon young people and their famihes. 
There were twenty-five imagination celebration festivals in nine 
states and the District of Columbia in 1984. Since 1977, pcy has 
commissioned and/or produced sixteen new works, including 
plays, operas, and dance pieces. 

During 1983-84, Programs for Children and Youth was sup- 
ported by the U.S. Department of Education and the Kennedy 
Center Corporate Fund, with additional funds provided by the 
Alvord Foundation, Mobil Corporation, the German Orphan 
Home Foundation, and the Corina Higginson Trust. 


The American College Theatre Festival (actf) is presented an- 
nually by the Kennedy Center to provide national recognition of 
the efforts of college and university theaters throughout the United 
States. Nearly 13,500 students and 2,500 faculty members from 
460 schools participated in actf-xvi. Their productions across the 
country drew audiences of more than two million. The festival 
seeks to encourage new styles of theatrical presentation and meth- 
ods of staging, innovative approaches to the classics, original plays 
by young writers, and revivals of significant plays of the past. 
It emphasizes excellence of total production, including acting, 
directing, design, and writing. 

Nearly sixty productions were presented in twelve regional festi- 
vals. Of these, seven were chosen for showcase presentation at the 
two-week national festival in the Kennedy Center Terrace The- 
ater: Working, Illinois Wesley an University, Bloomington; Eleven- 
Zulu, University of Missouri, Columbia; Arrah-Na-Pogue, State 
University of New York at Binghampton; Angel City, University 
of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington; Mindbender, Rhode Island 
College, Providence; The Taming of the Shrew, California State 
University, Fresno; and American Buffalo, Clemson University, 
Clemson, South Carolina. 

The Michael Kanin Student Playwriting Award and other actf 
awards and scholarships in acting, theatrical design, theater criti- 
cism, and theater management offer students vital professional 
experience and cash awards totaling more than $30,000. 

This past summer, twelve outstanding students from across the 
country were selected for training at a two-week career-develop- 

386 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

ment symposium and performance showcase. The students spent 
July 16-28 at the Coolfont Conference Center, a residential recrea- 
tion and conference center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, 
where they were coached in how to audition professionally and 
received other assistance in preparing for a career in the theater. 
The program culminated with a performance for producers and 
casting agents in the Theater Lab at the Kennedy Center and at 
the Douglas Fairbanks Theater in New York City. David Young, 
producing director of the actf, served as director for the program. 
Marshall Mason of Circle Repertory in New York was artistic 
director. Nationally recognized theater professionals served as 
coaches, advisers, and symposia leaders. 

The American College Theatre Festival is presented and pro- 
duced by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 
cooperation with the University and College Theatre Association, a 
division of the American Theatre Association, and is supported in 
part by the Amoco companies and the Kennedy Center Corporate 

Friends of the Kennedy Center 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center is a nationwide organization 
of volunteers and donor members founded in 1966 to raise grass- 
roots support for the building of a National Cultural Center. 
Today, thirteen years after the doors of the center first opened, 
the Friends continue to promote its programs and activities. 

As a result of an ongoing effort to increase community and 
national involvement with the Kennedy Center, Friends member- 
ship has grown from 6,000 to more than 26,000 in the last three 
years, with members in every state. 

In the Washington metropolitan area, 350 Friends volunteers 
contributed more than 65,000 hours of service during the past 
year to provide visitor and information services 365 days a year. 
The volunteers staffed the Friends gift shops, provided special 
assistance to handicapped visitors, and administered the Specially 
Priced Ticket Program. Volunteer guides offered free tours every 
day of the year to more than 6,000 people who visit the Kennedy 
Center on an average day. Tours are also conducted in several 
foreign languages to accommodate the large numbers of visitors 

Tohn F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 2>S7 

from abroad. Group tours, including those arranged through mem- 
bers of Congress, are also offered on a regular basis. Other areas 
of involvement for Friends volunteers include a Speakers' Bureau, 
benefit committees, and participation in community outreach 

Kennedy Center News, published bimonthly by the Friends, 
serves as the public relations newsletter for the Kennedy Center 
and is received by thousands of Friends members, members of 
Congress, arts organizations, government agencies, and libraries 
across the country. Revenues from the Friends membership, gift 
shops, and fundraising activities help support such public service 
and national outreach programs of the Kennedy Center as the 
American College Theatre Festival; the imagination celebration 
festivals for children; the National Very Special Arts Festival of 
the National Committee, Arts with the Handicapped; organ re- 
citals and an annual organ concert, free to the public; arts career 
workshops and special tours of the center for more than 5,000 
4-H participants in the annual summer Washington, D.C., pro- 
gram; and the Specially Priced Ticket Program. 

Members of the National Council of the Friends of the Kennedy 
Center are listed in Appendix I. 

Performing Arts Library 

March of 1984 marked the completion of five full years of opera- 
tion for the Performing Arts Library. During its most recent year, 
the library served a widening circle of readers interested in all 
aspects of the performing arts. These readers represent not only 
professional artists, scholars, writers, and administrators, but also 
a broad cross section of the general public, whose questions range 
from the casual to those requiring extensive research. As a work- 
ing arts information center, with a direct computer link to the 
collections and resources of the Library of Congress, the Perform- 
ing Arts Library assists directors, designers, and artists on a con- 
tinuing basis. 

The Performing Arts Library was visited and used by nearly 
20,000 readers, while an additional thousand people used the 
library by telephone or by letter, calling or writing from all over 
the country and from several foreign nations. 

388 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

The major exhibit this year was The Grand Interpreters: Per- 
sonalities in Opera in America, which opened on April 24 and 
remained on view through the end of the year. This was the 
product of several experts, not only in the Library of Congress 
Exhibits Office, but also at the National Portrait Gallery and the 
Metropolitan Opera. Donor Charles Jahant's collection formed the 
core of the exhibition, which featured costumes, costume designs, 
music manuscripts, and Jahant's incomparable photographs among 
its many treasures. An earlier exhibition. All Singing, All Talking, 
All Dancing, featured posters from Hollywood musicals of the 
1930s and 1940s drawn from the poster collection in the Prints 
and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. 

The Performing Arts Library participated in conferences and 
meetings with a variety of groups in the fields of the arts, arts 
education, and librarianship from several parts of the United States 
and from countries around the world. Of particular note were a 
group of dance scholars from Mexico, performing-arts specialists 
from the Society of American Archivists, and teacher-fellows from 
the Alliance for Arts Education Summer Fellowship Program. 

Kennedy Center Honors 

The Kennedy Center Honors were first awarded by the board of 
trustees in 1978 to recognize lifelong achievements by this nation's 
performing artists. An annual event, the Honors Gala is the cen- 
ter's most important fundraising benefit; the 1983 gala raised 
$600,000 in net proceeds to support Kennedy Center program- 
ming. The 1983 honorees were Katherine Dunham, Elia Kazan, 
Frank Sinatra, James Stewart, and Virgil Thomson. Preceding the 
1983 Honors Gala in the Opera House was a reception at the 
White House, hosted by President and Mrs. Ronald Reagan. 
Among the performers who participated in the evening's tributes, 
later broadcast by cbs during the holiday season to more than 30 
million viewers, were Mikhail Baryshnikov, Warren Beatty, Carol 
Burnett, Perry Como, Geoffrey Holder, John Houseman, Carmen 
de Lavallade, and Agnes de Mille. This broadcast was awarded an 
Emmy as the outstanding variety, music, or comedy program for 
the year. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 389 


The Kennedy Center's operating budget for 1984 — from its theater 
operations, concession income, and contributions — was $31 million. 

During 1984 the Kennedy Center completed the first phase of 
its centralized automation, made possible in part by major con- 
tributions from Digital Equipment Corporation for hardware and 
American Digital Systems Corporation for software. By the end 
of the year marketing, membership, and development as well as 
the financial payroll and accounting were on line. Automation of 
the center's box office operations, the second phase, will be under- 
taken in later years. 

The National Park Service is responsible for much of the main- 
tenance and for ensuring the security of the Kennedy Center, 
which, as a presidential memorial, is open to the public without 
charge every day of the year. The center, however, must reimburse 
the National Park Service a 23.8 percent pro rata share of 
maintenance, utility, and housekeeping expenses allocated to its 
operation as a performing arts center. Beyond its 1984 reimburse- 
ment to the National Park Service of more than $1 million, the 
center additionally bears the complete cost of maintaining its five 
theaters and extensive backstage and office facilities, for which 
more than $1.4 million in privately raised funds were expended 
during fiscal year 1984 for the Opera House and other theater 

A total of $2 million in private gifts were raised by the Kennedy 
Center for renovation of its 2,318-seat Opera House. Included in 
this much-needed facelift were replacement of the wall fabric, 
carpeting, and seat cushions; improvement of the sound and light- 
ing systems; installation of a portable ballet floor; repair of the 
pit lift; and automation of stage curtain machinery. Donations 
included $670,000 from the Robert Wood Johnson Jr. Charitable 
Trust; $400,000 from the Kresge Foundation; $150,000 from the 
Pew Memorial Trust; $100,000 from the Atlantic Richfield Foun- 
dation; and $25,000 from both the James G. Hanes Memorial 
Fund/Foundation and the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. 
A special benefit featuring Placido Domingo netted an additional 
$200,000 for the project and nearly $100,000 was raised from a 
benefit with Wayne Newton, sponsored by the President's Ad- 
visory Committee. Proceeds from the Kennedy Center's 1983 
Honors Gala provided the remaining funds needed to complete 
the project. 

390 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Since the Kennedy Center opened in 1971, foundations, cor- 
porations, and individuals have contributed more than $31 milHon 
to its support. A major portion of the private support has been 
provided by the Kennedy Center Corporate Fund, which was 
organized in 1977 by the principal officers of thirty-six major 
American corporations. It currently represents more than 300 cor- 
porations committed to the support of the national cultural center. 
Funds contributed to the Corporate Fund enable the Kennedy 
Center to extend its national outreach through programming and 
public service activities, to foster new works, and to offer per- 
forming arts programming at reduced prices or, in many instances, 
at no admission charge whatsoever. 

Participation in the Corporate Fund is open to any corporation 
that contributes to the Kennedy Center. Roger B. Smith, chairman 
of General Motors Corporation, served as chairman of the 1984 
Corporate Fund. The members of the board of governors and a 
listing of fund contributions received during the past year can be 
found in Appendix 8. 

Board of Trustees 

The Kennedy Center is independently administered as a bureau 
of the Smithsonian Institution by a board of trustees, thirty of 
whose members are citizens appointed by the President of the 
United States for ten-year overlapping terms. The remaining 
fifteen members are legislatively designed ex officio representa- 
tives of the legislative branch and executive departments of the 
federal government. Members of the Kennedy Center Board of 
Trustees are listed in Appendix 1. 

The President's Advisory Committee on the Arts 

Established by the 1958 Act of Congress that created the National 
Cultural Center, the President's Advisory Committee on the Arts 
is appointed by the President of the United States to serve during 
his term of office. Its objectives are to support and promote the 
Kennedy Center. Representing membership from forty-four states, 
the committee during the past year attended four meetings at the 
center; its members concentrated their discussions on private fund- 
raising and national outreach programs. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 391 

Smithsonian Year . 1984 



The National Gallery of Art, although formally established as a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and sep- 
arately administered organization. It is governed by its own board 
of trustees, the ex officio members of which are the Chief Justice 
of the United States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Of the 
five general trustees, Paul Mellon continued to serve as chairman 
of the board, with John R. Stevenson and Carlisle H. Humelsine 
as president and vice-president, respectively. Also continuing on 
the board were Dr. Franklin D. Murphy and Ruth Carter Stevenson. 

During the year, visitors entering both of the National Gallery's 
buildings numbered 4,859,172. Two new galleries were opened on 
the main floor to permit expanded and more flexible display of 
eighteenth-century Italian paintings. 

The Photographic Services Department moved into its long- 
awaited new suite of offices on the ground floor of the West Build- 
ing, making it convenient to members of the public who wish to 
purchase black-and-white photographs or get permission to use 
tripods for photography in the galleries, and for others who may 
wish to borrow transparencies for publications. 

Outside these offices, in the ground floor lobby, construction 
barriers were removed to reveal a wonderful architectural feature 
that had been conceived for the enhancement of the visitors' intro- 
duction to the Gallery at that level as well as for those above. A 
large oculus in the ceiling of the lobby, nineteen-and-a-half feet 
in diameter and surrounded by a marble parapet, now allows light 


to enter from the windows on the main floor above it and, more 
importantly, offers visitors a dramatic view of the huge green 
marble columns of the grand rotunda. 

For the first time, the Extension Program audience exceeded 100 
million. Of the 114,534,980 persons estimated to have viewed the 
programs during fiscal year 1984, the great majority was reached 
through public and educational television, with an increase of 
more than fourteen million over the television audience of the 
previous year. 

A further reason for the increased audience was the addition of 
sixty-one agencies to the Extended Loan Program, participants in 
which act as affiliate distributors of Gallery extension program 

A laser optical videodisc containing 1,645 individual images 
from the National Gallery's collections was produced during the 
year. The first of its kind on a museum, the videodisc also con- 
tains two thirty-minute programs on the Gallery's history, collec- 
tions, and programs, narrated by the director. 

Awards received for Gallery programs included the CINE Golden 
Eagle for the film David Smith; a nomination for a Golden Eagle 
for the film on the Peto exhibition. Important Information Inside: 
John F. Peto and the Idea of Still-Life Painting; and the selection 
of the film Pemme/ Woman: A Tapestry by Joan Miro as a finalist 
in the American Craft Council/ American Craft Museum Interna- 
tional Craft Film Festival. 

The Gallery received a number of outstanding contemporary 
works during the year. The highlight was the announcement of 
the presentation by the Mark Rothko Foundation of 177 oil paint- 
ings and 108 works on paper by this very important twentieth- 
century artist, bringing to an end the uncertainty about the desti- 
nation of this great body of works that had been in Rothko's pos- 
session when he committed suicide in 1970. The gift established 
the National Gallery as the central repository for Rothko's work 
and a leading center for the study of modern American art, posing 
new opportunities and challenges for art historians. 

Several of the works added to the collection were by artists not 
previously represented: a Franz Marc painting titled Siberian 
Sheepdogs in the Snow, Cobalt Blue by Lee Krasner, a sculpture of 
a four-figure group of dancers by George Segal, and a large paint- 
ing titled Organization of Graphic Motifs II by Frantisek Kupka, 
one of the earliest purely abstract artists. A black and white paint- 

394 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

ing by Jackson Pollock, Untitled #7 in the artist's figural style 
of the early 1950s, joined Lavender Mist, already in the collection, 
to illustrate two important aspects of Pollock's oeuvre. 

Of the handsome American portraits donated to the Gallery, 
the most important is Charles Willson Peale's sympathetic and 
insightful painting of a close family friend, John Beale Bordley. 
A large, full-length portrait of Martha Eliza Stevens Edgar Paschall 
is a sensitive and individualized likeness of the young subject. 
Olivia, a 1911 portrait by Lydia Field Emmett, is a fine example 
of the artist's work, having won an Honorable Mention in the 
1912 Carnegie International in Pittsburgh. 

The Gallery's collection of works by the Renaissance artist 
Veronese was substantially upgraded by the purchase of one of 
the most beautiful of his late works. The Martyrdom and Last 
Communion of Saint Lucy. The Gallery also purchased The 
Martyrdom of Saint Margaret by Giuseppe Cesari, called Cavalier 
d'Arpino, a Roman artist of the late sixteenth to early seventeenth 

One of the finest English medals relating to America, the seven- 
teenth-century "Maryland Medal" representing Cecil Calvert, Lord 
Baltimore, founder of the colony of Maryland, with his wife, Anne 
Arundell, was acquired at auction, setting a world record price for 
a medal sold at auction. 

Among the acquisitions of graphics were four major groups. 
One of the finest private collections of rare illustrated books and 
suites of prints on European architectural theory and practice, 
views and topography, design and ornament from the end of the 
fifteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century, the 
Mark Millard Architectural Collection will be given to the Gallery 
over a number of years, the first third coming this year by dona- 
tion and purchase. A group of 131 American drawings from the 
John Davis Hatch Collection, from the late eighteenth century 
through the 1950s, was added to the collector's previous gifts, 
solidifying the Gallery's survey of the history of American draw- 
ing. The extensive collection of works by the Dutch artist M. C. 
Escher was further enhanced by donations of 115 prints, five 
illustrated books, and twenty-two volumes of original and docu- 
mentary materials. A major gift of prints produced by the 
Tamarind Lithography Workshop during its important initial phase 
from 1960 to 1970, added to previous donations, provides the 
Gallery with a complete set of the early Tamarind prints showing 
the wide variety of artists who worked there, from the formalism 

National Gallery of Art I 395 

of Albers and Nevelson to the pop sensibility of Ruscha and 
Allen Jones. 

Further acquisitions of drawings were led by the donation of 
Le Modele Honnete by Pierre-Antoine Baudouin. Other notable 
gifts included the earhest known self-portrait by Sir Peter Lely, 
two drawings of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Fisher attributed to Gil- 
bert Stuart, and a charming version of Diana and her Nymphs 
Bathing by Rowlandson. 

Purchases of drawings included one of Vanvitelli's masterpieces. 
The Waterfall and Town of Tivoli; the Gallery's first seventeenth- 
century English drawing. Meadow with Cattle and Deer by Francis 
Barlow; and one of Kirchner's finest drawings, the monumental 
Bather Lying on the Beach, done in 1912. 

Purchases of prints were distinguished by three extraordinary 
Renaissance works : the finest Mantegna engraving in any museum 
outside Europe, Battle of the Sea Gods; an early sixteenth-century 
North Italian woodcut, Christ Carrying the Cross; and Erhard 
Altdorfer's early sixteenth-century etching Mountain Landscape, 
one of the earliest pure landscapes in Western art. 

Selections from these acquisitions and from the graphics already 
in the collections — particularly the drawings recently acquired 
from the Julius Held and the John Davis Hatch collections — have 
been shown on a rotating basis in a continuing historical survey 
of major artists' prints in the new graphics galleries that were 
opened on the ground floor last year. 

Of the nineteen temporary exhibitions during the year, three 
presented drawings by important eighteenth-century artists : Gains- 
borough, Piazzetta, and Watteau. In the first U.S. exhibition of 
drawings by the British painter Thomas Gainsborough, ninety-one 
works illustrated the artist's development and included pastoral 
landscapes, figure studies, and costume sketches. An exhibition 
of 106 drawings, prints, and illustrated books by the Venetian 
artist Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, lent from the collections of Her 
Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and numerous European and American 
public museums and private collectors and on view in the United 
States for the first time, marked the 300th anniversary of the 
artist's birth. The exhibition of ninety-eight drawings and forty- 
four paintings by Jean Antoine Watteau, also celebrating the 
300th anniversary of the artist's birth, was the first major exhibi- 
tion anywhere devoted solely to the work of this great French 
artist. It was organized jointly with the Reunion des musees 
nationaux, Paris, and the Verwaltung der Staatlichen Schlosser 

396 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

und Garten, Berlin, and included three of Watteau's most impor- 
tant paintings: Pierrot (called Gilles), from the Louvre; and The 
Embarkation for Cythera and Gersaint's Shopsign from Berlin. 

Four exhibitions were devoted to the works of major twentieth- 
century artists — the Spanish cubist Juan Gris, the Italian painter 
and sculptor Amedeo Modigliani, and the American abstract artists 
Mark Tobey and Mark Rothko. 

Two major graphics collections were represented. Seventy-seven 
Old Master and modern drawings, from the fourteenth to the 
twentieth century, were lent by New York collector Ian Woodner, 
and the renowned library in Milan, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, 
lent eighty-seven drawings by the finest masters from the late 
fourteenth to the early seventeenth century. 

The first survey in this country of sixteenth-century Emilian 
drawings traced the influence of the great Renaissance master 
Antonio Allegri, called Correggio, on the work of thirty-one artists 
of that period. 

Early German Drawings from a Private Collection, from the 
early fifteenth century to the eighteenth century, presented draw- 
ings by such early German masters as Albrecht Diirer, Hans 
Baldung Gaien, Martin Schongauer, and Lucas Cranach the Elder. 

The Folding Image: Screens by Western Artists of the 19th and 
20th Centuries, an exhibition of more than forty folding screens 
executed since c. 1870, illustrated the impact of the Japanese art 
form, which suddenly became available to European artists such 
as Bonnard, Vuillard, Klee, and Balla when Japan was opened to 
the West in the nineteenth century. It has continued to the present 
day to influence such diverse artists as Lucas Samaras, Jack Beal, 
and David Hockney. Other highlights of the exhibition were 
screens by William Morris, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Antonio Gaudi, 
and Ansel Adams. 

The Orientalists: Delacroix to Matisse — The Allure of North 
Africa and the Near East chronicled the fascination with the area 
of the world known in Europe as the "Orient" that brought artists 
from Europe and America to the Near East between 1798 and the 
onset of the First World War. The artists' individual reactions to 
the strange and the exotic were revealed in a complex variety of 
styles, from the grand-scale Delacroix Sultan of Morocco, and the 
vignettes from Arab life by Gerome, to the modern distillations 
of the brilliant landscape and village scenes by Matisse and 

The centerpiece of the exhibition Leonardo's Last Supper: Be- 

National Gallery of Art I 397 

fore and After was a display of a full-scale Polaroid photomural, 
mounted on thirty-six panels, of the mural in its current state of 
restoration. Accompanying the photomural was a scholarly exhibi- 
tion consisting of the artist's preparatory studies, selected from 
the collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and organized 
by the Royal Library at Windsor, and a number of works in 
various media illustrating the mural's impact on later European 

During the Lenten and Easter seasons the Gallery was privileged 
to be able to display the monumental painting of The Deposition 
by Caravaggio, on loan from the Vatican Collections. 

The Education Department continued to provide the high-quality 
educational programs and interpretive materials that enhance the 
visitor's enjoyment and understanding of the collections and spe- 
cial exhibitions. A new course for adults titled "The Language of 
Art" was well attended during the evenings in July and August. 
Attendance by elementary school groups on tours guided by 
gallery-trained volunteers dramatically increased. Introductory ma- 
terials, including a slide program, were produced to prepare chil- 
dren for their visit to the exhibition Art of Aztec Mexico: Trea- 
sures of Tenochtitlan, which continued from the previous year. 
Labels and recorded tours were prepared for the Watteau, "Folding 
Image," and Orientalism exhibitions. 

Among scholars who lectured during the year were Philippe M. 
Verdier, 1983-1984 Kress Professor, National Gallery of Art; 
Professor Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann of the Institute of Fine 
Arts, New York University; John Hayes, director of the National 
Portrait Gallery in London; Professor George Knox of the Uni- 
versity of British Columbia; Professor Terisio Pignatti of the 
University of Venice; Edmund P. Pillsbury, director of the Kimbell 
Art Museum, Fort Worth; Donald Posner, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Pro- 
fessor of Fine Arts, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University; 
Eugene Thaw, author and art dealer; and Christopher White, 
director of studies. The Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British 
Art, London. 

398 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


The John Hay Whitney Collection, 
continued from the previous fiscal 
year. May 26-November 27, 1983, 
coordinated by John Rewald and 
Florence E. Coman. 

Night Prints, continued from the 
previous fiscal year, June 5-Octo- 
ber 9, 1983, coordinated by Ruth 

Jean Arp: The Dada Reliefs, con- 
tinued from the previous fiscal year, 
July 3-October 30, 1983, coordinated 
by E. A. Carmean, Jr. 

Art of Aztec Mexico: The Trea- 
sures of Tenochtitlan, continued 
from the previous fiscal year to 
April 1, 1984, coordinated by Eliza- 
beth Boone, Dumbarton Oaks, and 
H. B. Nicholson, University of Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles, supported by 
GTE Corporation and the Federal 
Council on the Arts and Humani- 

Gainsborough Drawings, October 
2-December 4, 1983, coordinated 
by the International Exhibitions 
Foundation and Virginia Tuttle. 

Juan Gris, October 16-December 
31, 1983, coordinated by the Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, and 
E. A. Carmean, Jr., supported in 
part by a grant from the National 
Endowment for the Arts, and by 
grants from the Paul L. and Phyllis 
J. Watts Foundation, and the Uni- 
versity Art Museum Council. 

Piazzetta: A Terecentenary Exhibi- 
tion — Drawings, Prints and Illus- 
trated Books, November 20, 1983- 
March 4, 1984, coordinated by 
George Knox, University of British 
Columbia, and H. Diane Russell, 
supported by the Federal Council 
on the Arts and Humanities. 

Modigliani: An Anniversary Exhi- 
bition, December 11, 1983-April 22, 

1984, coordinated by Eliza Rath- 

Master Drawings from the Wood- 
ner Collection, December 18, 1983- 
May 6, 1984, coordinated by The 
J. P. Getty Museum, Malibu, Cali- 
fornia, and Andrew Robison. 

Leonardo's Last Supper: Before and 
After, December 18, 1983-March 4, 
1984, coordinated by Windsor Cas- 
tle, Olivetti Corporation, and David 
Brown, supported by Olivetti Cor- 

Caravaggio's Deposition, March 4- 
April 29, 1984, coordinated by Syd- 
ney J. Freedberg. 

The Folding Image: Screens by 
Western Artists of the 19th and 
20th Centuries, March 4-Septem- 
ber 3, 1984, coordinated by Michael 
Komanecky, Virginia Butera, Yale 
University, and Linda Ayres, sup- 
ported by Bankers Trust Company, 
and by Goldman, Sachs & Co. 

Mark Tobey: The City Paintings, 
March 11-June 17, 1984, coordi- 
nated by Eliza Rathbone. 

The Legacy, of Correggio: Sixteenth- 
Century Emilian Drawings, March 
11-May 13, 1984, coordinated by 
Diane DeGrazia, supported by a 
grant from Cassa di Risparmio di 

Mark Rothko: Works on Paper, 
May 6-August 5, 1984, coordinated 
by American Federation of the Arts 
and E. A. Carmean, Jr., supported 
by Warner Communications. 

Early German Drawings from a 
Private Collection, May 27-July 8, 
1984, coordinated by Andrew Robi- 

Watteau: 1684-1721, June 17-Sep- 
tember 23, 1984, coordinated by 

National Gallery of Art I 399 

Margaret Morgan Grasselli. 

The Orientalists: Delacroix to Ma- 
tisse — The Allure of North Africa 
and the Near East, July l-October 
28, 1984, coordinated by Mary Anne 
Stevens, Royal Academy of Arts, 
Florence E. Coman, and D. Dodge 

Renaissance Drawings from the 
Ambrosiana, 1370-1600, July 29- 
September 9, 1984, coordinated by 
The Medieval Institute, University 
of Notre Dame, and Diane De- 
Grazia, supported by The Samuel 
H. Kress Foundation and The Fed- 
eral Council on the Arts and Hu- 

400 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 

The following is a representative selection of Smithsonian events during the 
fiscal year. No attempt has been made to make this a complete compilation of 
the Institution's activities. 


Awards: Five of the first Federal Awards for Design Excellence were pre- 
sented to Smithsonian bureaus by the National Endowment for the Arts. This 
government-wide Presidential Design Awards Program was established by 
President Reagan in December 1983. 


Gift: A contribution from Millicent Monks enabled the Kennedy Center's 
Alliance for Arts Education to establish an education program in the public 
schools in Lewiston, Auburn, and Portland, Maine, this year. 


Workshop Series: The Office of Museum Programs, in cooperation with the 
Virginia Association of Museums, held a series of four museum management 
on-site workshops in Virginia from October to May. 

October 1 

Extemships: During the year, thirty-two students from ten countries, attend- 
ing the Multicultural Bilingual High School, Washington, D.C., were given the 
opportunity for one-week work experiences by the Office of Museum Pro- 
grams in various Smithsonian offices. 

October 1 

Workshop: Under the sponsorship of the Office of Elementary and Secondary 
Education, the first Regional Workshop was held in Newport News, Virginia, 
bringing more than 300 teachers to work with local museum educators. The 
second workshop was held in New Orleans in March. 

October 1 

Appointment: John H. Falk was named director of the newly created Smith- 
sonian Office of Education Research under the Office of the Assistant Secre- 
tary for Science. 


October 3 

New Facility: The Museum Support Center Branch of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Libraries opened in Silver Hill, Maryland. 

October 4 

Award: Paul J. Robert, student employee, received second place in the Ameri- 
can Society of Agricultural Engineers' North Atlantic Region Student Paper 
Design Contest for a paper on "The Design and Implementation of a Com- 
puter System to Control and Monitor Environmental Growth Chambers" at 
the Smithsonian's Environmental Research Center Rockville facility. 

October 5 

Milestone: Opening of the 1983-84 season of Discovery Theater, under the 
aegis of the Resident Associate Program. 

October 7 

Publication: Treasures of the Smithsonian, written by Edwards Park and illus- 
trated with 550 color photographs, was published by Smithsonian Books, pre- 
senting well-known, little-known, and research treasures of the Institution. 

October 7-8 

Symposium: The Archives of American Art and the Detroit Institute of Arts 
cosponsored "The Quest for Unity: American Art between World's Fairs, 

October 9 

Award: The American Garden at the IV International Horticultural Exhibition 
(IGA 83), Munich, West Germany, designed and installed by James R. Buckler 
and Kathryn Meehan of the Office of Horticulture, was awarded a silver 
medal by the German Association of Landscape Architects. 

October 14 

Exhibition: Pain and Its Relief, an examination of mankind's attempts to 
understand, combat, and alleviate pain, opened at the Natural Museum of 
American History. 

October 17 

Milestone: The Resident Associate Program produced its first electronic out- 
reach course, "The Telecommunications Revolution," broadcast through an 
interactive audio-bridge network to campuses of the California State Univer- 
sity system. 

October 17-November 14 

Special Program: The Office of Museum Programs and the United States In- 
formation Agency cosponsored a new project. Museum Administration, for 
museum professionals from Europe to study current practices and problems 
of museum administration at the Smithsonian and other museums throughout 
the United States. 

October 19 

Exhibition: The Capital Image: Painters in Washington, 1800-1915 opened at 
the National Museum of American Art with 250 paintings, prints, photo- 
graphs, and sculptures on the early cultural life of the city. 

October 19 

Presidential Visit: President Reagan was present at the twenty-fifth anniver- 

402 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

sary celebration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration that 
took place at the National Air and Space Museum. 

October 19 

Research: Biologists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) 
described in Science magazine an epidemic that killed millions of the eco- 
logically important black sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, the worst epidemic 
ever documented among marine invertebrates. 

October 20 

Seminar: In commemoration of the Bicentennial of the Treaty of Paris, "The 
Great Garden Exchange" was arranged by the Office of Horticulture for the 
Smithsonian Resident Associate Program, exploring garden traditions and 
plant experiments from 1750-1830 in the United States, England, and France. 

October 20 

Special Event: Opening night of "The Smithsonian Salutes Washington Jazz." 
The series of four concerts presented from October to March featured noted 
Washington jazz artists — Ronnie Wells, John Eaton, Marc Cohen, Mike 
Grotty, and Buck Hill — and was sponsored by the Resident Associate Program. 

October 20 

Exhibition: Robert Cornelius: Portraits from the Dawn of Photography open- 
ed at the National Portrait Gallery, devoted to the work of this pioneering 
daguerreotypist, Robert Cornelius. 

October 25 

Exhibition: The National Museum of American History opened The Naming 
of America, an exhibition that displayed the world map of Martin Waldsee- 
muller, thought to be the first map on which the name "America" was used. 

October 26 

Special Event: The National Portrait Gallery presented a self-portrait program 
with foreign correspondent and author William L. Shirer. 

October 27 

Meeting: Opening session of the Office of Elementary and Secondary Educa- 
tion's Career Awareness Program, bringing thirty-two ninth-graders from 
Ballou Senior Public High School to learn about museum careers from staff 
members at the National Museum of Natural History. 

October 27-29 

Meeting: The "Third Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars Stellar Systems and 
the Sun," held at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), attracted 
over 100 scientists from the United States and abroad for three days of invited 
and contributed papers on the evolution and structure of cool stars. 

October 31 

Milestone: After more than a quarter-century of satellite tracking by both 
cameras, and lasers, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory transferred 
all responsibility for the operation of its worldwide tracking network to the 
Bendix Corporation. 

October 31 

Award: Dr. G. Arthur Cooper, Museum of Natural History paleobiologist 
emeritus, received the Penrose Medal, the highest honor given to American 
geologists, at the Geological Society meetings in Indianapolis. 

Chronology I 403 


Exhibition: Ban Chiang: Discovery of a Lost Bronze Age, an exhibition orga- 
nized jointly by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
(SITES) and the University of Pennsylvania, opened at the Museum of Natu- 
ral History, exhibiting archeological discoveries that have changed the pre- 
vailing view of Southeast Asia's role in the development of civilization. 


Workshop Series: The Office of Museum Programs, in cooperation with the 
Southern Arts Federation, held two on-site workshops in November and 
March in Columbia, South Carolina, and Pensacola, Florida. 

November 1 

Exhibition: The Cooper-Hewitt Museum opened Amsterdam School, marking 
the first time this subject, with an English catalogue, was exhibited in this 

November 9 

Exhibition: The Precious Legacy: Judaic Treasures from the Czechoslovak 
State Collections, one of the largest and most important Judaica collections in 
the world, opened at the National Museum of Natural History, circulated by 
the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service. In its seven-week booking, this 
exhibition was viewed by 105,000 people. The exhibition catalogue was sub- 
sequently honored with the Kenneth B. Smilen/Present Tense Literary Award 
for best general nonfiction Jewish book of 1983. 

November 11 

Exhibition: Masterpieces from Versailles: Three Centuries of French Portrai- 
ture, a major loan exhibition from the Museum of the Chateau of Versailles, 
opened at the National Portrait Gallery. 

November 12-13 

Symposium: The Third National Zoological Park Symposium for the Public, 
"Perceptions of Animals in American Culture," featured ten specialists who 
gave presentations on the anthropomorphisms at the core of many human 
perceptions of animals. 

November 17 

Milestone: The Archives of American Art began its thirtieth year. The Ar- 
chives was founded in Detroit in 1954 and became a bureau of the Smith- 
sonian in 1970. 

November 18 

Research: The death of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of reef 
coral in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, one of the most widespread 
reef devastations of the past several hundred years, was documented by scien- 
tists of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and described in Science 

November 21 

Anniversary Celebration: The 200th anniversary of manned flight was cele- 
brated at the National Air and Space Museum with the opening of a multi- 
media presentation, "The Oldest Dream: A Celebration of Flight," and an 
exhibition, Dr. Franklin's Window: American Witnesses to the Birth of Flight. 
A book. The Eagle Aloft: Two Centuries of the Balloon in America, was also 
written for the occasion. 

404 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

November 30 

Lecture: Dr. Rene Bravmann, guest curator of the exhibition African Islam 
and professor of art history. University of Washington, Seattle, presented an 
illustrated lecture on "African Islam: The Artistry and Character of Belief," 
in conjunction with the opening of the exhibition at the National Museum of 
African Art. 


Awards: Smithsonian staff members won fifteen awards, including best in 
show, in the 1983 publications competition of the Washington, D.C., chapter 
of the Society for Technical Communications. Winning entries included a 
brochure on tropical research produced by the Office of Public Affairs, OPA 
Smithsonian News Service stories. The Torch, Research Reports, stories in 
Research Reports, and publications from the National Air and Space Museum. 


Anniversary: "Smithsonian Galaxy," a series of two-minute features for radio 
produced by the Office of Telecommunications and heard on 230 radio stations 
in this country and abroad, celebrated its fifth anniversary on the air. 


Research: Museum of Natural History geologist Dr. Robert Fudali joined a 
National Science Foundation-funded research team in a search for meteorites 
on the plateau west of the Transantarctic Mountains that resulted in the dis- 
covery of some 300 meteorites which were sent back to the museum for study. 


Workshop Series: The Kellogg Project, Office of Museum Programs, held a 
series of six regional workshops from December to March on "Museums as 
Learning Resources" in Charlotte, North Carolina; San Antonio, Texas; Port- 
land, Oregon; Toledo, Ohio; Boston; and New York. 


Publication: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries Research Guide Number 3, 
The Aerospace Periodical Index 1973-1982, was published by G. K. Hall. 


Research: New limits on how much the gravitational constant G may vary 
with time were established by Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory scien- 
tists Robert Babcock, John Chandler, Robert Reasenberg, and Irwin Shapiro 
using radar-ranging data from a Viking lander on Mars. 

December 1 
Exhibition: Sawtooths and Other Ranges of Imagination: Contemporary Art 
from Idaho opened at the National Museum of American Art with forty-one 
works by twenty-eight artists documenting the fine arts in Idaho. Five of these 
Idaho artists participated in a related panel discussion. 

December 3 and 4 

Special Event: Berlin Alexanderplatz, a two-day marathon screening of Rainer 
Werner Fassbinder's film epic, was sponsored by the Resident Associate 

December 5 

Regent: The nomination of Samuel Curtis Johnson, chairman and chief execu- 
tive officer of S. C. Johnson & Son Inc., as a citizen member of the Smith- 
sonian Board of Regents was signed into law by President Reagan. 

Chronology I 405 

December 7 

Seminar: "Computers and Human Learning," a conference cosponsored by the 
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education and the Office of Symposia 
and Seminars, brought more than 300 local school administrators to learn 
about the impact of computer technology on education. 

December 7-9 

Conference: Dr. William H. Klein and Dr. David L. Correll of the Smithsonian 
Environmental Research Center attended the Tristate Conference on "Choices 
for the Chesapeake Bay" held at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. 

December 7-10 

Symposium: "The Road After 1984: High Technology and Human Freedom," 
the Smithsonian's eighth international symposium, examined the contempo- 
rary revolution in technology and communications. 

December 8 

Exhibition: Dreams and Nightmares: Utopian Visions in Modern Art, an exhi- 
bition of 136 works by 62 American and European artists of the twentieth 
century, opened at the Hirshhorn Museum. 

December 9 

Special Event: The Smithsonian Women's Committee held its thirteenth an- 
nual Christmas fundraiser dinner-dance, "A Dickens' Christmas," in the 
National Museum of Natural History. 

December 9 

Royal Visit: A reception was held at the National Air and Space Museum for 
King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya of Nepal. 

December 9-11 

Milestone: The National Associates Travel Program celebrated its twelfth 
annual Christmas at the Smithsonian Weekend for Smithsonian Associates. 
The program was highlighted by a festive dinner and tree-trimming party in 
the Castle. 

December 11 

Appointment: William W. Moss was appointed Smithsonian Archivist. 

December 14 

Exhibition: The seventh annual Trees of Christmas exhibition opened at the 
National Museum of American History and included twelve trees decorated 
to display the ethnic, artistic, and cultural use of the Christmas tree. The 
exhibit was prepared by the Office of Horticulture. 

December 14-16 

New Program: The Office of Museum Programs sponsored a new workshop 
on "The Video Revolution: Museum Audiovisuals, Videotape Production 
Techniques, Video Disks, and Teleconferencing" and their application in 

December 15 

Acquisitions: Twenty-three works by twentieth-century modernist Man Ray, 
a gift from artist's widow, were accessioned by the National Museum of 
American Art. 

406 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

December 15 

New Project: The loading of record unit data from the Smithsonian Archives 
into the Smithsonian Institution Bibliographic Information System began. 

December 16 

Gift: The kingdom of Saudi Arabia pledged $5 million toward the construc- 
tion and development of the Smithsonian Institution's International Center, 
one of the major components of the Center for African, Near Eastern, and 
Asian Cultures. 

December 16 

Special Event: A coffee was held by Mrs. George Bush at the Vice-President's 
Residence to honor Mrs. Dillon Ripley as founder of the Smithsonian Wom- 
en's Committee and to confer the title of honorary life member. 

December 16 

Symposium: "The Wright Flyer: An Engineering Perspective," a National 
Air and Space Museum program marking the eightieth anniversary of the 
first flight of the Wright brothers, brought together engineers and scholars 
to examine the technical achievements embodied in the 1903 Wright Flyer. 
One of the original propellers was presented to the museum by Wilkinson 
Wright, a grandnephew of the Wright brothers. 

December 17 

Exhibition: 'O, Write My Name': American Portraits, Harlem Heroes, photo- 
graphs of black Americans by Carl Van Vechten, opened at the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

December 27 

Acquisitions: The Archives of American Art received as a gift the papers of 
Jackson Pollock, major abstract expressionist artist. 

December 31 

Record Set: Visitors toured the Smithsonian museums in ever-increasing num- 
bers in 1983 with a record-setting 25.8 million visits, an increase of 1.1 million 
over the previous high in 1978. 


Foundation: A foundation to assist the Smithsonian with its collection of 
patent models was created as a result of an exhibition on patent models and 
its award-winning catalogue. 


Research: Museum of Natural History botanists discovered red algae growing 
at a depth of 880 feet on an uncharted seamount off the Bahamas, a new 
maximum depth record for photosynthetic plant life on earth. 


Grants Review: The Office of Fellowships and Grants convened advisory 
councils to approve Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program grants. 


Milestone: Membership in the Smithsonian National Associate Program ex- 
ceeded two million for the first time. 

Chronology I 407 

January 3 

New Project: Work began on a two-year project to survey and describe still- 
photograph collections throughout the Smithsonian. 

January 12 

Milestone: James T. Demetrion, director of the Des Moines Art Center, was 
selected to be director of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden to 
succeed founding director Abram Lerner. 

January 18 

TV Show: "Smithsonian World/' a new seven-part television series, premiered 
over Public Broadcasting stations, with author and historian David McCul- 
lough as host. The hour-long programs, coproduced by WETA (Washington, 
D.C.) and the Smithsonian, focused on Smithsonian-related science, art, and 
history, and were made possible by a grant from the James S. McDonnell 

January 21 

Film Premiere: Free Show Tonite, a film documenting a reunion of retired 
medicine show performers in Bailey, North Carolina, premiered at the Na- 
tional Museum of American History. The film was produced in cooperation 
with the Office of Folklife Programs. 

January 23 

Ninth Secretary: The Board of Regents announced the appointment of Robert 
McCormick Adams, distinguished anthropologist and archeologist and Pro- 
vost of the University of Chicago, to be the ninth Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, effective September 17, 1984. 

January 23 

New Project: Work began on a survey of scientific illustrations and drawings 
throughout the Smithsonian. 

January 23 

Outreach: Dr. Robert Stuckenrath presented a course on "Radiocarbon Dating 
and Interpretation" to graduate students and upper-level undergraduate stu- 
dents in anthropology and geology at the University of Pittsburgh. 

January 28 

Lecture: "White Dwarfs or Black Holes: How Will a Star End Its Life?" First 
in the series of five monthly lectures. The Cutting Edge of Science, presented 
free of charge for science-oriented high school students by the Resident Asso- 
ciate Program. 

January 31 

Appointment: Dr. Michael H. Robinson, deputy director of the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute, was appointed director of the National Zoological 


Black History Month: Activities were scheduled throughout the Institution to 
mark Black History Month. Among the highlights were a two-day colloquium, 
presented by the Black American Culture Program, on the evolution of the 
spiritual, a film series on the beginnings and growth of Harlem, and an 

408 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

evening with actor Geoffrey Holder. Exhibits, concerts, tours, children's 
theater, dance, lectures, and poetry readings were also presented by the Resi- 
dent Associate Program, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, and the Mu- 
seums of American History, African Art, American Art, and Natural History. 


Milestone: The Multiple Mirror Telescope was used to make the first measure- 
ments of possible proto-galaxy-sized gas clouds seen at cosmological dis- 
tances. The international team of scientists, including Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory researcher Fred Chaffee, used an observational tech- 
nique employing a natural gravitational lens in space. 


Exhibition: The Art of Cameroon., an exhibition organized by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service to survey the significance and splen- 
dor of one of Africa's major art traditions, began its United States tour at the 
Museum of Natural History. 


Fieldwork: Museum of Natural History scientists began participation in an 
international interdisciplinary biological investigation of Cerro de la Neblina, 
one of the largest and highest of the unexplored mesas (tepuis) in southern 
Venezuela's "Lost World" wilderness region. 


Lecture: The Smithsonian Office of Educational Research director, John Falk, 
delivered five lectures in Recife, Brazil, on "Museums as a Community Learn- 
ing Resource." The lectures, cosponsored by the Universidade Federal de 
Pernambuco and the LJ.S. Information Agency, were addressed to museum 
professionals of northeastern Brazil. 

February 1 

Milestone: The Smithsonian marked the twentieth anniversary of S. Dillon 
Ripley as eighth Secretary of the Institution with a staff reception attended 
by Vice-President George Bush and regents Carl Humelsine and Jeannine 
Clark. Mr. Ripley's tenure was marked by the establishment of eight mu- 
seums, the Associate programs, the Smithsonian magazine, the Festival of 
American Folklife, many research and educational programs, and the launch- 
ing of the Smithsonian's Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian Cultures. 

February 7 

Film Premiere: In Palo at Laskiainen, Everyone is a Finn, a film produced by 
the Office of Folklife Programs as part of the Smithsonian Folklife Studies 
Series and documenting a Finnish-American mid-winter festival in Palo, Min- 
nesota, premiered in Palo. 

February 7 

Grants Award: The second year's James E. Webb Fellows were announced. 
February 10-11 

Workshop: "Collections Management: Preventive Care, Conservation, Han- 
dling and Storage," an on-site workshop sponsored by the Office of Museum 
Programs, was held at the Historic Columbia Foundation in cooperation with 
the South Carolina State Museum and the South Carolina Federation of 

Chronology I 409 

February 14-16 

Special Event: Noted composer Virgil Thomson shared his reminiscences of 
Natalie Barney's Paris salon of the 1920s at a musical program held at Barney 
Studio House. 

February 14-March 3 

Research: Ecologists James Lynch, Dennis Whigham, and Eugene Morton, in 
cooperation with Mexican scientists, assessed the effects of several agricul- 
tural techniques on migratory and resident bird populations in the Yucatan 

February 21 

New Programs: The Archives of American Art established a regional office in 
the Los Angeles area at the Huntington Library and Art Gallery. Stella Paul 
was appointed area collector. 

February 21 

Lecture: Dr. Thurston Shaw, former professor of archeology. University of 
Ibadan, Nigeria, presented an illustrated lecture on "Archeology and History 
in Africa." 

February 23 

Exhibition: The inflight suit of astronaut Guion S. Bluford, Jr., America's first 
black astronaut in space, went on display. 

February 23 

Performance: The Gewandhaus Birch Orchestra of Leipzig, in its first North 
American tour, presented a concert of Bach, Haydn, and Shostakovitch, spon- 
sored by the Resident Associate Program. 

February 23 

International Protocol: An agreement was signed with the University of Cul- 
ture of Tunisia to promote exchanges in chronological history, conservation, 
and research. 

February 28 

Special Event: The president of Austria, Rudolf Kirchschlaeger, addressed 
students enrolled in the Resident Associate Program course, "Vienna at the 
Turn of the Century," during his first state visit to the United States. 

February 28 

Appointment: Milo Cleveland Beach, chairman of the department of art at 
Williams College, was named to head the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, a com- 
ponent of the Smithsonian's Center for African, Near Eastern, and Asian 


Award: Janet W. Solinger, director of the Resident Associate Program, was 
presented the Officer's Cross of the Order of Merit by the government of the 
Federal Republic of Germany for her contributions to the celebration of the 
German-American Tricentennial, commemorating the first arrival of German 
immigrants to America in 1683. 

410 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


Audio-visual Project: In cooperation with the Office of Telecommunications, 
the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center produced a video- 
cassette for use at travel-industry market places and tourist sites. 


Exhibition: The Museum of Natural History opened Exploring Microspace, an 
exhibition tracing the evolution of the microscope from the seventeenth cen- 
tury to the electronic age. 


Publication: The Card Catalog of the Oral History Collections of the Archives 
of American Art was published by Scholarly Resources, Inc. 


Conference: Members of the Smithsonian Office of Educational Research par- 
ticipated in the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family held in Pine- 
hurst, North Carolina, with presentations addressing the family as an edu- 
cational unit. 

March 9-April 10 

New Program: The first graduate field course in tropical ecology was con- 
ducted in conjunction with the University of Panama. 

March 15 

Exhibition: In the first of a series of exhibitions celebrating its tenth anniver- 
sary, the Hirshhorn Museum opened Drawings: 1974-1984 with 148 drawings 
by 30 artists. Artist Christo lectured on May 13. 

March 16 

Exhibition: 'Adventurous Pursuits': Americans and the China Trade, 1784- 
1844, a celebration of the 200th anniversary of the opening of trade between 
America and China, opened at the National Portrait Gallery. 

March 28 

Special Event: "What's Up, Doc? An Anniversary Evening with Mel Blanc," 
creator of the voice of Bugs Bunny, celebrating his fifty years in show busi- 
ness. Sponsored by the Resident Associate Program. 

March 28 

New Program: The Archives of American Art began a special project of col- 
lecting in Philadelphia, where the Archives' first project was located in 1954. 

March 30 

Special Event: The Contributing Membership Annual Ball was held in the 
Grand Salon of the Renwick Gallery. The Office of Horticulture mounted a 
display of hundreds of cymbidium orchids and other spring flowers. 


Grant: The National Endowment for the Arts awarded the Theater Historical 
Society of America a $30,000 grant for the Office of Telecommunications to 
produce an expanded version of the exhibition film American Picture Palaces, 
creating a half-hour program. The exhibition film has received fourteen major 
awards during fiscal year 1984, including a Gold Award from the Interna- 
tional Film and TV Festival of New York and a CINE Golden Eagle. 

Chronology I 411 


Milestone: A method to artificially incubate and hatch eggs of the green 
iguana, developed by scientists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute, was used to hatch 700 green iguanas, the first to be hatched in captivity 
with virtually 100 percent success. This achievement is a breakthrough toward 
the goal of commercial production of iguanas as a food source in Latin 


Exhibition: Roger Tory Peterson at the Smithsonian, a retrospective exhibi- 
tion of Peterson's bird art marking the fiftieth anniversary of the publication 
of his influential book A Field Guide to the Birds, opened at the National 
Museum of Natural History. Peterson was awarded the James Smithson 
Bicentennial Medal. 


Exhibition: The National Museum of Natural History celebrated the 100th 
Anniversary of the National Gem Collection. Associated events included a 
Smithsonian Associate lecture and an all-day seminar. Two major new addi- 
tions to the gem collection were placed on long-term display: a 182-carat 
sapphire and a 318-carat black opal. 


Findings: Analysis of Einstein Observatory data by Smithsonian Astrophysi- 
cal Observatory scientists Fred Seward and Rick Harnden and a colleague at 
Columbia University revealed the presence of a rapidly spinning X-ray pulsar 
in the Large Magellanic Cloud, only the second example found outside our 

Publication: The Smithsonian Office of Educational Research announced pub- 
lication of The Smithsonian Family Learning Project 1985 Science Calendar, 
which features, in poster format, one brightly illustrated science activity per 
month. The calendar is intended to promote enjoyment of learning science at 
home as a family endeavor. 

April 1 

Exhibition: Black Wings, a SITES exhibition supplemented with selected arti- 
facts and memorabilia, opened at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, fo- 
cusing attention on American black pioneers in aviation whose historic 
role helped shape the growth and development of modern aviation. 

April 4 

Exhibition: German Expressionist Sculpture, with more than 120 examples by 
33 artists, opened at the Hirshhorn Museum. 

April 5 

Exhibition: Golden Age of Flight, a major exhibition gallery devoted to avi- 
ation from 1919 to 1939, opened at the National Air and Space Museum. 

April 5 

Research: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's one-meter infrared 
telescope, equipped with a photometer prepared by the Naval Research Lab- 
oratory, was carried to an altitude of 95,000 feet by a balloon launched from 
Texas. The nine-hour flight of the instrument — its eighteenth — resulted in the 
successful mapping of seven regions of suspected star formation. 

412 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

April 7 

Concert: Djiome Kouyate, from Senegal, presented a "Program of Music, 
Dance and Folklore" illustrating the influence of Islamic culture and belief on 
the performing arts of sub-Saharan Africa. 

April 8 

International Conference: A UNESCO/Smithsonian-sponsored conference 
convened at the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C., to promote general aware- 
ness in the North American news media of international activities related to 
historic preservation. 

April 10 

Research: A small, helium-cooled, infrared telescope scheduled for launch 
aboard a Space Shuttle in March 1985 successfully completed its testing and 
was shipped to Cape Kennedy for integration with the twelve other instru- 
ments that will make up the Spacelab 2 experiment package. The telescope is 
a joint project of SAO, the University of Arizona, and NASA's Marshall Space 
Flight Center. 

April 15 

Grants: The Office of Fellowships and Grants designated 1984-85 fellowship 

April 16 

Milestone: First on-line bibliographic search from Smithsonian Tropical Re- 
search Institute Library in Panama with Dialog Program in Palo Alto, Cali- 

April 17 

Exhibition: His Highness Sayyid Faisal bin Ali Al-Said, minister of National 
Heritage and Culture of Oman, formally opened an exhibit of cultural trea- 
sures of his country, one of the oldest political entities in the Arabian 

April 20 

International Protocol: An agreement was signed with the University of Cul- 
ture, Sports, and Tourism of Pakistan to further cooperation in universal and 
cultural history and conservation. 
April 21 

Special Event: The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education's Teachers' 
Day, held in the Discovery Theater, featured presentations by Native Ameri- 
can students from Deep Branch Elementary School (Robeson County, North 
Carolina), showing teachers how to use art and dramatics to teach a variety 
of subjects. 

April 27-29 

Special Event: The second annual Washington Craft Show, a fundraising 
event sponsored by the Smithsonian Women's Committee, included 100 crafts- 
people selected to exhibit and sell their work at the Departmental Auditorium, 
presenting crafts as fine art. 

April 30 

Major Acquisition: Mary Cassatt, a portrait by Edgar Degas, was purchased 
with funds from the Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation and the 

Chronology I 413 


Award: The Office of Telecommunications received a Gold Screen Award 
from the National Association of Government Communicators for its nation- 
ally broadcast radio series, "Radio Smithsonian" and "Smithsonian Galaxy." 


Publication: A new edition of Guide to the Nation's Capital and the Smith- 
sonian Institution was produced by the Visitor Information and Associates' 
Reception Center in cooperation with Smithsonian magazine. 


Study: "The Smithsonian: Enhancing the Visitor's Experience," a design study 
completed by George Washington University's Department of Urban and Re- 
gional Planning for the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center, 
recommended the adoption of an Institution-wide exterior graphic informa- 
tion system. 


Grant: The Smithsonian Office of Educational Research received funding from 
the National Science Foundation to initiate a pilot project in community- 
based science education that will include business and industry, university 
and government research laboratories, educators and families, who will de- 
velop a strategy for sharing science education responsibilities and benefits. 


Award: The Office of Telecommunications received a Gold Award from the 
Houston International Film Festival for its nationally distributed video series, 
"Here at the Smithsonian. . . ." 


Truman Centennial: The Smithsonian joined in a tribute to the centennial of 
the birth of Harry S Truman, thirty-third President of the United States, 
with tours, films, exhibits, a musical revue, seminar, and a six-week course on 
Truman and his presidential decisions. 

May 3 

Special Event: A country music gala, "Salute to Roy Acuff," was held to 
benefit the Kennedy Center. 

May 3 

Award: Guide to the Smithsonian Archives, 1983, received the Mid-Atlantic 
Regional Archives Conference award for excellence in archival finding aids. 

May 4 

Special Event: The Museum of American History opened the Palm Court, 
which encompasses a reading/relaxing area, informal concerts, an ice cream 
parlor, and two exhibit areas. 

May 9 

Awards: Secretary S. Dillon Ripley was named corecipient of the "OLYMPIA" 
Prize 1983 by the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation. The award 
was presented in Athens by Constantine Karamanlis, president of Greece. 

May 10-13 

Special Event: The Friends of the National Zoo organized and coordinated 
the construction of outdoor exercise structures in the panda yards. 

414 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

May 11 

Exhibition: Honoring the 150th anniversary of the birth of James McNeill 
Whistler, the Freer Gallery opened an exhibit of all of its oils, watercolors, 
pastels, and drawings — some 300 works — by Whistler, as well as his only 
surviving architectural scheme, the Peacock Room. Freer Gallery attendance 
during the exhibit increased 50 percent over the comparable 1983 period. 

May 12 

Dedication: An Amateur Astronomy Vista, constructed with a grant from the 
Smithson Society, was officially opened by SAO's Whipple Observatory for 
the use of Southern Arizona amateur astronomers. 

May 12-June 14 

Special Program: The Office of Museum Programs and the U.S. Information 
Agency cosponsored the fifth annual "Education in Museums" project for 
thirteen museum professionals from nine foreign countries to study museum 
education techniques at the Smithsonian and other museums throughout the 
United States. 

May 14-16 

Conference: National Zoo's Office of Education conducted a Zoo Educators 
Conference to discuss current and future goals of zoo education efforts. 

May 14-16 

Workshop: Environmental chemist David Correll participated in a workshop 
at Lake Itasca, Minnesota, on long-term ecological research and presented a 
paper, "Application of a Long-Term Mass-Balance Approach to the Analysis 
of Nutrient Dynamics in Complex Land/Water Landscapes." 

May 14-18 

Symposium: The 24th Annual International Archaeometry Symposium, orga- 
nized by Jacqueline Olin and James Blackman of the Conservation Analytical 
Laboratory, was held at the Museum of Natural History with approximately 
200 attendants from sixteen countries. 

May 15 

Fellowship: Designer George Nelson was appointed a Regents Fellow at the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum. 

May 15 

Symposium: "Vertical Flight: The Age of the Helicopter," National Air and 
Space Museum, included aviation pioneers and presentations on vertical flight. 

May 17 

Special Events: The Friends of the National Zoo conducted "Zoofari," a dinner 
party designed to be a major fundraising activity for the newly established 
Theodore H. Reed Animal Acquisition Fund. 

May 18 

Acquisition: Viking Lander I was officially transferred from the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration to the collection of the National Air 
and Space Museum. This museum is now the only one in the world to possess 
an object on another planet — the Viking Lander I is located on the surface 
of Mars. 

Chronology I 415 

May 18 

Milestone: Graduation of the first class of the master's degree program in 
European decorative arts, a project undertaken jointly with the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum and the Parsons School of Design. 

May 19 

Film Premiere: The Stone Carvers, a documentary film about the traditional 
stone carvers at the Washington Cathedral, premiered at the Museum of 
Natural History. It was produced in cooperation with the Office of Folklife 

May 21 

Seminar: Dr. Charles Cleland presented a series of seminars on "The Hor- 
monal Control of Flowering" to the Universities of Poznan, Prague, and 
Liblice, Czechoslovakia, and the Czechoslovokia Academy of Science in 
Prague, as well as the University of Freiburg, West Germany. 

May 22 

Special Event: An Evening with Edward L. Bernays, the "father of public 
relations," was part of the self-portrait series of the National Portrait Gallery. 

May 23 

Exhibition: Ethiopia: The Christian Art of an African Nation opened at the 
National Museum of African Art. 

May 24 

Milestone: The National Air and Space Museum welcomed its 75 millionth 
visitor since the opening of the building, July 1, 1976. 

May 28 

Film: Lou Stovall, a documentary film showing the artist's techniques of fine 
silk-screen printing, was shown at the Educational Film Industry Associa- 
tion's 26th American Film Festival in New York City. The film was produced 
by exhibit designer Sharon Reinckens and photographer Chris Capilongo, 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. 

May 30-June 3 

Special Event: The National Associates Travel Program sponsored the first 
weekend program designed especially for Contributing Members to visit with 
directors and curators at selected museums. 


Awards: The first recipients of the recently created Order of James Smithson 
were announced: Enid A. Haupt, who has pledged $3 million for a garden to 
be created in the Quadrangle area, and Arthur M. Sackler, who has pledged 
$4 million toward the construction of a museum to house the 1,000 master- 
pieces of art he also has donated. 


Acquisition: The Freer Gallery acquired, through gift and purchase, a signifi- 
cant collection of twenty-nine ancient Chinese ceramic objects, including three 
pieces that have survived more than 3,000 years in perfect condition. This 
acquisition gives the Freer the finest collection of early Chinese ceramics in 
the United States. 

416 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


Acquisition: The Sara Roby Foundation of New York City donated 169 paint- 
ings, sculptures, and drawings — an extraordinary collection of twentieth-cen- 
tury realistic art — to the National Museum of American Art. 


Special Event: An honors ceremony was held for 1983-84 Smithsonian Fel- 


Awards: Several dozen Smithsonian staff members won awards this month in 
the field of communication for outstanding photography, publications, radio 
and television productions, films, feature stories, and posters. The awards 
were sponsored by the Professional Photographers of America/Eastman 
Kodak, the National Association of Government Communicators, the Ameri- 
can Association of Museums, the Houston International Film Festival, and the 
Society for Technical Communication. 


Award: Remembrance of Lilacs — John Robinson, a documentary slide/audio 
show produced by Sharon Reinckens and Chris Capilongo, Anacostia Neigh- 
borhood Museum, won the National Association of Government Communi- 
cators (NAGC) Gold Screen Award for outstanding audio-visual production. 


Public Service Announcement: Astronaut Guion "Guy" Bluford donated his 
time to appear as narrator in a thirty-second television public service an- 
nouncement produced by the Office of Public Affairs. The announcement 
emphasized the theme "Explore Your Heritage" and was aimed at encouraging 
visits to the Smithsonian by members of the black community. 


Film Premiere: The Work of Peace, a film produced by the Office of Telecom- 
munications to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the signing of the 1783 
Treaty of Paris, premiered in Washington, D.C. The film will be distributed 
to high schools throughout the country. 


Outreach: Special Education Outreach funds received by the Smithsonian 
Office of Educational Research supported the development of a SAIL (Science 
Activities for Informal Learning) Teacher's Guide and an Evaluation Strategy, 
which summarizes the guide's effectiveness based upon training experience in 
two Maryland counties. 

June 2-5 

Special Event: Summerfest '84, a four-day, park-wide celebration of music, 
dance, and mime, took place at ten different locations around the National 

June 2-16 

Special Event: A British-American Festival marking the 400th anniversary of 
the arrival of the first British expedition to North America at Roanoke Island, 
North Carolina, was cosponsored by the Smithsonian Office of Symposia and 

Chronology I 417 

June 4 

Grants: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries received two grants from the 
Atherton Seidell Endowment Fund, one for the retrospective conversion of its 
catalogue and the second for the purchase of scientific serials on microfilm. 

June 8 

Exhibition: Erastus Salisbury Field, 1805-1900, the first comprehensive exhi- 
bition of works by this American folk artist, organized by the Springfield 
(Massachusetts) Museum of Art, opened jointly at the National Portrait Gal- 
lery and the National Museum of American Art. 

June 9 

Exhibition: Artistic Collaboration in the Twentieth Century, with more than 
100 works created by some seventy teams of artists between 1913 and 1984, 
opened at the Hirshhorn Museum. 

June 10-14 

Conference: The American Association of Museums hosted two panel discus- 
sions, with director John Kinard as moderator, that considered possible fund- 
ing strategies for minority museums, giving Third World and traditional 
museum professionals a chance to talk with representatives from foundations 
and the corporate world. 

June 11 

Acquisitions: The National Museum of American Art announced the gift of 
169 twentieth-century paintings and sculptures from the Sara Roby Founda- 
tion of New York. 

June 11 

Reinstallation: The National Museum of American Art opened its refurbished 
and reinstalled public exhibition galleries, presenting chronologically 250 
years of American art — the first complete reinstallation since 1968. 

June 11 

Internships: The first session of "Intern '84" began — the Office of Elementary 
and Secondary Education's high school intern program, which brought thirty- 
four students to Washington, D.C., from as far away as California, Washing- 
ton state, and Maine to participate in a learning/ service program. 

June 12 

Gift: Jayathu, an eighteen-month-old Asiatic elephant, a gift from J. R. 
Jayewardene of Sri Lanka to President Reagan, arrived at the National Zoo. 
Jayathu subsequently suffered from an apparent allergic reaction to her infant 
formula and died on August 30. 

June 14-22 

Research: Ecologist Dennis Whigham participated in organizing a symposium 
for the second International Wetlands Conference, Trebon, Czechoslovakia. 

June 20 

Milestone: Smithsonian Institution Libraries started processing on its auto- 
mated library system. 

June 23 
Summer Program: The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education's sum- 

418 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

mer seminar program for teachers began, offering ten different courses in the 
arts, sciences, and history. 

June 23 

Special Event: A "Festival of African Games" was held at the Museum of 
African Art and included the making of African mankala gameboards, 
methods of playing Africa's most popular board game, and a variety of tra- 
ditional African children's games. 

June 27- July 1; July 4-8 

Folklife Festival: The eighteenth annual Festival of American Folklife fea- 
tured Alaskan folklife, the folklore of America's older generation, traditional 
culture of urban blacks from Philadelphia, and traditional foodways. 

June 27 

Exhibition: Southeastern Potteries, organized by the Office of Folklife Pro- 
grams for the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service and fea- 
turing works from the thirty-five traditional potteries still operating in the 
southern United States, opened at the National Museum of American History. 

June 29 

Special Event: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries announced the inaugu- 
ration of a new sequence in its Translation Publishing Program. 

June 30 

Fundraising: A campaign to raise $37.5 million of private support for the con- 
struction of the Quadrangle was successfully concluded through contributions 
from individuals, corporations, and foundations, both foreign and don\estic, 
and from Smithsonian trust funds. 


Grant: The Rockefeller Foundation Residency Program in the Humanities 
awarded the Smithsonian Institution a grant for postdoctoral fellowships at 
the National Museum of African Art and the Center for Asian Art. 


Grant: The James Smithson Society awarded a $23,000 grant to the Office of 
Telecommunications for the production of a pilot program of a potential tele- 
vision series for children aged nine to twelve. 


Research: Archeological discoveries made in Labrador by Dr. William G. 
Fitzhugh provide a clearer picture of how early Maritime Archaic peoples 
lived. Early single-family round or oval pithouses dug into boulder beaches 
were found and excavated on islands off the Labrador coast. 


Contract: A Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory proposal for a "Wide- 
field and Diffraction-limited Array Camera" was accepted by the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration for inclusion in the "definition study 
phase" of the planned Space Infrared Telescope Facility. 


TV Spot: Stage and television actress Sandy Duncan donated her time and 
talents to narrate a package of television public service announcements aimed 
at showing the Institution's attraction for children. The package will be dis- 

Chronology I 419 

tributed for the 1985 tourist season to the 300 largest television stations in 
the country, reaching every state. 


Publication: The Phenomenon of Change, edited by Lisa Taylor, director of 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, was published. 

July 4 

Special Event: A concert and reading of the Declaration of Independence cele- 
brated the installation of a nineteenth-century bandstand on the grounds of 
the National Museum of American History. 

July 9 

Milestone: The Resident Associate course, "Toward 2001: Visions of Amer- 
ica's Future," was broadcast nationwide by C-Span cable television, resulting 
in hundreds of requests for video tapes and/or transcripts. 

July 13 

Appointment: Ann R. Leven was named Treasurer of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, effective August 1984. 

July 17 

Awards: James Smithson Society grants, totaling $220,000, were awarded to 
nine Smithsonian units for publications, acquisitions, research, film and TV 

July 20 

Symposium: "The Apollo Legacy," held at the National Air and Space Mu- 
seum to mark the fifteenth anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, 
brought together five scientists and four former Apollo astronauts to review 
the scientific impact of the Apollo missions. 

July 25 

Reintroduction: Eight U.S. -born golden lion tamarins were released into the 
wilds of Brazil's Poco das Antas Biological Preserve. Fifteen animals had been 
sent to Brazil in November 1983 as part of a reintroduction program, and nine 
of them had been introduced to a half-way cage located in the wilds on 
May 2, 1984. 


Acquisition: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries acquired a collection of 
materials on Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia that had been as- 
sembled by the late Professor John Echols of Cornell University. 


Exhibition: Treasures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art, 
the most comprehensive major Chinese art exhibition ever to tour the United 
States, opened at the National Museum of Natural History, featuring 232 
masterpieces from one of China's leading museums, organized by the Asian 
Art Museum of San Francisco in cooperation with the Shanghai Museum. 


TV Show: The James S. McDonnell Foundation renewed its underwriting 
commitment to the Smithsonian World television series with a grant of $3.5 
million, making possible a second season to consist of five one-hour specials 
airing in 1985 and 1986. 

420 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

August 5 

Birth: A giant panda cub was stillborn. The mother, Ling-Ling, had suffered 
a kidney infection during December and January, but two natural matings 
occurred on March 19, 1984, resulting in pregnancy. 

August 6-10 
Conference: A conference on "Genetic Management of Captive Populations," 
held at the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center, sought to es- 
tablish goals and methods for long-term management of captive populations. 

August 9 

Exhibition: Yesterday's Tomorrow: Past Visions of America's Future opened 
in the National Museum of American History's new temporary exhibition 
hall. Produced by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 
the exhibition displayed more than 300 objects to show how people in the 
past have predicted the future. 

August 9 

Dedication: A feeder tree for Smokey bear, funded by the Forest Service, was 
designed and constructed by the Zoo staff. The tree dispenses food pellets 
and honey automatically at random times or upon radio-controlled command. 

August 11 

Exhibition: Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution opened at the Royal 
Scottish Museum in conjunction with the thirty-eighth annual Edinburgh 
International Festival. The exhibition was organized by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Traveling Exhibition Service, designed and produced by the Office of 
Exhibits Central, and coordinated by the Office of Public Service. Symposia 
and musical performances were also presented in conjunction with the exhi- 

August 22 

Cultural Accord: A cultural exchange agreement between the Smithsonian 
and the kingdom of Morocco, signed earlier this year, was observed by Secre- 
tary Ripley, the Moroccan Ambassador to the United States, and the United 
States Ambassador to Morocco. 

August 27 

Acquisition: A 168-carat emerald, a bequest of Anna Cast Mackay to the 
Smithsonian Institution National Gem Collection, was placed on permanent 
display in the National Museum of Natural History. 


Film: The Sea: A Quest For Our Future, a one-hour documentary produced by 
the Office of Telecommunications on Smithsonian research on tropical coral 
reefs, was completed. 

September 5 

Special Event: An evening of special animal training demonstrations at the 
National Zoological Park was offered to Contributing Members at the Spon- 
soring level and above. 

September 12 

Special Event: "A Centenary Tribute to Eleanor Roosevelt," the first of the 
1984-85 Frank Nelson Doubleday Lectures of the National Museum of Amer- 

Chronology I 421 

ican History, featured an examination of the life of Eleanor Roosevelt by 
radio commentator Susan Stamberg and actress Jean Stapleton. 

September 13 

Exhibition: Eleanor Roosevelt: First Person Singular, a tribute marking the 
centennial of her birth, opened at the National Museum of American History. 

September 14 

Lecture: Smithsonian Associates participating in the sixth annual Smith- 
sonian/Oxford Seminar attended a convocation and reception in the Castle 
before departing for England. 

September 14 

International Protocol: An agreement was signed with the University of Cul- 
ture of the Republic of Indonesia to develop cooperation in national and cul- 
tural history and conservation. 

September 15-16 

Special Event: The annual weekend for members of the James Smithson 
Society was held. It included a formal dinner at the National Museum of 
American History to honor members of the society and the National Board 
of the Smithsonian Associates and to honor Secretary Ripley upon his retire- 

September 16 

Awards: The Board of Regents conferred the Order of James Smithson on 
Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, citing "his singularly outstanding service," and 
the Joseph Henry Medal to Mary Livingston Ripley, the first woman to receive 
this award, for her work on behalf of the orchid and entomology collections 
and in establishing the Smithsonian Women's Committee. 

September 17 

Installation: Public ceremonies installing Robert McC. Adams as ninth Secre- 
tary of the Institution were held on the Mall in front of the original Institu- 
tion Building. Ceremonies included presentation of the key to the Smith- 
sonian to Mr. Adams by Chief Justice Burger as Chancellor of the Institution, 
remarks by the Chief Justice, Mr. Ripley, and Mr. Adams, and music by the 
U.S. Naval Ceremonial Band. 

September 18 

Benefit Premiere: Amadeus, Washington film premiere with a costumed Vien- 
nese concert/cafe, was held for the benefit of Discover Graphics, the first 
benefit sponsored by the Resident Associate Program. 

September 19 

Organization: The establishment of a Directorate of International Activities 
was announced by Secretary Adams, effective October 1. John E. Reinhardt, 
assistant secretary for history and art, was named director, with responsibility 
for the International Center, a component of the Center for African, Near 
Eastern, and Asian Cultures, the Office of International Activities, and the 
International Exchange Service. 

September 20 

Special Event: His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, presented a lecture titled "The 
Unique Tibetan Culture," the opening event of a Resident Associate Program 

422 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

course on Tibetan Buddhism. He was welcomed and introduced by Secretary 

September 25 

Seminar: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries (SIL) presented a seminar on 
"SIL Collections and Preservation: Can We Save the Nineteenth Century?" 

September 25-28 

Performance: Seona McDowell, an Australian folk singer, presented free con- 
certs and student workshops at the Kennedy Center, tracing the parallel social 
and historical development of Australia and the United States. Educational 
materials from this project are being developed for classroom use. 

September 27-28 

Meeting: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory served as host for a 
"Neighborhood Workshop on Supernovae as Distance Indicators" that re- 
viewed methods of determining cosmic distances via supernovae observations. 

September 30 

Milestone: The Smithsonian News Service, a monthly feature-story service of 
the Office of Public Affairs, completed five years. More than 800 daily papers 
and 750 weeklies are regular users of the service, which reaches all states with 
a combined circulation of 40 million. 

Chronology I 423 

Smithsonian Year • 1984 

Organization Chart page 426-7 

1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards and 
Commissions, September 30, 1984 428 

2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program Awards 

Made October 1, 1983, through September 30, 1984 436 

3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded in Fiscal Year 1984 440 

4. Academic, Research Training, and Internship 

Appointments in Fiscal Year 1984 443 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press in 

Fiscal Year 1984 473 

6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 

and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 1984 483 

7. The Smithsonian Institution and Its Subsidiaries, 

September 30, 1984 567 

8. Donors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1984 601 

9. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution in 

Fiscal Year 1984 671 

10. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal Year 1984 694 



Under Separate Boards of Trustees 








Office of Accounting and 

Financial Services 
Office of Grants and Risk 

Business Management Office 


Mail Order Division 

Smitfisonian Museum Shops 


Atthtant Secralary 



Atttolant Secretary 


Mational Air and Space Museum 
National Museum of Natural History/ 
National Museum of Man 
National Zoological Park 
Office of Educational Researcfi 
Office of Fellowships and Grants 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
Archives of American Art 
Center for Asian Art 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Sackler Gallery of Art 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 

Joseph Henry Papers 
National Museum of African Art 
National Museum of American An 

Renwick Gallery 
National Museum of American 

National Portrait Gallery 
Office of American Studies 

"Secretary s 
Executive Cor 


Archives of American Art 
Board of Trustees 

Board of Fellowships and Grants 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
Advisory Council 

Folklife Advisory Council 

Freer Visiting Committee 

Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden 
Board of Trustees 

Horticultural Advisory Committee 

Joint Sponsoring Committee for 
the Papers of Joseph Henry 

National Air and Space Museum 
Advisory Board 

National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board 

National Board of the 
Smithsonian Associates 

National Museum Act 
Advisory Council 

National Museum of African Art 

National Museum of American Art 

National Portrait Gallery 

Smithsonian Council 

Women's Committee of the 
Smithsonian Associates 







Office of Congressional Liaison 
Office of Public Affairs 
Office of Special Events 

Development Office 
Smithsonian National Associate 

Smithsonian Resident Associate 


Attlatont Secraiary 


Atalatant Sacratary 



Asalttant Sacretary 


The International Center 

Office of Elementary and Secondary 

Office of Folklife Programs 
Office of International Activities 
Office of Smithsonian Symposia and 

Office of Telecommunications 
Smithsonian Institution Press 
Smithsonian Magazine 
Visitor Information and Associates' 

Reception Center 

Conservation Analytical Laboratory 
National Museum Act 
Office of Exhibits Central 
Office of Horticulture 
Office of Museum Programs 
Office of the Registrar 
Smithsonian Institution Archives 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service 

Contracts Office 
International Exchange Service 
Management Analysis Office 
Office of Equal Opportunity 
Office of Facilities Services 

Office of Design and Construction 

Office ol Plant Services 

Office ol Protection Services 
Office of Information Resource 

Office of Personnel Administration 
Office of Printing and Photographic 

Office of Programming and Budget 
Office of Supply Services 
Travel Services Office 

APPENDIX 1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, 
and Commissions, September 30, 1984 


Warren E. Burger, The Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio, Chancellor 
George H. Bush, The Vice-President of the United States, ex officio 

Edwin J. (Jake) Gam, Senator from Utah 
Barry Goldwater, Senator from Arizona 
James R. Sasser, Senator from Tennessee 

Edward P. Boland, Representative from Massachusetts 
Silvio O. Conte, Representative from Massachusetts 
Norman Y. Mineta, Representative from California 

David C. Acheson, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Anne L. Armstrong, citizen of Texas 

William G. Bowen, citizen of New Jersey 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Jeannine Smith Clark, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Carlisle H. Humelsine, citizen of Virginia 

Samuel C. Johnson, citizen of Wisconsin 


Gordon N. Ray, 

Dore Ashton 
Milton W. Brown 
A. Hunter Dupree 
Frank B. Golley 
Stephen Jay Gould 
Neil Harris 
Christian C. Hohenlohe 

Thomas P. Hughes 
Ada Louise Huxtable 
Alice S. Ilchman 
Oliver O. Jensen 
Bennetta Jules-Rosette 
Sherman E. Lee 
Thomas E. Lovejoy 
Peter Marler 
Frederick W. Mote 

David F. Musto 
Frank Oppenheimer 
Jaroslav Pelikan 
Vera C. Rubin 
Carl E. Schorske 
Gunther SchuUer 
Barbara W. Tuchman 
Emily D. T. Vermuele 


Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman 
Mr. A. Alfred Taubman, President 
Mrs. Nancy B. Negley, Vice-President 
Mrs. Robert F. Shapiro, Vice-President 
Mr. Irvin A. Levy, Vice-President/Treasurer 
Mrs. Dana M. Raymond, Secretary 

Miss Caroline R. Alexander Mrs. Henry C. Johnson Mr. Alexander R. Mehran 

Mrs. Eli Broad 
Mrs. Francis deMarneffe 
Mrs. George C. Dillon 
Mr. Joel S. Ehrenkranz 
Mrs. Ahmet M. Ertegun 
Mrs. Walter B. Ford II 

Mrs. Dwight Kendall 
Mrs. Charles Kessler 
Mr. Gilbert H. Kinney 
Mr. Howard W. Lipman 
Mrs. Sam Maddux 
Mr. Richard Manoogian 

Mrs. William L. Mitchell 
Mrs. Muriel Kallis Newman 
Mrs. John Rosekrans 
Mr. C. Bagley Wright 



Mr. Lawrence A. Fleischman 

Mr. Edgar P. Richardson 


Dr. Irving F. Burton 
Mr. Harold O. Love 


S. Dillon Ripley 

Mr. Russell Lynes 

John E. Reinhardt 

Mrs. William L. Richards 



Donald Stover, 

Whitney Chadwick 
Wesley Chamberlin 
Herschel Chipp 


Constance W. Glenn, 

E. Maurice Bloch 
Ruth Bowman 
Beatrice Farwell 


Bernard Mergen, 

Marjory Balge 
Michael Botwinick 
Lorraine Brown 
David Driskell 

Wanda Corn 
James Elliott 
Albert Elsen 
Henry Hopkins 
Harvey Jones 

Burton Fredericksen 
Grant Holcomb 
Richard Koshalek 
Susan C. Larsen 
Earl A. Powell III 

Charles Eldredge 
Alan Fern 
Lois Fink 
Henry Glassie 
William Homer 
Charles Hummel 

Margaretta Lovell 
Christina Orr-Cahall 
Peter Selz 
Ian McKibbin White 

Moira Roth 
Josine lanco Starrels 
Maurice Tuchman 
Robert R. Wark 

AI Lerner 
Marc Pachter 
Phoebe Stanton 
John Vlach 
John Wilmerding 


Harley B. Holden, 

Winslow Ames 
Mr. and Mrs. 

George H. Bumgardner 
Carl Chiarenza 
Charles Ferguson 
Wolfgang M. Freitag 
Tom Froeudenheim 


Milton Brown, Lloyd Goodrich 

Chairman Eugene Gossen 
Thomas N. Armstrong III John Howat 

John Baur James Humphrey III 

Anne d'Harnoncourt John A. Kouwenhoven 

John Dobkin Abram Lerner 

William Gerdts Russell Lynes 

Hugh Gourley 
Elton W. Hall 
Johnathan P. Harding 
Patricia Hills 
Sinclair Hitchings 
John Kirk 
William Lipke 
Kenworth Moffett 
Elliott Offner 

James O'Gorman 

Stephen Riley 

David Ross 

Theodore Stebbins 

Richard Teitz 

Peter Wick 

Margret Craver Withers 

Barbara Novak 
Clive Phillpot 
Jules D. Prown 
Joseph T. Rankin 
William B. Walker 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 429 


Pauline Eyerly 
Don Foster 
Rachael Griffin 
Bruce Guenther 

LaMar Harrington 
Marshall Hatch 
Martha Kingsbury 
Arlene Schnitzer 

Harvey West 
Virginia Wright 

John Biggers 
William Camfield 
Linda Cathcart 
Dominique de Menil 
Louise Ferrari 
Eleanor Freed 

Carolyn Farb 
Mimi Kilgore 
Caroline Law 
Betty B. Marcus 
Peter C. Marzio 
Margaret McDermott 

Lupe Murchison 
Bill Robinson 
Joan Seeman Robinson 
David Warren 


August Heckscher, 

Karen Johnson Boyd 
Amanda Burden 
Rosemary Corroon 
Joan K. Davidson 

Joanne du Font 
Harmon Goldstone 
Russell Lynes 
Gilbert C. Maurer 
Kenneth Miller 
Arthur Ross 

Robert Sarnoff 
Marietta Tree 
S. Dillon Ripley, 

ex officio 
John Reinhardt, 

ex officio 


Wilcomb E. Washburn, 

Roger Abrahams 
Richard Ahlborn 

William Fitzhugh 
Lloyd Herman 
Robert Laughlin 
Scott Odell 

Ralph Rinzler 
Peter Seitel 
Thomas Vennum, Jr. 


Norman Y. Mineta, 

Laurence Sickman, 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 

Kwang-chih Chang 
Marvin Eisenberg 
Katharine Graham 
Porter McCray 
John M. Rosenfield 

Hugh Scott 
Priscilla P. Soucek 
Richard Weatherhead 


Daniel P. Moynihan, 

Sydney Lewis, 


Charles Blitzer 
Anne d'Harnoncourt 
Thomas M. Evans 
Jerome Greene 

A. James Speyer 
Leonard C. Yaseen 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

(Retired 9/17/84) 
Robert McCormick Adams, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

(Appointed 9/17/84) 

430 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


James R. Buckler, 


Edward S. Ayensu 
James R. Buckler 
Paul E. Desautels 

Jimmie L. Crowe 

(Deceased June 1984) 

Belva Jensen 
Carlton Lees 

Paul N. Perrot Mary Ripley 

(Resigned January 1984) 


Frederick Seitz, 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. 

John E. Reinhardt 
S. Dillon Ripley 

Jean R. St. Clair 
Henry D. Smyth 


S. Dillon Ripley, 

Phillip E. Culbertson 
Lt. Gen. William H. Fitch, USMC 
Gen. Charles A. Gabriel, USAF 
Richard H. Jones 

Donald M. KoU 

Lt. Gen. James H. Merryman, USA 

James E. Murdock III 

Jacqueline Ponder 

Vice Adm. Robert F. Schoultz, USN 

Vice Adm. Benedict L. Stabile, USCG 


Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin 
Professor James Van Allen 
Dr. Glenn Seaborg 
Professor Charles Gillispie 
Professor A. Hunter Dupree 

Mr. Gerald D. Griffin 
Dr. Robert Frosch 
Dr. John Bradamas 
Professor Luis Alvarez 
Dr. Lew Allen 


William N. Richards 
James H. Duff 
Edmund B. Gaither 
Donald V. Hague 

Perry C. Huston 
Paul H. Knappenberger 
Thomas W. Leavitt 
Roger Mandle 

Joyce H. Stoner 
Bret Waller 
Jean M. Weber 


Frank E. Moss, 

Frances Humphrey 

David Driskell 
John A. Friede 
Colbert I. King 

Richard Long 

John Loughran 

Helen Neufeld 

Robert Nooter 

Mrs. Milton F. Rosenthal 

Mrs. Susan Samuels 

Gustave Schindler 

Michael Sonnenreich 
Robert Farris Thompson 
Walter Washington 
John E. Reinhardt, 

ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, 

ex officio 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 431 


Mrs. Nan Tucker McEvoy, 

Thomas S. Buechner, 

S. Dillon Ripley, 

Secretary, ex officio 
Donald Anderson 
Mrs. Hampton Barnes 
Mrs. Elizabeth Brooke Blake 
Gene B. Davis 
Mrs. Johnson Garrett 

Walker Hancock 
R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 
Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. 
August Heckscher 
Thomas C. Howe 
Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 
Richard L. Hunt 
R. Crosby Kemper 
David Lloyd Kreeger 
Abram Lerner, 
ex officio 

Charles Parkhurst 

Philip Pearlstein 

David S. Purvis 

Mrs. Oliver Seth 

Mrs. John Farr Simmons 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 

Mrs. Charles Bagley Wright 

Lloyd Goodrich, 

Commissioner Emeritus 


Martin Friedman 
Henry P. Mcllhenny 

Paul Mellon 

Edgar P. Richardson 

Charles H. Sawyer 
Andrew Wyeth 


Senator Jake Garn, 

Robert O. Anderson 
Barry Bingham, Sr. 

Thomas Mellon Evans Barbara Novak 
Katie Louchheim Frank Stanton 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. Barbara Tuchman 

Senator Robert H. Morgan (Resigned 5/26/84) 

J. Carter Brown, Director, National Gallery of Art, ex officio 
Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 




Paul N. Perrot, 

Chairman (through January 1984) 
William N. Richards, 

Chairman (from February 1984) 
Jane R. Glaser, Richard Fiske 

ex officio J. O. Grantham 

Janet Solinger, Neil Harris 

ex officio Philip S. Humphrey 

Watson Laetsch 
Abram Lerner 
William F. McSweeny 
Richard H. Randall, Jr. 
Adelle Robertson 
Susan Stitt 
Michael Templeton 


William J. Baroody, Jr., 

Robert A. Mosbacher, 

Robert McCormick Adams 
James A. Baker III 

Theodore C. Barreaux 
William J. Bennett 
Daniel J. Boorstin 
Kenneth B. Clark 
Stuart E. Eizenstat 
Margaret M. Heckler 

Max M. Kampelman 
Jesse H. Oppenheimer 
Anne Firor Scott 
George P. Shultz 
Robert M. Warner 
Charles Z. Wick 

432 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


Honorary Chairmen 

Mrs. Ronald Reagan 
Mrs. Jimmy Carter 
Mrs. Gerald Ford 

Mrs. Richard M. Nixon 
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
Mrs. Aristotle Onassis 


Roger L. Stevens, 

Senator Charles H. Percy, 

Henry Strong, 

Frank Ikard, 

Charlotte Woolard, 

Assistant Secretary 
VV. Jarvis Moody, 


Harry C. McPherson, Jr., 

General Counsel 
William Becker, 

Associate Counsel 
James F. Rogers, 

Assistant Treasurer 
Henry Strong, 

Assistant Treasurer 
Walter W. Vaughan, 

Assistant Treasurer 

Members Appointed by the President of the United States 

Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr. 

Mrs. Edward T. Breathitt 

Marshall B. Coyne 

Richmond D. Crinkley 

June Oppen Degnan 

Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

J. William Fulbright 

Cary Grant 

Mrs. William Lee Hanley, Jr. 

Orval Hansen 

Charlton Heston 

Frank Ikard 

Mrs. Earle Jorgensen 

Melvin R. Laird 

Marjorie M. Lawson 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Dina Merrill 

Joan Mondale 

Donna Stone Pesch 

Gerald M. Rafshoon 

Mrs. Abraham Ribicoff 

Jean Kennedy Smith 

John G. Spatuzza 

Roger L. Stevens 

Mrs. Theodore H. Strauss 

Henry Strong 

Jack Valenti 

Lew R. Wasserman 

Mrs. Jack Wrather 

Members Ex Officio Designated by Act of Congress 

Margaret M. Heckler, Secretary of 
Health and Human Services 

T. H. Bell, Secretary of Education 

Charles Z. Wick, Director, 

United States Information Agency 

Senator James A. McClure 

Senator Edward M. Kennedy 

Senator Charles H. Percy 

Representative Joseph M. McDade 

Representative Charles Wilson 

Representative Sidney R. Yates 

Marion S. Barry, Mayor, 
District of Columbia 

Robert McCormick Adams, 

Secretary, Smithsonian 

Daniel J. Boorstin, Librarian 

of Congress 
J. Carter Brown, Chairman of the 

Commission of Fine Arts 
Russell E. Dickenson, Director, 

National Park Service 
F. Alexis H. Roberson, Director, 

District of Columbia Department 

of Recreation 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 433 

Honorary Trustees 

Mrs. George A. Garrett 
Ralph E. Becker 
Mrs. Albert Lasker 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. Clifford Folger 

President's Advisory Committee on the Arts 

Herbert L. Hutner, Chairman 

Los Angeles, California 
Margaret Archambault 

Chicago, Illinois 
Robert D. Bain 

Bismarck, North Dakota 
Joy S. Burris 

Englewood, Colorado 
Charles A. Camalier, Jr. 

Potomac Trails, Maryland 
Claire Chambers 

Bloomfield Hills, Michigan 
Margot Denny 

Anchorage, Alaska 
William M. Fine 

New York, New York 
Richard A. Gallun 

Fox Point, Wisconsin 
Beverly Gosnell 

Charleston, South Carolina 
Carl Halvorson 

Lake Oswego, Oregon 
Leota Hayes 

Jackson, Mississippi 
T. David Higgins 

South Charleston, West Virginia 
Martin Hoffman 

Needham, Massachusetts 
Stephen Jernigan 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 
Peggy Mallick 

Casper, Wyoming 
Alyne Massey 

Nashville, Tennessee 
Julia M. McCabe 

Wilmington, Delaware 
Virginia McCann 

Short Hills, New Jersey 
Millicent L. Monks 

Cape Elizabeth, Maine 
Julie P. Montgomery 

Atlanta, Georgia 
Lindsay J. Morgenthaler 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Jim Nelson 

Rapid City, South Dakota 
Jeanette Nichols 

Shawnee Mission, Kansas 
Betty Noe 

New Orleans, Louisiana 
Ann S. Penberthy 

Paradise Valley, Arizona 
John Piercey 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
Millie Pogna 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 
Gladys Prescott 

West Palm Beach, Florida 
Chesley Pruet 

El Dorado, Arkansas 
Ann Rydalch 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 
Hugh K. Schilling 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 
William Siems 

Billings, Montana 
Harriet Slaybaugh 

Montpelier, Vermont 
Eileen Slocum 

Newport, Rhode Island 
Charles C. Spalding 

Honolulu, Hawaii 
Richard Taylor 

Potomac Falls, Maryland 
Dr. Paul Tessier 

New Castle, New Hampshire 
James Thompson 

Louisville, Kentucky 
Judith Thompson 

Birmingham, Alabama 
Diane Ushinski 

Shavertown, Pennsylvania 
Dorothy Vannerson 

Sugar Land, Texas 
Joseph Vetrano 

Bristol, Connecticut 
Judith Woods 

St. Louis, Missouri 

434 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


Annette G. Strauss, 

Thomas J. Mader, 
Executive Director 


Alexander Armstrong 
Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr. 
Robert Charles 
Anne H. Freeman 
Mrs. Gilbert Greenway 
Jeanne Wade Heningburg 
Thomas R. Kendrick 
William Martin 

Dina Merrill 
Michael X. Morrell 
Gayle Perkins 
Le Rowell 
Roger L. Stevens 
Henry Strong 
Joy Carter Sundlun 
Togo D. West, Jr. 


Paul Mellon, 

John R. Stevenson 
Carlisle H. Humelsine 

Ruth Carter Stevenson 
Franklin D. Murphy 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 

George P. Shultz, Secretary of State, ex officio 

Donald T. Regan, Secretary of the Treasury, ex officio 

Robert McCormick Adams, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 


Susan Kalcik, 

Carolyn Thompson, 

Marge D'Urso, 


Sherrill Berger 
Delores Brown 
Betty Beuck Derbyshire 
Frances Dulay 
Matou Goodwin 
Margery Gordon 
Victoria Hershiser 
Julie Hoover 

Ruby Davis, 

Roberta Geier, 

Susan Jewett 
Susanne Owens Koenig 
Christine Eason Louton 
Margaret Santiago 
Joanna Scherer 
Katherine Sprague 
Miriam Weissman 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards, and Commissions I 435 

APPENDIX 2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program 
Awards Made October 1, 1983, through 
September 30, 1984 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Chicago, Illinois. Continued support for 
administration; research fellowships; Center for Art and Archeology; Center 
for Ethnomusicology; Gujarat prehistoric project II; conference on ethnomusi- 
cology; translations fellowships; Third World Hindi Conference and Urdu 
Conference on Mir. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Operation of Cen- 
ter in Cairo; fellowship program in the study of archeology and related disci- 
plines in Egypt; continuation of the architectural and epigraphic survey of 
Egypt; archeological investigations of Qasr Ibrim; archeological investigations 
of Wadi Tumilat. 

American University, Washington, D.C. Vaishnava literature microfilm proj- 
ect (India). 

Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland. Ritual arts of the Baga 

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. Women's education, employment, 

and family life (India). 

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Tibetan modern history: 
1933-50 (India). 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Land-use vegetation changes in 
south and southeastern Asia, 1800-1980 (India). 

Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture, New York, New York. 
Indo-American fellowship program. 

Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts. Contemporary architecture 
in India. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Islamic architecture of Kerala State 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Prehistory of Egypt. 

State University of New York, Binghamton, New York. Effects of Roman 
Colonial system in Serbia, Yugoslavia. 

University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona. Changes in the population and ma- 
terial culture of a north Indian village: 1953-1983; late quaternary geochro- 
nology (Egypt). 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Excavations at Opovo-Bajbuk 
(Yugoslavia); shell manufacturing industry at Moenjodaro (Pakistan); arche- 
ological explorations at Balakot (Pakistan). 


University of California, Irvine, California. The pyrotechnology and environ- 
mental impact of ancient copper oxide on smelting at Kumbariya and Amgaji, 
Gujarat, India. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Excavations at Ghazi Shah (Paki- 
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Burmese prehistory. 

University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Restudy of the Village Khalapur in 
North India. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Research and photography of 
Ajanta Caves (India). 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Architectural plans: No- 
landa and the Lodi-Mughal transition (India). 

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Urban space in medi- 
eval Hindu imperial capital (India). 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Status, class, and 
dominance patterns of politico-economic change in modern India; excavation 
at Rojdi (India). 

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Preparation of an English 
dictionary of the Tamil verb (India). 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Contemporary South Asian 
civilization film project (India). 

Wesleyan University, Middleton, Connecticut. Ethnographic research in Paki- 
stan for a collaborative project on social anthropology. 


American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York. Phylogenetic, 
behavioral, and ecological investigations on the native bees of Pakistan. 

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. Analysis of growth rates of tropi- 
cal trees in the Western Ghats of Karnataka State (India). 

California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles, California. Collection of fresh- 
water fishes for systematic study in the Western Ghats of India. 

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Approach to 
herpetofauna of Southern India. 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Behavior of the slender loris in 
South India; anthropological and paleontological research into the fossil 
anthropoid sites of the Egyptian Oligocene. 

Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida. A taxonomic revision of the 
aquatic weevil genus bagous in India and Pakistan. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Later Miocene hominoids 


Howard University, Washington, D.C. Cenozoic mammals of Pakistan. 

Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho. River continum concept in Indian 

International Crane Foundation, Chicago, Illinois. Ecology of crane reproduc- 
tive behavior as it relates to the conservation of the species (India). 

Appendix 2. Special Foreign Currency Program Awards I 437 

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. International Workshop of the Council 
for the Biosphere; ecology of a semitropical monsoonal wetland in India 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The deep 
structure and active tectonics of the Himalayas (India). 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Aquatic coleoptera 
of Hutovo Blato (Yugoslavia); recovery of putative Neanderthal remains 
(Egypt); systematics of the echuira/sipuncula of India; bird population survey 
of the Eastern Ghats, India; pictorial guide to the birds of the Indian sub- 
continent; faunal assemblages and population ecology of Pakistan amphibians 
and reptiles. 

New York University, New York, New York. A preliminary investigation of 
the snakes of Burma. 

Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan. Research on the subtropical forests 
of south India. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Systematics of Indian telenominae 
and perilampidae. 

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. A comparative 
study on the old world and new world tiger beetle community structure 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. U.S. participation in the Centenary 
Symposium of the Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay (India). 

Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Systematics and biology of 
tephritidae and braconidae in India with special emphasis on fruit flies and 
their natural enemies. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. A systematic study of the bur- 
rowing amphibians (Gymnophiona) of India; plumage patterns and speciation 
in the avion genus phylloscopus (India). 

University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. An exchange of scientific data 
on tigers and demonstration of a tiger monitoring system (India). 

University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Reproductive biol- 
ogy of the mugger crocodile (India). 

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. Genetic variability and genetic 
differentiation among mainland populations of the small Indian mongoose. 

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. International symposium on 
environment and hormones, Srinigar, Garhwal, India. 


George Washington University, Washington, D.C. US-India workshop on arid 
zone research — Jodhpur, India. 

University of Maryland, College Park. Second Indo-U.S. workshop on solar/ 
terrestrial physics. 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska. A reconnaissance trip of the late- 
cenozoic intermontane basins of North Pakistan. 

University of Southern California, University Park, California. Evolutionary 
models of interstellar clouds — chemical and thermal properties (India). 

438 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Paleontology 
and stratigraphy of neogene deposits in Himachel Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, 


Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture, New York, New York. 
Joint Indo-U.S. programs. 

Smithsonian Office of Folklife Programs, Washington, D.C. Organization of 
India program for Festival of American Folklife (1985) and traveling exhibi- 
tion seeing India through children's eyes. 

Appendix 2. Special Foreign Currency Program Awards I 439 

APPENDIX 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded 
in fiscal Year 1984 


Columbia University, New York, New York 

New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York 

New York University, New York, New York 

University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 


Bronx Zoo, Bronx, New York 

Historic Deerfield, Deerfield, Massachusetts 

Intermuseum Conservation Association, Oberlin, Ohio 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri 

Museums at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 

New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 

Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia Zoo, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, New York 

St. Louis Zoological Park, St. Louis, Missouri 

University of California, Los Angeles, California 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 


John Barrow, United States/International Council on Monuments and Sites, 

Washington, D.C. 

Vicki Cassman, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 


Ann Craddock, Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

Beatriz del Cueto, United States/International Council on Monuments and 

Sites, Washington, D.C. 
Antoinette Dwan, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware 

Kathleen Francis, Merrimack Valley Textile Museum, North Andover, 

Sarah Gates, Textile Conservation Centre, Surrey, England 

Marian Kaminitz, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii 

Jane Ketcham, Textile Conservation Workshop, South Salem, New York 

Lucy Kinsolving, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 

Andrea Pitsch, Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York 

Ann Schelpert, Queen's University, Ontario, Canada 

Eleanore Stewart, Columbia University, New York, New York 

Gwen Tauber, Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, California 

Susan Jia-sun Tsang, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 

Zahira Veliz, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio 

Faye Wrubel, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 


African American Museums Association, Washington, D.C. 
Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. 
Intermuseum Conservation Association, Oberlin, Ohio 
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. 
Northeast Document Conservation Center, Andover, Massachusetts 
Regional Conference of Historical Agencies, Manlius, New York 
Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida 
Suquamish Tribal Cultural Center, Suquamish, Washington 
Washington Conservation Guild, Washington, D.C. 


Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York 
New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York 
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 441 


American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee 

American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 

Center for Occupational Hazards, New York, New York 

Minnesota Zoological Garden, Apple Valley, Minnesota 

National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property, Washington, D.C. 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, Boston, 

442 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

APPENDIX 4. Academic, Research Training, and Internship 
Appointments in Fiscal Year 1984 


The Smithsonian offers, through the Office of Fellowships and Grants, research 
and study appointments to visiting scientists, scholars, and students. These 
appointees are provided access to the Institution's facilities, staff specialties, 
and reference resources. The persons — listed by bureau, office, or division — in 
this Appendix began their residencies between October 1, 1983, and Septem- 
ber 30, 1984. Predoctoral and Postdoctoral fellows, graduate student fellows. 
Visiting Scientists, Scholars, and Students, holders of special awards and par- 
ticipants in special programs are so listed. The institution where each Fellow 
received, or expects to receive, the degree, or the home university or institu- 
tion of Visiting Scientists or Scholars, and other special appointees is listed. 
A brief description of the project to be undertaken at the Smithsonian is in- 
cluded where appropriate. The fellow's or visitor's host bureau or office and 
the Smithsonian adviser are also listed. 


William Agee, Senior Visiting Scholar. Past Director of the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Houston. American art, 1910 to 1945 with emphasis on continuing tradi- 
tions of modern American art and its relation to art internationally, with 
Richard Murray, from January 1 through December 31, 1984. 


Suzanne Abel-Vidor, Visiting Student, Brown University. Costa Rican ceramic 
traditions, with Dr. Ronald Bishop, from May 21 through July 27, 1984. 
Marilyn P. Beaudry, Ph.D., Postdoctoral fellow in materials analysis, Miner- 
alogical, chemical, and technological investigation of a pigment tentatively 
identified as Specular Hematite and used in pre-firing decoration of Meso- 
american ceramics, with Ronald Bishop and James Blackman, Department of 
Archaeometry, and William Melson, Department of Mineral Sciences, Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, from September 1, 1984, to August 31, 

Maria Ligeza, Visiting Scholar, Fulbright-Hays Research Fellowship. Academy 
of Fine Arts, Krakow, Poland. Physical-chemical methods of examination of 
works of art, with Jacqueline Olin, from September 1, 1984, through June 1, 

Emlen Myers, Postdoctoral fellow in materials analysis. State University of 
New York at Binghamton. Provenience analysis of Hispano-moresque pottery, 
with Jacqueline Olin, from October 1, 1983, through September 30, 1984. 


Timothy Clark, Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund Fellow. Ph.D. candidate. Har- 
vard University. Ukiyo-e Painting in the Freer Gallery of Art, with Dr. 
Yoshiaki Shimizu and Ann Yonemura, from June 18 through July 6, 1984. 


Toshi Kihara, Fulbright Fellow, Ph.D. candidate, Osaka University. Japanese 
Momoyama and Edo Period Screen and Sliding Door Paintings, with Dr. 
Yoshiaki Shimizu and Ann Yonemura, June 1 through July 9, 1984. 
David Pollack, Postdoctoral fellow. University of California, Berkeley. Theo- 
retical and practical aspects of relationship between paintings and their poetic 
inscriptions in medieval Japan, with Dr. Yoshiaki Shimizu, from September 
1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Tadashi Kobayashi, Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund Fellow, Gakushuin Uni- 
versity, Tokyo. Japanese Genre Paintings and Ukiyo-e Paintings, with Dr. 
Yoshiaki Shimizu and Ann Yonemura, June 15 through August 11, 1984. 


Susan Sterling, Predoctoral fellow, Princeton University. Kenneth Noland and 
the modern aesthetic, with Dr. Charles Millard, Department of Painting and 
Sculpture, from January 17, 1984, through January 16, 1985. 


Jack M. Bruce, the Charles A. Lindbergh Chair. Manufacturing of British 
World War I aircraft in the United States, with Walter J. Boyne and staff, 
from September 1, 1983, through January 31, 1984. 

Peter M. Grosz, Alfred Verville Fellow. The development of Austro-Hun- 
garian aircraft during 1914-1918, with E. T. Wooldridge, Department of Aero- 
nautics, from September 1, 1983, through August 31, 1984. 
Adam L. Gruen, Guggenheim Predoctoral Fellow. United States civilian space 
station concepts: a case study of the nature of technological change, 1958- 

1983, with Dr. Paul Hanle, Department of Space Science and Exploration, 
from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Richard K. Smith, Alfred Verville Fellow. The new American airplane of 1934, 
with Mr. R. E. G. Davies, Department of Aeronautics, from September 17, 

1984, through September 16, 1985. 

Joseph N. Tatarewicz, Guggenheim Postdoctoral Fellow. The role of planetary 
astronomers in developing the Space Telescope, with Dr. Paul Hanle, Depart- 
ment of Space Science and Exploration, from December 15, 1983, through 
December 14, 1984. 

William L. Teng, Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow. Remote sensing for land- 
forms and soils in the arid southwest United States, with Dr. Ted Maxwell, 
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, from October 3, 1983, through Sep- 
tember 30, 1984. 


Frances Connelly, Ph.D. candidate. University of Pittsburgh, Influences of 
African art on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Western art, from June 9 
to July 15, 1984. 

Ekpo Eye, Smithsonian Institution Regents Fellow. Director-General, National 
Commission for Museums and Monuments, Nigeria. Work on manuscripts on 
archaeological excavations at Ife and Owo and an illustrated history of 
Nigeria from the Stone Age to the nineteenth century, with Sylvia Williams, 
from June 15 through August 14, 1984. 


Nancy Anderson, Ph.D. candidate. University of Delaware. Albert Bierstadt 
and the California Landscape Painters of the 1870s, with Dr. William Truett- 
ner. Office of Painting and Sculpture, from October 1, 1983, through December 
14, 1984. 

444 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Sarah Boehm, Ph.D. candidate, Bryn Mawr College. Seth Eastman's illustra- 
tions for Henry Schoolcraft's "History and Statistical Information Respecting 
the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United 
States," with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1983, through September, 1985. 

Ralph T. Coe, Visiting Scholar, past president of the Association of Art 
Museum Directors and former director of the Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas 
City. The Survival of traditional Indian crafts, with Dr. Charles C. Eldredge, 
Director, from November 1982, through October 1983. 

Tina Dunkley, Smithsonian Fellow, Atlanta University. Afro-American art 
and museum studies, with Merry Foresta and Lynda Hartigan, Department of 
Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculpture, from May 1 through September 
30, 1984. 

Betsy Fahlman, Postdoctoral Fellow, Old Dominion University. The art of 
John Ferguson Weir, 1841-1926, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and 
Fellowships, from September 1, 1983, through August 1984. 
Richard Gruber, Ph.D. candidate. University of Kansas. Thomas Hart Benton: 
The Teacher and His Students, with Dr. Charles C. Eldredge, Director, from 
September 1983, through December 1983. 

Lisa Koenigsberg, Predoctoral Fellow, Yale University. Professionalizing do- 
mesticity; American women writers on architecture, 1865-1917 , with Dr. Lil- 
lian Miller, Charles Willson Peale Papers, National Portrait Gallery, Edith 
Mayo, Department of Social and Cultural History, National Museum of 
American History, and Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, 
from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Sandra Langer, Postdoctoral Fellow, New York University. Tohn Frederick 
Kensett, a critical study of his life and art, with Dr. William Truettner, De- 
partment of Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Painting and Sculpture, 
from June 1 through November 30, 1984. 

Richard Masteller, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Minnesota. Satiric form 
in the 1930s; dissident voices, dissident visions, with Drs. Lois Fink, Office of 
Research and Fellowships, and Virginia Mecklenberg, Department of Twen- 
tieth-Century Painting and Sculpture, from September 10, 1984, through 
September 9, 1985. 

Dennis Montagna, Ph.D. candidate. University of Delaware. The Grant Me- 
morial Sculpture, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, from 
October 1, 1983, through September 14, 1984. 

Regenia Perry, Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow, Virginia Commonwealth 
University. History of Black American art, 1650-1984, with Dr. Lois Fink, 
Office of Research and Fellowships, from August 1, 1984, through July 31, 

Susan Rather, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Delaware. Paul Manship and 
archaism in American sculpture, 1900-1930, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of 
Research and Fellowships, from January 1 through December 31, 1984. 
J. Gray Sweeney, Postdoctoral Fellow, Indiana University. A study of Thomas 
Cole's iconographic and stylistic influence over mid-nineteenth-century Ameri- 
can painting, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, from 
September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Elizabeth Tebow, Ph.D. candidate. University of Maryland. The mythical 
imagination in American painting of the late-nineteenth century, with Dr. 
Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, from July 1, 1983, through 
September 14, 1984. 

Elizabeth Turner, Ph.D. candidate. University of Virginia. American artists 
in Paris, 1920-1929, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, 
from October 1, 1983, through December 14, 1984. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 445 

Jerry Waters, Visiting Student, Yale University. Religious paintings of Henry 
Ossawa Tanner, with Dr. Lois Fink, Office of Research and Fellowships, from 
June 4 through August 10, 1984. 

Cecile Whiting, Predoctoral Fellow, Stanford University. The American paint- 
ers' response to Facism, 1933-1945, with Dr. Virginia Mecklenberg, Depart- 
ment of Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculpture, from June 15, 1984, 
through June 14, 1985. 


Catherine Beeker, Graduate Student Fellow, University of Maryland. Men's 
clothing design and development of design, 1920's to 1940's, with Claudia 
Kidwell, Department of Social and Cultural History, from June 11 through 
August 17, 1984. 

Gail Cooper, Graduate Student Fellow, University of California, Santa Bar- 
bara. The history of air conditioning in America, 1906-1979, with Robert 
Vogel, Department of the History of Science and Technology, from July 30 
through October 5, 1984. 

Michelangelo DeMaria, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Rome. History of 
cosmic ray physics in the United States in the 1930's, with Dr. Paul Forman, 
Department of the History of Science and Technology, from November 1, 

1983, through October 31, 1984. 

Vicky Dula, Graduate Student Fellow, Ohio State University. Racism and the 
commercial city residential land-use structure in Cincinnati, 1802-1840, with 
Dr. James Horton, Afro-American Communities Project, from June 11 through 
August 17, 1984. 

Deborah Dwork, Postdoctoral Fellow, University College, London. Urban and 
rural preventive maternal and child care, 1880-1945, with Dr. Ramunas Kon- 
dratas. Department of the History of Science and Technology, from March 1, 

1984, through February 28, 1985. 

Bruce Hunt, Postdoctoral Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. Telegraphic 
problems and the development of electromagnetic theory in the second half 
of the nineteenth century, with Dr. Bernard Finn, Department of the History 
of Science and Technology, from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 
Lily Kay, Predoctoral Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. The technology of 
ideas; laboratory practices and the growth of molecular biology, 1933-1953, 
with Drs. Jon Eklund and Ramunas Kondratas, Department of the History of 
Science and Technology, from August 15, 1984, through August 14, 1985. 
Robert Korstad, Predoctoral Fellow, University of North Carolina. The world 
of the tobacco manufacturing worker, with Dr. Pete Daniel, Department of 
the History of Science and Technology, from September 1, 1984, through 
August 31, 1985. 

Peter Kuznick, George Mason University/Smithsonian Institution Fellow, 
Rutgers University. Science and the Common Man in 1930's America, with 
Dr. Arthur Molella, Department of the History of Science and Technology, 
from September 1, 1984, through June 30, 1985. 

J. Bartholomew Landry, Faculty Fellow, Columbia University. Study of the 
Black middle class family in historical and societal contexts, with Dr. Spencer 
Crew, Archives Center, and Dr. James Horton, Afro-American Communities 
Project, from June 1 through August 31, 1984. 

Gerald MacDonald, Graduate Student Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad engineering diagrams from the nineteenth 
century, with Robert Vogel, Department of the History of Science and 
Technology, from June 4 through August 20, 1984. 
Melissa McLoud, Predoctoral Fellow, George Washington University. Build- 

446 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

ers in Waphington, D.C., 1870-1900; changes in house design and construc- 
tion, with Susan Myers and Keith Melder, Department of Social and 
Cultural History, from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. 
David Martinez, Graduate Student Fellow, University of Michigan. An ap- 
proach to the study of keyboard instruments, their origin and authenticity, 
with John Fesperman, Department of Social and Cultural History, from 
May 7 through July 14, 1984. 

Portia Maultsby, Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Wiscon- 
sin. Popular music of Black America, with Dr. Bernice Reagon, Department 
of Public Programs, from August 1, 1984, through July 31, 1985. 
Marian Moore, Predoctoral Fellow, Bowling Green State University. Black 
images in advertising, analysis of the Warshaio collection, 1840-1940, with 
Dr. Spencer Crew, Archives Center, from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. 
David Rhees, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Pennsylvania. The chemists' 
crusade; the popularization of science in America, 1914-1940, with Drs. Jon 
Eklund and Arthur Molella, Department of the History of Science and 
Technology, from September 1 through August 31, 1984. 
Matt Sale, Postdoctoral Fellow, State University of New York at Binghamton. 
Gypsy cultures of the United States in historical perspective, with Richard 
Ahlborn, Department of Social and Cultural History, from Sepember 1, 1984, 
through August 31, 1985. 

Sheila Sale, Visiting Scholar, Western Reserve University. Co-researcher on 
Gypsy cultures of the United States in historical perspective, with Richard 
Ahlborn, Department of Social and Cultural History, from September 1, 1984, 
through August 31, 1985. 

Dorothee Schneider, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Munich. New York's 
furniture makers and their industry, 1850-1900, with Dr. Gary Kulik, 
Department of Social and Cultural History, from March 1, 1984, through 
February 28, 1985. 

Merritt Roe Smith, Regents Fellow, Professor of the History of Technology 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. An interpretive history of the 
mechanization of United States industry in the antebellum period, with 
Roger Kennedy, from June 1, 1984, through January 31, 1985. 
Robert Snyder, Predoctoral Fellow, New York University. Vaudeville and the 
birth of mass culture in the neighborhoods of New York City, 1890-1930, 
with Carl Scheele, Department of Social and Cultural History, from June 1, 
1984, through May 31, 1985. 

Valerie Steele, First Ladies' Postdoctoral Fellow, Yale University. Images of 
the Ideal Self, with Claudia Kidwell, Department of Social and Cultural His- 
tory, from January 1 through December 31, 1984. 

Sally Stein, Predoctoral Fellow, Yale University. The rhetoric of the colorful 
and the colorless in the photographic culture of the 1930's, with Dr. Pete 
Daniel, Department of the History of Science and Technology, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1984, through April 30, 1985. 

Henry Taylor, Faculty Fellow, State University of New York at Buffalo. 
Black residential patterns and the city, Cincinnati, 1802-1850, with Dr. 
Spencer Crew, Archives Center, and Dr. James Horton, Afro-American Com- 
munities Project, from June 15 through October 15, 1984. 


Gillian Bentley, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Chicago. Dental morph- 
ology, genetic traits, family, and social composition of the Bab edh-Dhra' 
early Bronze lA population, with Dr. Donald Ortner, Department of Anthro- 
pology, from March 1, 1984, through February 28, 1985. 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 447 

Ava Berinstein-Swados, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Los 
Angeles. Folklore of Alta Verapaz, with Dr. Robert Laughlin, Department of 
Anthropology, from March 1, 1984, through February 28, 1985. 
Niel Bruce, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Queensland. Taxonomic revi- 
sion of the Cymothoid isopod genera Mothocya Costa, 1951 and Glossobius 
Schioedte and Meinert, 1883, with Dr. Thomas Bowman, Department of In- 
vertebrate Zoology, from November 1 through October 31, 1984. 
Silvana Campello, Visiting Student, George Washington University. Effects 
of environmental changes, biomass energy production, and other phases of 
applied mariculture on marine organisms, with Dr. Walter Adey, Department 
of Paleobiology, Marine Systems Laboratory, from March 1, 1984, through 
February 28, 1985. 

Hsien Yu Cheng, Postdoctoral Fellow, Tulane University. Systematics and 
evolution of Sphaerodactylus Wagler in Hispaniola, with Dr. George Zug, 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. 
Elizabeth Chornesky, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Texas. The applica- 
tion of biological characters to the taxonomy of reef corals, with Dr. Klaus 
Ruetzler, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, from September 15, 1984, 
through September 14, 1985. 

Charles Cobb, Graduate Student Fellow, Southern Illinois University. An- 
alysis of the Hale site mortuary collections, with Dr. Bruce Smith, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, from June 4 through August 10, 1984. 
G. Kent Colbath, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Oregon. Durability and 
functional morphology of polychaete jaws, the fossil record, with Dr. Kristian 
Fauchald, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, from October 1, 1983, 
through September 30, 1984. 

Paul Delaney, Graduate Student Fellow, University of Southern California. 
A study of the phylogeny, evolution, and biogeography of the marine isopod 
family Corallanidae Hansen, 1890, with Dr. Thomas Bowman, Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology, from June 25 through August 31, 1984. 
Andrzej Elzanowski, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Warsaw. Jaw ap- 
paratus of terrestrial omnivorous birds, with Dr. Richard Zusi, Department 
of Vertebrate Zoology, from October 1, 1983, through September 30, 1984. 
Joseph Ewan, Regents Fellow, Emeritus Professor of Botany, Tulane Univer- 
sity. A biographical bibliography of trail narratives of naturalists in South 
America, with Drs. Richard Fiske and Mark Littler, Department of Botany, 
from April 1, 1984, through March 31, 1985. 

Brian Farrell, Visiting Student, University of Maryland. Distribution of Peru- 
vian beetle among tree species and seasons, with Dr. Terry Erwin, Depart- 
ment of Entomology, from July 23 through September 14, 1984. 
J. Whitfield Gibbons, Visiting Scientist, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. 
Review and summary of literature on turtle ecology, with Dr. George Zug, 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from September 1, 1984, through May 31, 

Gary Graves, Postdoctoral Fellow, Florida State University. Zoogeography 
and speciation of northern Andean birds, with Dr. Richard Zusi, Department 
of Vertebrate Zoology, from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 
Elizabeth Greene, James E. Webb Fellow, Department of Mineral Sciences. 
Candidate for Master of Arts in Museum Studies, George Washington Uni- 
versity, 1984-1985. 

James Griffin, Regents Fellow, Senior Research Scientist, Department of 
Anthropology, University of Michigan. Hopewell burial mound cultures of 
the upper midwestern United States, with Dr. Richard Fiske, Director, from 
January 1 through December 15, 1984. 

448 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

John Hackney, Visiting Scientist, Georgetown University, factors controlling 
the productivity of algal turf communities, with Dr. Walter Adey, Depart- 
ment of Paleobiology, Marine Systems Laboratory, from March 1 through 
October 31, 1984. 

Sidney Halsor, Predoctoral Fellow, Michigan Technological University. Min- 
eral chemistry of modern Guatemalan andesites, insight into combined frac- 
tionation, assimilation, and mixing, with Drs. William Melson and Thomas 
Simkin, Department of Mineral Sciences, from September 1, 1984, through 
February 28, 1985. 

Ana Harada, Visiting Student, University of Maryland. Tropical rain forest 
ant ecology, with Dr. Terry Erwin, Department of Entomology, from July 23 
through September 14, 1984. 

Mark Hershkovitz, Graduate Student Fellow, University of California, Davis. 
A survey of Caryphyllid leaves, with Dr. Joan Nowicke, Department of 
Botany, from June 9 through September 14, 1984. 

John Heyning, Graduate Student Fellow, University of California, Los An- 
geles. Cranial variation in the beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, with Dr. 
James Mead, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from July 2 through Sep- 
tember 7, 1984. 

Peter Houde, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan. Phylogenetics of 
early Tertiary paleognathous birds, with Dr. Storrs Olson, Department of 
Vertebrate Zoology, from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. 
H. Edwin Jackson, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan. The prehis- 
toric subsistence culture of the Poverty Point Culture in the lower Mississippi 
valley, with Dr. Bruce Smith, Department of Anthropology, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Jonathan Kelafant, Graduate Student Fellow, George Washington University. 
Determination of the paleosalinity of the Burgess Shale Formation, with Dr. 
Kenneth Towe, Department of Paleobiology, from June 4 through August 10, 

Clara Kidwell, Faculty Fellow, University of California, Berkeley. A history 
of the Choctaw tribe in Mississippi, with Drs. William Sturtevant, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, and Wilcomb Washburn, Office of American Studies, 
from January 1 through February 28, 1984. 

Kishor Kumar, Postdoctoral Fellow, Punjab University. Marine and terrestrial 
Eocene mammalian assemblages from India with reference to dental ultra- 
structure, with Dr. Clayton Ray, Department of Paleobiology, from Octo- 
ber 1, 1983, through September 30, 1984. 

Steven Leipertz, Graduate Student Fellow, University of Washington. A phy- 
letic study of the Pleuronectinae, with Dr. Richard Vari, Department of 
Vertebrate Zoology, from September 17 through November 23, 1984. 
Rafael Lemaitre, Graduate Student Fellow, University of Miami. The syste- 
matics of the genus Parapagurus with a revision of the Western Atlantic 
species, with Dr. Raymond Manning, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, 
from June 11 through August 17, 1984. 

Nancy Levoy, Graduate Student Fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy. Metallurgy in ancient Ecuador and its role in New World metallurgical 
developments, with Dr. Betty Meggers, Department of Anthropology, from 
September 17 through November 23, 1984. 

Danielle Lucid, Visiting Student, University of Maryland. The role of nutri- 
ents and the corresponding effect it has on algal productivity and community 
structure, with Dr. Walter Adey, Department of Paleobiology, Marine Sys- 
tems Laboratory, from February 15, 1984, through February 14, 1985. 
John Malinky, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Iowa. Taxonomic and bio- 
stratigraphic reassessment of hyolitha (Mollusca) from the Lower Paleozoic, 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research Training Appointments I 449 

with Dr. Richard Grant, Department of Paleobiology, from July 1, 1984, 
through June 30, 1985. 

Philip Millener, Postdoctoral Fellow, Auckland University. A study of Lower 
Tertiary penguins, with Dr. Storrs Olson, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, 
from March 15, 1984, through March 14, 1985. 

Scott Miller, Graduate Student Fellow, Harvard University. Generic revision 
of the Neotropical moth family Dalceridae, with Donald Davis, Department 
of Entomology, from August 6 through October 12, 1984. 

Rand Miyashiro, Graduate Student Fellow, University of California, Berkeley. 
Comparative morphometries of hominoids and Old World monkeys, with Dr. 
Ortner, Department of Anthropology, from June 4 through August 10, 1984. 
Patricia Moguel, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Mexico. Ethnohistory and 
ecology of the Totonacapon region. Vera Cruz, Mexico, with Dr. Betty 
Meggers, Department of Anthropology, from May 1, 1984, through Febru- 
ary 28, 1985. 

Jill Neitzel, Postdoctoral Fellow, Arizona State University. A stylistic analysis 
of Smithsonian collections of black-on-white pottery from Chaco Canyon, 
with Dr. Dennis Stanford, Department of Anthropology, from August 1, 
1984, through July 31, 1985. 

Stephen Nichols, Predoctoral Fellow, Cornell University. Systematics, clado- 
geny, and zoogeography of Ardistomis and Semiardistomis, with Dr. Terry 
Erwin, Department of Entomology, from January 1 through July 31, 1984. 
Michael Pogue, Predoctoral Fellow, University of Minnesota. A generic revi- 
sion of the Cochylidae (Lepidoptera) of North America, with Dr. Donald 
Davis, Department of Entomology, from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. 
Harry Savage, Postdoctoral Fellow, Florida State University. Systematic stu- 
dies on the Oswaldoi subgroup of Anopholes with emphasis on the reliable 
identification of malarial vectors, with Dr. Bruce Harrison, Department of 
Entomology, from August 1, 1984, through July 31, 1985. 

Enrico Savazzi, Postdoctoral Fellow, Uppsala University, Sweden. Functional 
morphology and evolution of sculptural patterns in invertebrates, with Dr. 
Thomas Waller, Department of Paleobiology, from June 1, 1984, through 
May 31, 1985. 

Miriam Smyth, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Maryland. Interactions be- 
tween boring organisms, snail sheels, and coralline algae, with Dr. Klaus 
Ruetzler, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, from December 1, 1983, 
through November 30, 1984. 

Elizabeth Strasser, Predoctoral Fellow, City University of New York. Multiple 
pathways to terrestriality, a cercopithecid model for human evolution, with 
Dr. Richard Thorington, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Christopher Tanner, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of British Columbia. 
Morphological variation on selected tropical brown algae, phenotypic plas- 
ticity or genetic differentiation, with Dr. James Norris, Department of 
Botany, from August 1, 1984, through July 31, 1985. 

Lawrence Todd, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of New Mexico. Taphonomic 
analysis of Paleoindian bison kill sites, with Dr. Dennis Sanford, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, from January 1 through December 31, 1984. 
Elizabeth Tudor, Graduate Student Fellow, Rice University. Cocciodmycosis 
in a southwestern Indian population, with Dr. Donald Ortner, Department 
of Anthropology, from September 10 through November 16, 1984. 
Robert Voss, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan. Geographic pat- 
terns morphological variation in Zygodontomys, with Dr. Michael Carleton, 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, from November 15, 1983, through No- 
vember 14, 1984. 

450 / Smithsonian Year 1984 

Visiting Scholars 

Giaocchino Bonaduce, Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholar, Naples Zoological Sta- 
tion. Pliocene fauna of the Outer Iberian Portal, with Dr. Richard Benson, 
Department of Paleobiology, 1984-1985. 

Joan Ferraris, Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholar, Mount Desert Island Biologi- 
cal Laboratory. Physiological properties affecting mangrove soft bottom com- 
munity structure, with Drs. Kristian Fauchald and Brian Kensley, Department 
of Invertebrate Zoology, 1984-1985. 

David Young, Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholar, United States Navy Biological 
and Chemical Oceanography Branch. Benthic invertebrates/ sediment relation- 
ship on lagoon bottoms near Carrie Bow Bay, Belize, with Dr. Klaus Ruetz- 
ler. Department of Invertebrate Zoology, 1984-1985. 


Maria lacullo. Graduate Student Fellow, Columbia University. Public demand 

and the rise of an art-historical establishment, with Dr. Lillian Miller, Charles 

Willson Peale Papers, from June 4 through August 10, 1984. 

Susan Moeller, Graduate Student Fellow, Harvard University. Photography as 

public image, with Dr. Alan Fern, Director, and William Stapp, Curatorial 

Department, from June 4 through August 10, 1984. 

Jeffrey Stewart, Postdoctoral Fellow, Yale University. A biography of Alain 

Locke, with Marc Pachter, Department of History, and Dr. Virginia Mecklen- 

berg. Department of Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculpture, National 

Museum of American Art, from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Tara Tappert, Predoctoral Fellow, George Washington University. Social and 

cultural biography of Cecilia Beaux, 1855-1942, Philadelphia-born artist, with 

Dr. Lillian Miller, Charles Willson Peale Papers, from June 15, 1984, through 

June 14, 1985. 

Deobrah Van Buren, Predoctoral Fellow, George Washington University. The 

Cornish Colony, 1885-1905, a summer artists' colony, with Dr. Lillian Miller, 

Charles Willson Peale Papers, from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 


Kenneth Yellis, James E. Webb Fellow, Department of Education. Candidate 

for Master of Public Administration, George Washington University, 1984- 



Cathy Blohowiak, Postdoctoral Fellow, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and 
State University. Mate choice and inbreeding of black ducks, with Drs. 
Eugene Morton and Katherine Ralls, Department of Zoological Research, 
from August 1, 1984, through July 31, 1985. 

Eric Dinerstein, Visiting Scientist, University of Washington. Effects of fire 
and herbivory on forest community structure in Chitawan National Park, 
Nepal, with Dr. Christen Wemmer, Conservation and Research Center, from 
May 1, 1984, through April 30, 1985. 

Eyal Shy, Postdoctoral Fellow, Wayne State University. The function of song 
in birds; testing the ranging hypothesis, with Dr. Eugene Morton, Depart- 
ment of Zoological Research, from March 1, 1984, through February 28, 1985. 
Nancy Solomon, Gradute Student Fellow, University of Illinois. Mother/young 
relationships in marsupials, with Dr. Devra Kleiman, Department of Zoologi- 
cal Research, from June 4 through August 10, 1984. 

Steven Thompson, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Irvine. Ener- 
getics of reproduction in eutherian and marsupial mammals, with Dr. Devra 

Appendix 4. Academic and Research. Training Appointments I 451 

Kleiman, Department of Zoological Research, from August 1, 1984, through 
July 31, 1985. 

Visiting Scholar 

Wolfgang Dittus, Walter Rathbone Bacori Scholar, University of Maryland. 
Social behavior and population dynamics of the Toque monkey in Sri Lanka, 
with Dr. Devra Kleiman, Department of Zoological Research, 1984-1985. 


Michael Licht, Ph.D. candidate. University of Texas, Austin. The role of the 
harmonica in traditional American music, with Dr. Thomas Vennum, Jr., 
from June 1982, through June 1984. 

Nicolas Schidlovsky, Ph. D., Princeton University. Music of the Old Believers; 
oral traditions of ancient Russia in the U.S. today, with Dr. Thomas Ven- 
num, Jr., from March 1, 1983, through February 28, 1984. 


I. J. Danziger, Visiting Scientist, European Southern Observatory. Optical 
identification of Einstein Survey Sources, interpretation of supernova remnant 
spectra, and interpretation of emission lines from neutral atoms from plane- 
tary nebulae and Herbig-Haro objects, with Drs. Paul Gorenstein, Fred 
Seward, and Alex Dalgarno, from May 21 through June 21, 1984, and Sep- 
tember 1 through September 30, 1984. 

Margaret Graff, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Oregon. Photodissoctation 
of CH and OH application to molecular formation and destruction in the 
interstellar medium, with Dr. Irwin Shapiro, Director, and staff, from Sep- 
tember 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

John Hughes, Postdoctoral Fellow, Columbia University. Experimental and 
theoretical studies of high-energy astrophysics, with Dr. Irwin Shapiro, Direc- 
tor, and staff, from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1986. 
Scott Kenyon, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Illinois. Study of symbolics 
and simple M stars in the IR and optical, with Dr. Irwin Shapiro, Director, 
and staff, from September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 
David Lumb, Visiting Scientist, University of Leicester. A collaborative re- 
search, with Dr. Irwin Shapiro, Director, and staff, from April 15, 1984, 
through February 14, 1985. 

Piotr Majer, Visiting Scientist, Astronomical Observatory, Wroclaw Univer- 
sity. Analysis of Einstein data especially in the area of x-ray emission from 
stars and solar chromospheres, with Drs. L. Golub and Robert Rosner, from 
August 1 through September 30, 1984. 

Robert Mathieu, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Berkeley. The 
stellar kinematics of star-forming regions, with Dr. David Latham from 
October 1, 1983, through September 30, 1985. 

Jose Torrelles, Visiting Scientist, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 
Observations of ammonia toward regions of star formation using the VLA 
and Haystack radio telescopes, with Dr. James Moran, from March 19 
through October 15, 1984. 

Jean Turner, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Berkeley. Observa- 
tion of normal galactic nuclei, the nuclear environment, and its relation to 
nuclear sources, with Dr. Irwin Shapiro, Director, and staff, from Septem- 
ber 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Wei Shen, Visiting Scientist, Shaanxi Astrophysical Observatory. Fundamen- 
tal aspects of the cold maser, with Dr. Irwin Shapiro, Director, and staff, 
from December 12, 1983, through December 11, 1984. 

452 / Smithsonian Year 1984 


Silvia Frosch, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Freiburg, Germany. Leaf 
gradients and circadian rhythms in photosynthetic capacity in relation to 
photoperiodic induction in long-day plants, with Dr. Gerald Deitzer, from 
September 1, 1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Bin Goo Kang, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan. Hormonal con- 
trol of senescence in Lemna, with Dr. Charles Cleland, from September 1, 
1984, through August 31, 1985. 

Michael Krones, Visiting Student, University of Maryland. Automatic control 
systems testing the effects of dynamic changes in light quality on plant 
growth, with Dr. John Sager, from August 1, 1984, through July 31, 1985. 
Romuald Lipcius, Postdoctoral Fellow, Florida State University. Blue crab reg- 
ulation of benthic community structure in the Chesapeake Bay, with Dr. 
Anson Hines, from August 15, 1984, through August 14, 1985. 
Henry McKellar, Visiting Scientist, University of Florida. Comparative eco- 
systems analysis of the North Inlet, South Carolina, and the Rhode River 
coastal wetlands, with Dr. David Correll, from August 15, 1984, through 
August 14, 1985. 

Timothy Spira, Visiting Scholar, University of California, Berkeley. The eco- 
logical significance of cleistogamy in Lamium amplexicaule, with Dr. Dennis 
Whigham, from May 29 through September 15, 1984. 

Lisa Wagner, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, Berkeley. The re- 
productive success of Poa annua, Poa pratensis, and Poa bulbosa in dis- 
turbed habitats, with Dr. Dennis Whigham, from March 1, 1984, through 
February 28, 1985. 


Doris McNeely Johnson, Faculty Fellow, University of the District of Colum- 
bia. Attitudes and awareness of parents on the role of toys and play in the 
development of children, with Dr. John Balling from September 1 through 
December 31, 1984. 

Mara Miller, Graduate Student Fellow, Yale University. The relationship be- 
tween applied environmental psychology and garden design, with Drs. John 
Balling and John Falk, from June 4 through August 17, 1984. 


Catherine Ross, James W. Webb Fellow,